Juliusz Paweł Schauder
(September 21, 1899–September 1943) was a Polish mathematician of Jewish origin, known for his work in functional analysis, partial differential equation
and mathematical
physics.
Born on
September 21 1899
in Lwów, he had to fight in World
War I right after his graduation from school.
He was
captured and imprisoned in Italy. He
entered the university in Lwów in 1919 and received his doctorate
in 1923. He got no appointment at the university and continued his
research while working as teacher at a secondary school. Due to his
outstanding results, he obtained a scholarship in 1932 that allowed
him to spend several years in Leipzig and, especially, Paris. In
Paris he started a very successful collaboration with
Jean Leray. Around 1935 Schauder obtained the
position of a senior assistant in the University of Lwów.
Schauder was
Jewish, and after the invasion
of German troops in Lwów it was impossible for him to continue his
work. In his letters to Swiss mathematicians, he wrote that he had
important new results, but no paper to write them down.
He was
executed by the Gestapo, probably in
October 1943.
Most of his mathematical work belongs to the field of
functional analysis, being part of a
large Polish group of mathematicians, i.e.
Lwów School of Mathematics.
They were pioneers in this area with wide applications in all parts
of modern analysis. Schauder is best known for the
Schauder fixed point theorem
which is a major tool to prove the existence of solutions in
various problems, the
Schauder bases
(a generalization of an
orthonormal
basis from
Hilbert spaces to
Banach spaces), and the
Leray-Schauder principle, a
way to establish solutions of
partial differential equations
from
a priori estimates.
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