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Jujuy is a province of Argentinamarker, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chilemarker and Boliviamarker. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.

History

Pre-Columbian inhabitants, that would later mix with the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcaramarker, Pucará meaning "Fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara).



In 1593 a small settlement is erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the calchaquíes and omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru is transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy.

With the separation from Perumarker and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy loses its importance and its population starts diminishing.

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish forces concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Finally the Spanish surrendered, but the war seriously affected the economy of the area.

After a series of internal conflicts, the province, now separated from Tucumánmarker and Salta, started a gradual economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the following century, the railway already connected the province with Buenos Airesmarker, and La Pazmarker, Boliviamarker.

Heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, in 1945, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.

Geography and climate

There are 3 main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplanomarker, a 3,500 meters high plateau with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Grande River of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the Southeast, the sierra descends to the Gran Chaco region.
Quebrada de Humahuaca.
The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.

In spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitations are scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.

The Grande River and the San Francisco River are fed by the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana are fed by the Pilcomayo River.

Economy

Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet very diversified. Its 2006 economy was an estimated US$3 billion, or, US$4,900 per capita (over 40% below the national average).

Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not particularly agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane. Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is the tobacco, cultivated in the Southeaster valley, as a major national producer. Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption.

Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill. Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and the paper production feed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.

Cattle and goats for milk and wool are a minor activity, as well as llamas, vicuñas and guanacos.

Tourism

Cerro de los Siete Colores, Purmamarca
An important and still growing activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists (80%), tourists from other South American countries (12%) and Europeans (7%). Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province. The Horacio Guzmán international airport, 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Airesmarker, Córdobamarker, and some destinations in Boliviamarker.

Apart from the fantastic contrast of land colours and formations, tourists are attracted also by the strong aboriginal roots in the culture of Jujuy. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.

Tourists who come to Jujuy visit the area of the Quebrada de Humahuaca and its Cerro de los Siete Colores, Pucará de Tilcaramarker, Salinas Grandes and many small towns. Other less frequent destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiacamarker, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.

Political division

The province is divided into 16 departments (in the Spanish language, departamentos).
Patio inside Governor's executive building, San Salvador de Jujuy.
Department (Capital):

  1. Cochinoca (Abra Pampa)
  2. El Carmen (El Carmen)
  3. Doctor Manuel Belgrano (San Salvador de Jujuy)
  4. Humahuaca (Humahuaca)
  5. Ledesma (Libertador General San Martínmarker)
  6. Palpalá (Palpalá)
  7. Rinconada (Rinconada)
  8. San Antonio (San Antonio, Jujuy)
  9. San Pedro (San Pedro)
  10. Santa Bárbara (Palma Sola, Jujuy)
  11. Santa Catalina (Santa Catalina)
  12. Susques (Susques)
  13. Tilcara (Tilcara)
  14. Tumbaya (Tumbaya)
  15. Valle Grande (Valle Grande)
  16. Yavi (La Quiacamarker)


Filmed in Jujuy Province



References

  1. I.A.D.E.R


See also



External links




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