The Junkers Ju 88
World War II
aircraft.Designed by Hugo Junkers
company in the mid-1930s, it
suffered from a number of technical problems during the later
stages of its development and early operational roles, but became
one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war.
Affectionately known as The Maid of all Work, the Ju 88 proved to
be suited to almost any role. Like a number of other
bombers, it was used successfully as a bomber
, dive bomber
, torpedo bomber
, reconnaissance aircraft
, heavy fighter
, and even as a flying warhead
during the closing stages of
conflict.Despite its protracted development, the aircraft became
one of the Luftwaffe
s most important assets. There were
15,000 Ju 88s built during World War II, more than any other
aircraft of the
Design and development
1935, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium submitted its requirements for an unarmed,
three-seat, high-speed bomber, with a payload of
Ju 88 assembly line
Junkers presented their initial design
in June 1936, and were given clearance to build two prototypes
(Werknummer 4941 and 4942). The first
two aircraft were to have a range of 2,000 km
(1,240 mi) and were to be powered by two
. Three further aircraft,
to be powered by Jumo 211
The first two prototypes, Ju 88 V1 and V2, were different from the
V3, V4 and V5 in that the latter three models were equipped with
three defensive armament positions to the rear of the cockpit
, and were able to carry two 1,000 kg
(2,200 lb) bombs under the inner wing. The first five
prototypes had conventionally-operating dual-strut leg
rearwards-retracting main gear
starting with the V6 prototype, a main gear design that twisted the
new, single-leg main gear strut through 90° during the retraction
sequence debuted, much like the American Curtiss P-40 fighter
design used. This feature allowed
the main wheels to end up above the lower end of the strut when
fully retracted and was adopted as standard for all future
production Ju 88s. These single-leg landing gear struts also made
use of stacks of conical Belleville
inside them, as their main form of suspension for
takeoffs and landings. At this time radical modifications began to
produce a "heavy" dive bomber. The wings were strengthened, dive
brakes were added, the fuselage
extended and the number of crewmembers was increased to four.
Despite these advances, the Ju 88 was to enter the war as a
The choice of annular radiator
for engine cooling on the
Ju 88, which placed these radiators immediately forward of each
engine, and directly behind each propeller, allowed the cooling
lines for the engine coolant and oil
-cooling radiators (integrated within the
annular design) to be just about as short as possible. The concept
may have led to a number of other German military aircraft designs
adopting the same solution, such as the Arado Ar 240
, Heinkel He 219
of the Focke-Wulf Fw
and the twin engined Focke-Wulf Ta 154
The aircraft's first flight was made by the prototype Ju 88V1,
which bore the civil registration D-AQEN, on 21 December 1936. When
it first flew, it managed about 580 km/h (360 mph) and
, head of the
was ecstatic. It was an aircraft that could
finally fulfill the promise of the Schnellbomber
, a high-speed bomber. The
streamlined fuselage was modeled after its contemporary, the
Dornier Do 17
, but with fewer
defensive guns because the belief still held that it could outrun
late 1930s-era fighters. The fifth prototype set a 1,000 km
(620 mi) closed-circuit record in March 1939, carrying a
2,000 kg (4,410 lb) payload at a speed of 517 km/h
(320 mph). However, by the time Luftwaffe
had had their own "pet" features added (including dive-bombing),
the Ju 88's top speed had dropped to around 450 km/h
(280 mph).The Ju 88V7 was fitted with cable-cutting equipment
to combat the potential threat of British barrage balloons
, and was successfully
tested in this role. The V7 then had the Ju 88 A-1 nose installed,
complete with the Bola
undernose ventral defensive
emplacement, and was put
through a series of dive-bombing tests with 250 kg
(550 lb) and 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombs, and in early
1940, with 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bombs.The Ju 88V8 (DG+BF,
Wrk Nr 4948) flew on the 3 October 1938. The A-0 series was
developed through the V9 and V10 prototypes. The A-1 series
prototypes were Wrk Nrs 0003, 0004 and 0005. The A-1s were given
the Jumo 211B-1 or G powerplants.
Dr. Heinrich Koppenberg (managing director of Jumo) assured Göring
in the autumn of 1938 that 300 Ju 88s per month was definitely
possible. Göring was in favour of the A-1 variant for mass
Production was delayed drastically with developmental problems.
Although planned for a service introduction in 1938, the Ju 88
finally entered squadron service (with only 12 aircraft) on the
first day of the attack on Poland
in 1939. Production was painfully slow with only one Ju 88
manufactured per week, as problems continually kept cropping up.
The Ju 88C series of heavy fighter was also designed very early in
1940, but kept secret from Göring, as he only wanted bombers.
Versatility and operational development
In October 1937 Generalluftzeugmeister Ernst Udet
had ordered the development of the Ju
88 as a heavy dive bomber. This decision was influenced by the
success of the Ju 87 Stuka
this role. The Junkers development center at Dessau gave
priority to the study of pull-out systems, and dive brakes.
The first prototype to be
tested as a dive bomber was the Ju 88V4 followed by the V5 and V6.
These models became the planned prototype for the A-1 series. The
V5 made its maiden flight on 13 April 1938, and the V6 on 28 June
1938. Both the V5 and V6 were fitted with four-blade propellers, an
extra bomb bay and a central "control system".As a dive bomber, the
Ju 88 was capable of pinpoint deliveries of heavy loads; however,
despite all the modifications, dive bombing still proved too
stressful for the airframe, and in 1943, tactics were changed so
that bombs were delivered from a shallower, 45° diving angle.
Aircraft and bomb sights were accordingly modified and dive brakes
were removed. With an advanced Stuvi
, accuracy remained very good for its
time. Maximum bomb load of the A-4 was 2,500 kg
(5,510 lb), but in practice, standard bomb load was
1,500-2,000 kg (3,310-4,410 lb). Junkers later used the
for the A-17 torpedo carrier.
However, the variant lacked a ventral gun position.
Ju 88 preparing for take off, Tunisia,
The standard fighter-bomber version became the Ju
, applying experience acquired with the A-4 bomber,
equipped with the same Jumo 211J engines. The C-6 was used mostly
assigned to bomber units. As a reaction to the increasing number of
attacks on German shipping, especially on U-boats in the Bay of
Biscay, from July 1942 started flying anti-shipping patrols and
escort missions from bases in France. V/.Kampfgeschwader 40
being formed to
operate the C-6.
The aircraft of V./KG 40 (which was redesignated I./Zerstörergeschwader 1
1943) were a significant threat to the antisubmarine aircraft and
operated as escort fighters for the more vulnerable Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor
Between July 1942 and July 1944, the Ju 88s of KG 40 and ZG 1 were
credited with 109 confirmed air-to air victories, at a cost of 117
losses. They were finally deployed against the Allied
Normandy in June 1944, incurring heavy losses for little
effect before being disbanded on 5 August 1944.
Heavy fighter and night fighter
Ju 88C series heavy fighter in
The Ju 88C was originally intended as a fighter-bomber and heavy
fighter by adding fixed, forward-firing guns to the nose while
retaining some bomb carrying ability of the A-series bomber. The
C-series had a solid metal nose, and retained the A-series style
vertical tail, while omitting the ventral Bola
under the crew compartment. It was later used as a night fighter
and this became the main role of the Ju 88C.
The first night fighter version of the Ju 88 was the
, based on the A-1 and armed with one
20 mm MG FF cannon
7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17
placed in new metal nose. These examples entered
service in Zerstörerstaffel
of KG 30 and the unit was
renamed II./NJG 1 in July 1940.
version was the C-6 Zerstörer
plane equipped with FuG 202
. The first four C-6b fighters
were tested in early 1942 in NJG 1. The trials were successful and
the aircraft was ordered into production. In October 1943, many
C-6bs were upgraded with new radar systems. The first new radar
equipment was the FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1, followed in 1944 by the
FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2.
A small number of the C-series fighters had their new solid-metal
noses specially painted to resemble the bomber A-series' "beetle's
eye" faceted clear view nose glazing, in an attempt to deceive
Allied pilots into thinking the fighters were actually bombers; the
unusual "camouflage" attempt did result initially in a number of
Allied aerial losses.
The Ju 88R-series
night fighters were basically versions
of the Ju 88 C-6b powered by BMW 801
engines. The R-1 had 1,560 PS BMW 801L engines and the R-2 had
1,700 PS BMW 801 G-2 engines.
One of the first aircraft from the R-1 series that went into
360043) was involved in one of the
most significant defections which the Luftwaffe
On 9 May
1943, this night fighter, which was stationed with 10./NJG 3 in Norway, flew to the RAF Station at Dyce (now
Airport) with its entire crew and complete electronic
equipment on board. The fact that Spitfire fighters escorted it
towards the end of its flight could indicate that its arrival had
been expected.It was immediately transferred to Farnborough
Airfield, received RAF markings (PJ876), and was tested in
great detail. The preserved aircraft is on exhibit at the
only learnt of this
defection the following month when members of the crew, pilot
Heinrich Schmitt and Oberfeldwebels
Paul Rosenberger and Erich Kantwill, made broadcasts on British
Ju 88 R-1 night fighter captured by
British forces at Copenhagen-Kastrup airfield, May 1945.
All previous night fighter versions of the Ju 88 used a modified
A-series fuselage. The G-series
fuselage was purpose-built
for the special needs of a night fighter, with the A-series'
ventral under-nose defensive gun position omitted for
lower aerodynamic drag
aircraft were fitted with the enlarged
tail unit of the Ju 188
, more powerful armament and 1,700 PS
G-2 radial engines plus additional
FuG 350 Naxos
or FuG 227 Flensburg
homing devices as
well as the now-standard FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 90 MHz VHF
versions were equipped with 1,750 PS
enlarged fuel tanks and often one or two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon
in a Schräge Musik
("Jazz Music", i.e.
slanted) installation. Guns were firing obliquely upwards and
forwards from the upper fuselage - usually at an angle of
Some of the final G-series models received updates to the engine, a
high-altitude Jumo 213E or to the radar, FuG 218 Neptun V/R or the
even newer FuG 240 Berlin N-1 cavity
based, 30 GHz
(centimetric) radar. Only about 10-20 of those were completed
before V-E Day
night fighter aces, such as Helmut Lent
(110 victories) and Heinrich von und zu
(87 victories) flew Ju 88s during their
The Imperial Japanese Navy
ordered the specifications of an anti-submarine
aircraft, based on a medium bomber. Kyūshū closely patterned the
Kyūshū Q1W Tokai
("Eastern Sea", Allied codename "Lorna") antisubmarine patrol/fleet
escort aircraft after the Ju 88.
Only 12 Ju 88s saw action in Poland. The unit
88 (Ekdo 88) was responsible for
testing new bomber designs and their crews under hostile
conditions. They selected 12 machines and their crews and attached
them to 1./Kampfgeschwader
. As a result of its small operational numbers, the type made
Battle of Norway
committed II./Kampfgeschwader 30
campaign under X. Fliegerkorps
for Operation Weserübung
. The unit was
equipped with Ju 88s and engaged Allied shipping as its main
target. On 9 April 1940, Ju 88s of KG 30 dive-bombed, in
cooperation with high-level bombing Heinkel He 111s
of KG 26, and helped damage
and sink the destroyer
. However, the unit lost four Ju 88s in
the action, the highest single loss of the aircraft in combat
throughout the campaign.
Battle of France
Ju 88A, circa 1940
s order of battle for the French campaign
reveals all but one of the Luftwaffe
contained Ju 88s in the combat role.The mixed bomber units,
including the Ju 88, of Kampfgeschwader 51
command of Luftflotte 3
helped claim between 233 and 248 Allied aircraft on the ground
between 10-13 May 1940.The Ju 88 was particularly effective at
dive-bombing. Between 13-24 May, I. and II./KG 54 flew 174 attack
against rail systems, paralysing French logistics and
mobility.On 17 June 1940, Junkers Ju 88s (mainly from
Kampfgeschwader 30) destroyed a "10,000 tonne ship", the
16,243 grt ocean liner , off
Saint-Nazaire, killing some 5,800 Allied personnel.
133 Ju 88s were pressed into the Blitzkrieg
, but very high combat losses and
accidents forced a quick withdrawal from action to re-train crews
to fly this very high performance aircraft. Some crews were
reported to be more scared of the Ju 88 than the enemy, and
requested a transfer to a He 111 unit. By this time, major
performance deficiencies in the A-1 led to an all-out effort in a
major design rework. The outcome was a longer, 20.08 m
(65 ft 10½ in) wingspan
extended rounded wing tips
, that was deemed
needed for all A-1s; thus the A-5 was born. Surviving A-1s were
modified as quickly as possible, with new wings to A-5
Battle of Britain
By August 1940, A-1s and A-5s were reaching operational units, just
as the battle was intensifying.The Battle of Britain
proved very costly. Its
faster speed did not prevent Ju 88 losses exceeding those of its
Dornier Do 17
and Heinkel He 111
stablemates, despite being deployed in smaller numbers than either.
Ju 88 losses over Britain in 1940 amounted to 313 machines between
July-October 1940. Do 17 and He 111 losses for the same period
amounted to 132 and 252 machines destroyed respectively. A series
of field kits were made to make it less vulnerable, including the
replacement of the rear machine gun by a twin-barreled machine gun,
and additional cockpit armour.
A German crew rest next to their Ju
88A variant, summer 1942
It was during the closing days of the Battle of Britain that the
flagship Ju 88 A-4 went into service. Although slower yet than the
A-1, nearly all of the troubles of the A-1 were gone, and finally
the Ju 88 matured into a superb warplane. The A-4 actually saw
additional improvements including more powerful engines, but,
unlike other aircraft in the Luftwaffe
, did not see a
model code change. The Ju 88 C series also benefited from the A-4
changes, and when the Luftwaffe finally did decide on a new heavy
fighter, the Ju 88 C was a powerful, refined aircraft.
By summer 1941, most of the units equipped with the Dornier Do 17
were upgrading to the Ju 88. With a few exceptions, most of the
German bomber units were now flying the He 111 and Ju 88.The Ju 88
was to prove a very capable and valuable asset to the Luftwaffe in
the east. The Ju 88 units met with instant success, attacking enemy
airfields and positions at low level and causing enormous losses
for little damage in return.3./Kampfgeschwader 3 attacked
Pinsk airfield in the morning of the 22 June 1941.
It caught, and claimed destroyed, 60 Soviet bombers on the ground.
The 39 SBAP Regiment of the 10 Division SAD actually lost 43
and five Petlyakov Pe-2s
. Ju 88s from
destroyed over 100 aircraft after
dispatching 80 Ju 88s to hit airfields. In general the Soviet
aircraft were not dispersed and the Luftwaffe found them easy
targets.A report from the Soviet 23rd Tank Division of the 12th
Armoured Corps reported a low-level attack by Ju 88s on 22 June
, resulting in the loss of 40 tanks.However,
the Ju 88s were to suffer steady attritional losses. At 0415 on 22
June 1941, III./KG 51 attacked the airfield at Kurovitsa
. Despite destroying 34 Polikarpov I-153s
, the Ju 88s were
intercepted by 66 ShAP I-153s. Six Ju 88s were shot down before the
German fighter escort dealt with the threat. By the end of the
first day of the campaign, Ju 88 losses amounted to 23 destroyed.
Due to the lack of sufficient numbers of Ju 87 Stukas
Ju 88 was employed in the direct ground support role. This resulted
in severe losses from ground fire. Kampfgeschwader 1
, Kampfgeschwader 76
and Kampfgeschwader 77
loss of 18 Ju 88s over enemy territory on 23 June. KG 76 and KG 77
reported the loss of a further four Ju 88s, of which 12 were 100%
In the north, the VVS North-Western Front lost 465 aircraft on the
ground, 148 of them bombers, to the Ju 88s of KG 1. A further 33
were damaged. Out of a total of 1,720 aircraft deployed by the VVS
Northern Front on 22 June, it lost 890 and a further 187 suffered
battle damage in eight days. The Ju 88s units helped virtually
destroy Soviet airpower in the northern sector.
Again, the Ju 88 demonstrated its dive-bombing capability. Along
with He 111s from KG 55, Ju 88s from KG 51 and 54 destroyed some
220 trucks and 40 tanks on 1 July
helped repulse the Soviet South Western Front's offensive. The Ju
88s destroyed most rail links during interdiction
missions in the area, allowing
to maintain the pace of its advance.
units operating over the Baltic states
during the battle for Estonia inflicted
severe losses on Soviet shipping, with the same dive-bombing
tactics used over Norway, France and Britain. KGr 806 sank the Soviet destroyer
Karl Marx on
8 August 1941 in
Loksa Bay Tallinn.
On 28 August the Ju 88s had more success
when KG 77 and KGr 806 sank the 2,026 grt
2,317 grt Lucerne
, the 1,423 grt Artis
and the ice breaker Krisjanis Valdemars
(2,250 grt). The rest of the Soviet "fleet", were forced to
change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a
result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines
and sank. On 29 August, the Ju 88s accounted for the transport
ships Vtoraya Pyatiletka
(2,190 grt) and Leningradsovet
(1,270 grt) sunk. Furthermore, the ships Ivan
and the Serp
were damaged. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers were
Finnish Air Force
In April 1943, as Finland was fighting its Continuation War
against the USSR, the
Finnish Air Force bought 24 Ju 88s from Germany. The aircraft were
used to equip No.
previously operated Bristol
, but these were instead transferred to No. 42 Sqn
. Due to the
complexity of the Ju 88, most of 1943 was used for training the
crews on the aircraft, and only a handful of bombing missions were
undertaken. The most notable was a raid on the Lehto partisan
village on 20 August 1943 (in which the whole squadron
participated), and a raid on the Lavansaari
air field (leaving seven Ju 88 damaged
from forced landing in inclement weather). In the summer of 1943,
the Finns noted stress damage on the wings. This had occurred when
the aircraft were used in dive bombing. Restrictions followed: the
dive brakes were removed and it was only allowed to dive at a 45
degree angle (compared to 60-80 degrees previously). In this way,
they tried to spare the aircraft from unnecessary wear.
the more remarkable missions was a bombing raid on 9 March 1944
against Soviet Long Range
Aviation bases near Saint Petersburg, when the Finnish aircraft, including Ju 88s,
followed Soviet bombers returning from a night raid on Tallinn, catching the Soviets unprepared and destroying
many Soviet bombers and their fuel reserves, and a raid against the
Aerosan base at Petsnajoki on 22 March
The whole bomber regiment took part in the defence
against the Soviets during the fourth strategic offensive
aircraft flew several missions per day, day and night, when the
No. 44 Sqn was subordinated Lentoryhmä Sarko
(now against Germany), and
the Ju 88s were used both for reconnaissance and bombing. The
targets were mostly vehicle columns. Reconnaissance flights were
also made over northern Norway. The last war mission was flown on 4
After the wars, Finland was prohibited from using bomber aircraft
with internal bomb stores. Consequently, the Finnish Ju 88s were
used for training
until 1948. The
aircraft were then scrapped over the following years. No Finnish Ju 88s
have survived, but an engine is on display at the Central
Finland Aviation Museum, and the structure of a German Ju 88 cockpit hood
is preserved at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa.
- Ju 88A
- Main bomber type with Jumo 211
- Ju 88A-0
- Pre-production aircraft.
- Ju 88A-1
- Initial production variant. 895 kW (1,200 hp) Jumo
- Ju 88A-2
- Jumo 211G-1 engines.
- Ju 88A-3
- Conversion trainer. Dual
- Ju 88A-4
- Improved variant. Long span wings. Modified with new bomb
dropping equipment to produce a A-15 "special" bomber variant. RLM
refused to authorise mass production, as the wooden bomb bay
"bulge" caused too much drag and a
thus a reduction in speed.
- Ju 88B
- Prototype with all-new fully glazed "stepless" crew compartment
nose, developed into Ju 188.
- Ju 88B-0
- 10 pre-production aircraft with "stepless" fully glazed
- Ju 88C
fighter-bomber and night fighter, based on A-series, but with sheet
- Ju 88C-1
- Planned fighter variant, powered by two BMW
801MA engines. Never built.
- Ju 88C-2
- Initial production variant.
- Ju 88C-4
- Heavy fighter, reconnaissance variant.
- Ju 88C-5
- Improved heavy fighter variant.
- Ju 88C-6a
- Improved Ju-88C-5 variant.
- Ju 88C-6b
- Night fighter variant.
- Ju 88C-6c
- Night fighter variant.
- Ju 88C-7a
- Intruder variant.
- Ju 88C-7b
- Intruder variant.
- Ju 88C-7c
- Heavy fighter variant.
- Ju 88D.
- Long-range photo-reconnaissance variants, based on the Ju
- Ju 88D-1
- long-range photo-reconnaissance variant.
- Ju 88D-2
- Ju 88D-3
- Ju 88D-4
- Ju 88D-5
- Ju 88G
- Night fighter, new fuselage with A-series' ventral
Bola gondola omitted, tail section from Ju 188, optional
- Ju 88H
- Long-range photo-reconnaissance, fighter variants, based on the
stretched Ju 88G-series fuselage.
- Ju 88H-1
- Long-range photo reconnaissance variant.
- Ju 88H-2
- Fighter variant.
- Ju 88H-3
- Long-range photo-reconnaissance variant.
- Ju 88H-4
- Fighters variant.
- Ju 88P
- Anti-tank and anti-bomber variant with single
Bordkanone series 50 mm (2 in), 75 mm
(2.95 in) or twin 37 mm (1.46 in) calibre cannons in
ventral fuselage gun pod mount, small
series, conversion of A-series bomber.
- Ju 88P-1
- Heavy-gun variant fitted with single 75 mm (2.95 in)
Bordkanone BK 75 cannon in ventral gun pod.
- Ju 88P-2
- Heavy-gun variant with twin 37 mm (1.46 in)
Bordkanone BK 37 cannon in ventral gun pod.
- Ju 88P-4
- Heavy-gun variant with single 50 mm (2 in)
Bordkanone BK 5 cannon in
ventral gun pod.
- Ju 88R
- C-series night fighter series with BMW 801 engines.
- Ju 88S
- High-speed bomber series based on Ju-88A-4 but with ventral
Bola gondola omitted, smoothly-glazed nose and GM-1 nitrous-oxide boost, fastest of all variants.
- Ju 88 S-0
- Fitted with two BMW 801D engines, single 13 mm
(.51 in) dorsal gun and 14 SD65 (65 kg/143 lb)
- Fitted with two BMW 801G engines, the GM-1 boost system and
could carry two SD1000 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bombs
- Fitted with two turbocharged BMW 801TJ engines, wooden bomb bay
extension as used on the Ju-88A-15.
- Fitted with two 1,671 kW (2,240 hp) Juma 213A engines
and GM-1 boost system.
- Ju 88T
- Three-seat photo-reconnaissance version of S-series.
- Based on the Ju-88S-1 but with bomb bays fitted for extra fuel
of GM-1 tanks.
- Based on the Ju-88S-3.
- Armée de l'Air operated
aircraft captured in Toulouse repair depot and other captured by
the RAF and USAAF handed over to the French.
- Spanish State
- Spanish Air Force bought ten
aircraft and put into service another 15 interned during the
Junkers Ju 88 D-1/Trop, the
"Baksheesh" aircraft, in an inaccurate Luftwaffe paint scheme
Around 14 aircraft still exist, although many of these are little
more than collections of wreckage recovered from remote crash
sites. Several reasonably intact airframes have
been recovered from underwater crash sites in recent years, some of
these aircraft are under restoration for static display, such as
WNr.0881203 in Bodø and
WNr.0880119 at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen.
Only two complete aircraft exist:
- ;Ju 88 D-1/Trop, Werk Nr. 430650
- Long-range photographic reconnaissance
aircraft that was in the service of the Romanian Air
Force is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air
Force in Dayton,
Ohio. On 22 July 1943, it was flown to Cyprus by a
Romanian pilot who wanted to defect to the British forces on the
island. Given the name Baksheesh,
it was subsequently handed over to the U.S. Air Force, which flew
the aircraft across the South Atlantic to Wright
Field for examination and test flying.
the aircraft was placed in storage in Arizona. It was shipped to the Museum in January
1960. It is presently finished in its original-style Romanian
military insignia. The aircraft is displayed in the Museum's Air
- ;Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. 360043
- This aircraft was flown to Scotland by its defecting crew in
May 1943; two of the three crew on board had taken the decision to
defect, and held the third crewmember at gunpoint during the
attempt. Once off the coast of Scotland, 360043 was
intercepted by Spitfires from No.165 (Ceylon) Squadron, whereupon
the Ju 88 waggled its wings and dropped flares, signalling the
crew's intent to surrender. The Spitfires escorted 360043
to a landing at Dyce aerodrome; the Spitfire pilots were Mentioned in Dispatches for taking
the risk not to open fire on the Ju 88 upon interception. The
capture of this aircraft was of great intelligence value at the
time, as it was fitted with the latest FuG 202 Liechtenstein BC A.I radar. The
craft was evaluated in depth by the British, was used to assist in
teaching enemy aircraft recognition skills prior to the D-Day
landings, and was last flown in May 1945. In September 1954 and
again in September 1955, it was displayed on Horseguards
Parade for Battle of Britain week. The aircraft was
restored in 1975 and in August 1978 moved to the RAF Museum, its present home.
Specifications Ju 88 A-4
Specifications Ju 88 G-1
- Taylor 1969, p. 178.
- Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 71.
- Winchester 2004, p. 146.
- Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 75.
- Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 74.
- Winchester 2004, p. 147.
- Goss 1997, p. 10.
- Goss 1997, p. 121.
- Goss 1997, p. 222.
- Goss 1997, p. 242.
- Goss 1997, p. 174.
- Verlag 1994, p. 93.
- Scutts 1998, p. 47.
- Weal 2000, p. 8.
- Hooton 2007, p. 32.
- Hooton 2007, p. 34.
- Hooton 2007, p. 62.
- Hooton 2007, p. 66.
- Hooton 2007, p. 88.
- Heinkel He 111. Network Projects Production,
- Aircraft Strength and Losses.
- Cooksley, Peter G. The Battle of Britain. London: Ian
Allan Ltd, 1990. ISBN 978-0711018785.
- Bergström 2007, p. 14.
- Bergström 2007, p. 16.
- Bergström 2007, p. 20.
- Bergström 2007, p. 22.
- Bergström 2007, p. 131.
- Bergström 2007, p. 29.
- Bergström 2007, p. 39.
- Bergström 2007, p. 36.
- Bergström 2007, p. 60.
- Stenmann 1995, p. 35.
- Stenmann 1995, p. 37.
- Stenmann 1995, p. 37.
- Stenmann 1995, pp. 37–38.
- Stenmann 1995, p. 39.
- Dressel and Griehl 1994, p. 78.
- United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 27.
- Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. 360043
- Bergström, Christer. Barbarossa: The Air Battle,
July-December 1941. London: Chevron/Ian Allen, 2007. ISBN
- de Zeng, H.L; D.G. Stanket, and E.J. Creek. Bomber Units of
the Luftwaffe 1933-1945: A Reference Source, Volume 1. London:
Ian Allen Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-85780-279-5.
- Donald, David (editor). Warplanes of the Luftwaffe.
London: Aerospace Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
- Dressel, Joachim and Manfred Griehl. Bombers of the
Luftwaffe. London: Arms and Armour (DAG Publications), 1994.
- Feist, Uwe. Junkers Ju 88 in action. Carrollton,
Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1974. ISBN 3-79090-026-5.
- Goss, Chris. Bloody Biscay. Manchester, UK: Crécy
Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-947554-874.
- Green, William. The Warplanes of the Third Reich. New
York: Doubleday & Co., 1970. ISBN 1-874023-56-5.
- Hooton, E.R. Luftwaffe at War: Blitzkrieg in the West,
Volume 2. London: Chevron/Ian Allen, 2007. ISBN
- Griehl, Manfred. Das geheime Typenhandbuch der deutschen
Luftwaffe. Wölfersheim-Berstadt, Podzun-Pallas Verlag, 2004.
- Munson, Kenneth. Fighters and Bombers of World War II.
London: Peerage Books. 1983. ISBN 0-9-0740-837-0.
- Nowarra, Heinz J. Die Ju 88 und ihre Folgemuster.
Stuttgart, Motorbuch Verlag. 1987. ISBN 3-87943-579-0.
- Scutts, Jerry. German Night Fighter Aces of World War 2
(Osprey Aircraft of the Aces, Vol. 20). London:
Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-696-5.
- Stenman, Kari. "Short But Gallant: The Career of the Finnish
Junkers Ju 88s". Air
Enthusiast, No 60, November-December 1995. Stamford,
UK:Key Publishing, pp. 35–39. ISSN 0143-5450.
- Taylor, John W.R. "Junkers Ju 88." Combat Aircraft of the
World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons,
1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
- United States Air Force Museum booklet. Dayton, Ohio:
Air Force Museum Foundation. Wright-Patterson AFB, 1975.
- Verlag, Kaiser. Die großen Luftschlachten des Zweiten
Weltkriegs: Flugzeuge - Erfolge - Niederlagen (in German).
Gebunden, Germany: Neuer Kaiser Vlg GmbH, 1994. ISBN
- Weal, John.Ju 88 Kampfgeschwader on the Western Front.
Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Aviation, 2000. ISBN
- Winchester, Jim. "Junkers Ju 88". Aircraft of World War
II. London: Grange Books, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.