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Justus Olshausen (May 9, 1800 – December 28, 1882) was a German Orientalist and philologist who was a native of Hohenfelde. He was the brother of theologian Hermann Olshausen (1796-1839), and father to gynecologist Robert Michaelis von Olshausen (1835-1915).

Olshausen studied at Kielmarker, Berlinmarker and Parismarker, where he was a student of Silvestre de Sacy (1758-1838). From 1830 to 1852 he was a professor at the University of Kielmarker, where he was appointed curator in 1848. In 1852 he was removed from his position by the Danish government, and he subsequently became a professor of Oriental languages at the University of Königsberg. In 1860 he became a full member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and in 1874 was appointed Counsellor to the Ministry of Education in Berlin.

Olshausen specialized in Semitic and Persian philology, and was a pioneer in Pahlavi studies. Among his written works was an 1861 textbook of Hebrew language, and a critical examination of the Avesta, which is a collection of sacred Zoroastrian texts. Other publications by Olshausen include:
  • Emendationen zum Alten Testament (Emendation of the Old Testament), 1826
  • Fragments relatifs de la religion de Zoroastre, Paris 1829; (with Julius von Mohl 1800-1876).
  • "Catalogue of Arabic and Persian manuscripts of the Royal Library in Copenhagenmarker", 1851
  • Erklärung der Psalmen (Declaration of Psalms), 1853
  • Prüfung des Charakters der in den assyrischen Keilschriften enthaltenen semitischen Sprache (Examination of Assyrian cuneiform writings containing Semitic language), 1865


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