The Full Wiki

Jutes: Map

Advertisements
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Jutland peninsula
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who, according to Bede, were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of their time. They are believed to have originated from Jutland (called Iutum in Latin) in modern Denmarkmarker, Southern Schleswig (South Jutland) and part of the East Frisian coast.

Bede places the homeland of the Jutes on the other side of the Angles relative to the Saxons, which would mean the northern part of the Jutland Peninsulamarker. Tacitus portrays a people called the Eudoses living in the north of Jutland and these may have been the later Iutae. The Jutes have also been identified with the Eotenas (ēotenas) involved in the Frisian conflict with the Danes as described in the Finnesburg episode in the poem Beowulf (lines 1068–1159). Others have interpreted the ēotenas as jotuns ("ettins" in English), meaning giants, or as a kenning for "enemies".

Disagreeing with Bede, some historians identify the Jutes with people called the Eucii (or Saxones Eucii) who were evidently associated with the Saxons and dependents of the Franks in 536. The Eucii may have been identical with an obscure tribe called the Euthiones and probably associated with the Saxons. The Euthiones are mentioned in a poem by Venantius Fortunatus (583) as being under the suzerainty of Chilperic I of the Franks. This identification would agree well with the later location of the Jutes in Kent, since the area just opposite of Kent on the European mainland (present-day Flanders) was part of Francia. Even if Jutes were present to the south of the Saxons in the Rhineland or near the Frisians, this does not contradict the possibility that they were migrants from Jutland.

Asser in his Life of Alfred claims that Alfred's mother, Osburga, was descended from the Jutes of the Isle of Wightmarker, whom he identifies with the Goths. This ancestry, however, is unlikely and so may be the identification. Another modern hypothesis (the so-called "Jutish hypothesis"), accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary, states that the Jutes are identical with the Geats, a people who once lived in southern Swedenmarker. In primary sources the Geats are referred to as Eotas, Iótas, Iútan, and Geátas. However, in both Widsith and Beowulf, the Eotenas in the Finn passage are neatly distinguished from the Geatas. It may be that the two tribal names happened to be confused, which has happened, for example, in the sources about the death of the Swedish king Östen. It is possible that the Jutes are a related people to the Geats and a Gothic people as it is mentioned in the Gutasaga that some inhabitants of Gotlandmarker left for mainland Europe (the Wielbark site in Poland is evidence of a Scandinavian migration).

The Jutes, along with some Angles, Saxons and Frisians, sailed across the North Seamarker to raid and eventually invade Great Britainmarker from the late 4th century onwards, either displacing, absorbing, or destroying the native Celtic peoples there. According to Bede, they finally settled in Kentmarker (where they became known as the Cantuarii), Hampshire (in Wessexmarker), and the Isle of Wightmarker (where they became known as the Uictuarii). There are a number of toponyms that attest to the presence of the Jutes in the area, such as Ytene, which Florence of Worcester states was the contemporary English name for the New Forestmarker.

Jutish settlements in Britain c.575CE


While it is commonplace to detect their influences in Kent (for example, the practice of partible inheritance known as gavelkind), the Jutes in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight vanished, probably assimilated to the surrounding Saxons, leaving only the slightest of traces. One recent scholar, Robin Bush, even argued that the Jutes of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight became victims of a policy of ethnic cleansing by the West Saxonsmarker, although this has been the subject of debate amongst academics, with the counter-claim that only the aristocracy might have been wiped out. Bede is the only historical evidence and he clearly implies that this was so, in 686 CE.The culture of the Jutes of Kent is usually regarded as more advanced than that of the Saxons or Angles and early on shows signs of Roman, Frankish, and Christian influence . Funerary evidence indicates that the pagan practice of cremation ceased relatively early and jewellery recovered from graves has affinities with Rhenish styles from the Continent, perhaps suggesting close commercial connections with Francia. The Jutish king Ethelbert of Kent married the Frankish princess Bertha and introduced Christianity into parts of Britain. He was the only Jutish Bretwalda.

Notes

can also be known relatives or cousins of the Saxons.

Sources



External links




Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message