The Full Wiki

Justus: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Justus (occasionally Iustus) (d. 10 November, between 627 and 631), was the fourth Archbishop of Canterbury, in England. A missionary sent to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons, he became the first Bishop of Rochester in 604. He was forced to flee to Gaul in 616 after the death of King Æthelberht of Kent, but was reinstated in his diocese the next year. In 624 he became Archbishop of Canterbury, and during his term of office oversaw the despatch of missionaries to Northumbriamarker.

Arrival in Britain

Justus was a native Italian and a member of the Gregorian mission sent to England by Pope Gregory I. Justus probably arrived in England with the second group of missionaries, sent at the request of Augustine of Canterbury in 601, although some sources describe him as one of the original missionaries who arrived with Augustine in 597. The medieval chronicler Bede believed that Justus came in the second group, but Justus is not mentioned in any of the surviving Roman sources, such as the papal letter registers, so a definitive answer on when Justus arrived in England is unlikely.

If Justus arrived with the second group of missionaries, he traveled with a present of books and "all things which were needed for worship and the ministry of the Church." A 15th-century Canterbury chronicler, Thomas of Elmham, claimed that there were a number of books brought to England by Mellitus still at Canterbury in his day, but examination of the remaining manuscripts has determined that one possible survivor of Mellitus' books is the St. Augustine Gospels, now in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Manuscript (MS) 286. Along with the letter to Augustine, the returning missionaries brought a letter to Æthelberht, urging the King to act like the Roman Emperor Constantine I and force the conversion of his followers to Christianity. The King was also urged to destroy all pagan shrines.

Rochester

Augustine consecrated Justus as a bishop in 604, over a province including the Kentish town of Rochestermarker. The choice of Rochester was probably not because it had been a Roman-era bishopric, but rather because of its importance in the politics of the time. Although the town was small, with just one street appearantly, it was at the junction of Watling Streetmarker and the estuary of the Medway, and was thus a fortified town. Because he was probably not a monk, unlike most of his fellow missionaries, Justus' cathedral clergy was likely to have been composed of secular clergy rather than monks. A charter purporting to be from King Æthelberht, granting Justus land in Rochester, is of dubious authenticity. Æthelberht built Justus a cathedral church in Rochester, and archaeological remains of the foundations of a nave and chancel that are partly underneath the present-day Rochester Cathedralmarker may date from Justus' time. The remains of the foundations of a further early building, of rectangular shape, near the southern part of the current cathedral might also be dated to Justus' time, or may possibly be a Roman building.

While bishop, he and Mellitus, another of the missionaries who was Bishop of London, co-signed a letter written by Archbishop Laurence of Canterbury to the Irish bishops, urging the Celtic Church to adopt the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. We know of this letter from Bede, who quoted parts of it.

In 614 Justus attended the Council of Paris held by the Frankish king, Chlothar II. It is unclear why Justus, along with Peter, the abbot of St. Augustine's Abbeymarker in Canterbury, attended this council. It may have been just chance, but the historian James Campbell suggests that one possiblity was that Chlothar summoned clergy from Britain to attend as part of an attempt to assert overlordship over Kent. The historian N. J. Higham offers another explanation for their attendance, arguing that the Æthelberht sent the two to the council because of shifts in Frankish policy towards the Kentish kingdom, which threatened Kentish independence, and that the two clergymen were sent in order to reach some compromise with Chlothar.

A pagan backlash against Christianity took root following the death of Æthelberht in 616, forcing Justus to flee to Gaul, along with Mellitus. Likely, the two took refuge with Chlothar, hoping that the Frankish king would intervene and restore them to their sees. By 617 though, Justus had been reinstalled to his bishopric. Mellitus also returned to England, but the prevailing pagan mood did not allow him to return to London; after Laurence's death, Mellitus became Archbishop of Canterbury. According to Bede, Justus received letters of encouragement from Pope Boniface V (619–625), along with Mellitus, although Bede does not record the actual letters. The historian J. M. Wallace-Hadrill assumes that both letters were general statements of encouragement to the missionaries.

Archbishop

Justus became Archbishop of Canterbury in 624, and received his pallium, the symbol of the jurisdiction entrusted to archbishops, from Pope Boniface V. He then consecrated Romanus as his successor at Rochester. Boniface also gave Justus a letter congratulating him on King "Aduluald"'s conversion (probably King Eadbald of Kent). The letter is included in Bede's Ecclesiastical History. The historian D. P. Kirby argues that the reference to Eadbald makes it likely that it was Justus who converted the king, not Justus' predecessor at Canterbury, Laurence. Other historians, including Barbara Yorke and Henry Mayr-Harting, conclude that Bede's account is correct, and Eadbald was converted by Laurence. Yorke argues that there were two kings of Kent during Eadbald's reign, Eadbald and an Æthelwald, with Æthelwald being the "Aduluald" referred to by Boniface. Yorke argues that it was Justus who converted Æthelwald back to Christianity after Æthelberht's death.

Justus consecrated Paulinus as the first Bishop of York before Paulinus accompanied Æthelburg of Kent to Northumbriamarker for her marriage to King Edwin of Northumbria. Justus died on 10 November, between 627 and 631, the day and month are recorded by Bede, but not the year. Justus came to be regarded as a saint; he was given a feast day of 10 November. In the 1090s his remains were translated, or ritually moved, to a shrine beside the high altar of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterburymarker. At about the same time a Life was written about him by Goscelin of Saint-Bertin, as well as a poem by Reginald of Canterbury. Other material from Thomas of Elmham, Gervase of Canterbury, and William of Malmesbury, later medieval chroniclers, adds little to Bede's account of Justus' life.

See also



Notes

  1. Higham Convert Kings p. 94
  2. Hunt "Justus [St Justus] (d. 627x31)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  3. Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 109
  4. Hindley A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons p. 65
  5. Blair World of Bede pp. 84–87
  6. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 43
  7. Bede A History of the English Church and People p. 85–86
  8. Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity p. 62
  9. Markus "Gregory the Great and a Papal Missionary Strategy" Studies in Church History 6 pp. 34–37
  10. Brooks Early History of the Church of Canterbury p. 221
  11. Brooks "From British to English Christianity" Conversion and Colonization pp. 24–27
  12. Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 291
  13. Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 292
  14. Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 112
  15. Higham Convert Kings pp. 138–139
  16. Wood "Mission of Augustine of Canterbury" Speculum
  17. Campbell "First Century of Christianity" Essays in Anglo-Saxon History p. 56
  18. Higham Convert Kings p. 116
  19. Lapidge "Mellitus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England
  20. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History pp. 64–65
  21. Kirby Earliest English Kings pp. 31–32
  22. Kirby Earliest English Kings p. 33
  23. Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity pp. 75–76
  24. Yorke Kings and Kingdoms p. 32
  25. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
  26. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 82
  27. Delaney Dictionary of Saints p. 354–355
  28. Hayward "Justus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England


Citations

  1. Higham Convert Kings p. 94
  2. Hunt "Justus [St Justus] (d. 627x31)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  3. Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 109
  4. Hindley A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons p. 65
  5. Blair World of Bede pp. 84–87
  6. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 43
  7. Bede A History of the English Church and People p. 85–86
  8. Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity p. 62
  9. Markus "Gregory the Great and a Papal Missionary Strategy" Studies in Church History 6 pp. 34–37
  10. Brooks Early History of the Church of Canterbury p. 221
  11. Brooks "From British to English Christianity" Conversion and Colonization pp. 24–27
  12. Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 291
  13. Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 292
  14. Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 112
  15. Higham Convert Kings pp. 138–139
  16. Wood "Mission of Augustine of Canterbury" Speculum
  17. Campbell "First Century of Christianity" Essays in Anglo-Saxon History p. 56
  18. Higham Convert Kings p. 116
  19. Lapidge "Mellitus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England
  20. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History pp. 64–65
  21. Kirby Earliest English Kings pp. 31–32
  22. Kirby Earliest English Kings p. 33
  23. Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity pp. 75–76
  24. Yorke Kings and Kingdoms p. 32
  25. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
  26. Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 82
  27. Delaney Dictionary of Saints p. 354–355
  28. Hayward "Justus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England


References

  • accessed 7 November 2007


External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message