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Jubaland ( ) or Juba Valley ( ), formerly Trans-Juba ( ), is the southwesternmost part of Somaliamarker. On the eastern side of Jubbaland is 40–60 km east of Jubba River from Gedomarker to the Indian Oceanmarker, while western side of the region, the old days "Trans"-Juba), now Jubbland, borders Kenyamarker.

Total population of Jubaland is estimated at 1.3 million inhabitants. Its constituent administrative regions of Gedomarker, Lower Jubamarker, and Middle Jubamarker had estimated populations of 690,000, 400,000 and 240,000, respectively, in 2005.[29750]The region has a total area of 87,000 km² (33,000 sq mi). The main city is Kismayomarker, on the coast near the mouth of the Juba. Barderamarker and Beled Haawomarker are the other principal cities of Jubbaland.

The region has been the site of numerous battles in the Somali Civil War and was briefly declared independent in 1998–1999. , the region is under control of the Islamist Al-Shabaab movement.

History

Precolonial history

Jubaland was ruled by the Arabian Sultanate of Muscatmarker (now in Omanmarker) from 1836 until 1861 when the new Sultanate of Zanzibarmarker was split from Muscat and Oman and given control of its African territories .

British and Italian rule

On 7 November 1890, Zanzibar became a British protectorate and, on 1 July 1895, ceded all its coastal possessions in continental East Africa to its protector. Together with Zanzibar's other former possessions in the area, Jubaland became part of the British colony of British East Africa (present day Kenyamarker)

Jubaland was ceded to Italymarker 29 June 1925, purportedly as a reward for joining the Allies in World War I and had a brief existence as the Italian colony of Trans-Juba (Oltre Giuba), under governor (16 July 1924 - 31 December 1926) Corrado Zoli (b. 1877 - d. 1951). It was incorporated into the neighboring colony of Italian Somaliland on 30 June 1926. The colony had a total area of 87,000 km² (33,000 sq mi), and in 1926 a population of 120,000.

Jubaland as part of Somalia

On 1 July 1960, Jubaland, along with the rest of Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland, became part of the independent republic Somaliamarker.

During the post-independence period, one particularly significant historical event was the series of internal migrations into the Jubba regions by Somalis from other parts of the country. The two Jubba regions had up until then traditionally been inhabited by Somali clans such as the Ogaden Sheikhal and the Majeerteen as well as by some ethnic minority groups such as the Bajuni and the Bantu. However, later events such as the devastating drought of 1974 which struck the northern areas like Caynabamarker and Hobyomarker also brought in families from the Majeerteen, Warsangali, Dhulbahante, Geri Koombe and Bartire Somali clans.

1974 Resettlement of People Affected by Dabadheer Drought

The Somali military government established a resettlement program for people from the devastating 1974 famine which hit the northern Somalia and Ogaden region or Western Somalia.

The program created farming communities in Lower Jubbamarker and Middle Jubbamarker regions. These settlements were named Dajuma, Kuntuwaareey and Sablaale. The resettlement program was known as the Danwadaagaha or "Collective Duty." These new communities were mainly populated with northern tribes of Isaq and Dhulbahante. Ogaden subclans from drought prone and disputed Ogaden region took part of another resettlement program in late 1978 to early 1979.

Air Lift and Military Vehicles for Mass Resettlement in the South

The Soviet Union which had strategic relations with Somalia used its army planes along with Somali military aircrafts to airlift the drought-affected people of Hobyomarker and Caynabamarker and bring them to government-built village-camps in the Lower Jubba Region. Drought victims were first brought by airlift to Jowhar which is not that far from Mogadishu by northwest.

From Jowhar, then military trucks were used to transport people through Mogaidishu-Kismayo Corridor. During the land movement of the massive resettlement population, it took a whole day where almost exclusively the roads heading south to Kismayo were taken up by those trucks carrying people, their household goods/fixtures and sometimes their livestock.

Dabadheer Drought Survivors Introduction to Farming in Middle and Lower Jubba Regions

New families in the settlements took advantage of the new land plots which they were given to farm. Various Central Somali Government agencies took part in helping these communities adapt to their new environments. Aside from the three main resettlement areas, which were in Dajuuma, Sablaale and Kuntuwaareey, Horogle, near Dajuuma, became the 4th largest settlement.

Horogle area farmers had water to pummp into their farms year-round. Horogle is a river-fed lake. Dajuma Settlement, the largest settlement, is in the Lower Jubba Region, while Horogle is in teh Middle Jubba. Vast majority of the settlers in the mid 1970s, have returned to their former homes after they had re-established their lives and the economic lives for their individual families.

Somali Civil War

In December 1993, Mohammed Said Hersi's troops captured Kismayomarker, and awaited the departure of Belgian UN peacekeepers who were stationed there. His troops had taken advantage of the UN's preoccupation with Mohamed Farah Aidid and had rearmed and regrouped. Spinning Dunkirk: The Pentagon Quits Somalia Somalia News Update Mohammed Said Hersi, supported by the majeerteenand dhulbahante.warsangali The clan,The SSDF remained in control of Kismayomarker until 1999. In that period Hersi Morgan cooperated with his former enemies, the Majerteen of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF).Operating from Kismayo Mohammed Said Hersi was also active in the Kenyan border area . His militia rarely fought those of Siyad Hussein, Col. Omar Jess, Ahmed Hashi which also operated in this region. Instead, they devoted most of their energies to preying upon IDPs and refugees. The area around Dobley refugee camp earned a reputation as one of the most dangerous and violent places in the entire region; women gathering firewood in the bush were routinely raped by predatory militiamen, aid convoys were looted, and refugees subjected to extortion and shakedowns.

Declaration of independence

After the SNF had split up between Marehan and other factions Hersi had lost his position as leader in that faction. He then joined the Somali Patriot Movement (SPM), which consisted of Darod tribe militias, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, and the South Somali National Movement (SSNM).

Hersi Morgan was head of the self created entity called Jubaland between September 3, 1998—June 11, 1999. However he lost the territory to the Juba Valley Alliance (JVA) under Ahmed Warsame in 1999 and only briefly recaptured Kismayo on 6-7 Aug 2001. The town remained in the hands of the JVA until 2006.

Juba Valley Alliance rule

A separate administration under the Juba Valley Alliance (Isbahaysiga Dooxada Jubba or JVA) fought against General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan. The leader of the JVA is Colonel Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, who later became Defense Minister for the TFG. The militia commander of the JVA is Col.Goobaale JVA's senior security chief COl.seeraar (This 2 Men seeraar and goobaale wer from the habar gidir clan the wer the Power Behind the Barre Hiiraale when Hi joint the TFG Barre Hiiraal Lost KismaayoOn June 18, 2001, an 11-member interclan council decided to ally the JVA with the newly establishing Transitional National Government (TNG). Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia, 11 Oct 2001, Document S/2001/963 United Nations Security Council

On August 6, 2001, after 10 days of heavy fighting in a battle involving 40 technical and 1,000 militiamen, the JVA moved north from Kismayo and took the town of Jilibmarker from the Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC). Simultaneous Heavy Fightings Erupt in Somalia People's Daily Through 2002, the JVA battled with the SRRC, which opposed the TFG, resulting in 6,000 refugees fleeing Bulo Hawa. In 2003, there were 15,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) accommodated in Kismayo. Fighting throughout southern and central Somalia resulted in 86,000 IDPs by 2004. Recurrent displacements in southern and central Somalia due to intermittent inter-factional conflicts (2004) IDMC Landmines were cited as a problem affecting the area due to the fighting between the JVA and SRRC. SOMALIA Land Mine Monitor

Eventually the leader of the SRRC, Hussein Mohammed Farah Aidid, son of the late warlord Mohammed Farah Aidid, settled his differences with the JVA and the TNG, and in 2004 became the Interior Minister in the new Transitional Federal Government, which succeeded the TNG.

Rise and fall of the Islamic Courts Union

In late August 2006, the Islamic Courts Union seized control of all of Lower and Middle Juba, including the key city of Kismayo, and established its own administration.

The JVA suffered the loss of Kismayo in September 2006 to an array of ICU forces with 130 technical Somalia's Islamists Resume Their Momentum and Embark on a Diplomatic Path PINR Witnesses: Somali Islamists advance on key port. Associated Press, 13 September 2006, and further defeat during Islamic Court Union's takeover of the Juba Valley in October 2006. War Clouds Loom over Somalia as Military Fronts Open Up Amid a Flurry of Diplomacy PINR

The JVA ruled only in Gedo and suffered a number of defections and surrenders of their commanders and militias. However, in late December 2006 the JVA, now incorporated into the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), with the military support of Ethiopiamarker, retook the Juba Valley. After the Battle of Baidoa (December 2026), the JVA began to reassert control over the Juba Valley. On December 27, the ICU abandoned its positions at Salagle and Sakowmarker, north of Bu'aalemarker. Somalia: Insecurity rages in Islamist abandoned areas Shabelle Media Network

After their defeat at the Battle of Jilib north of the city, the ICU forces withdrew, and on January 1, 2007, Kismayo fell to the TFG and Ethiopian forces without armed conflict.

Stamps and postal history of Trans-Juba

Trans-Juba postage stamps of 1926.
Italy issued its first postage stamps for Jubaland on July 29, 1925, consisting of contemporary Italian stamps overprinted "OLTRE GIUBA" (Trans-Juba). See the main article at Postage stamps and postal history of Oltre Giuba.

Sources and References

  1. US-Aid Kenya-Somalia Border Conflict Analysis, p. 39, August 2005 by Dr Ken Menkhaus ( In 2003 Dobley became the victim of JVA atrocities, p. 41)
  2. - also shows Italian colonial flag & links to map



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