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Jutland peninsula
Jutland ( ; ; in English), historically also called Cimbria, forms the mainland part of Denmarkmarker. It has the North Seamarker to its west, Kattegatmarker and Skagerrakmarker to its north, the Baltic Seamarker to its east, and the Danish-German border to its south. The German state of Schleswig Holsteinmarker is part of the Cimbrian Peninsula but not part of Jutland.

Today, the Danish parts of Jutland belong to either of the three administrative regions North Jutlandmarker, Central Jutlandmarker or South Denmarkmarker.

The German parts of Jutland peninsula today form the state of Schleswig-Holsteinmarker.

Geography

Dunes on Jutland's coast-line.
Its terrain is relatively flat, with heaths, plains and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. The Danish portion has an area of 29,775 km² (11,496 square miles) and a population of 2,528,129 (2008). Population density is 84 per km² (218 per sq.mi.).

The northernmost part of Jutland is separated by the Limfjordmarker from the mainland, but is still commonly reckoned as part of the peninsula. It only became an island following a flood in 1825. The area is called the North Jutlandic Islandmarker, Vendsysselmarker-Thy (after its districts) or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord; it is only partly coterminous with the region called North Jutland.

The islands Læsømarker, Anholtmarker and Samsømarker in Kattegatmarker and Alsmarker at the rim of the Baltic Seamarker South are administratively and historically tied to Jutland, although especially the latter two are also regarded traditional districts of their own. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders.

The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islandsmarker stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bightmarker.

History

Main History of Denmark and History of Schleswig-Holstein.


Historic regions

The historic regions of Jutland peninsula.


History of Jutland

Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealandmarker. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, Cimbri and Charudes.

Many Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians moved from continental Europe to Great Britainmarker starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England (Angleland). This is thought by some to be related to the drive of the Huns from Asia across Europe, although the arrival of the Danes would more likely have been a major contributory factor, since conflicts between the Danes and the Jutes were both many and bloody.

The Danes took considerable steps to protect themselves from the depredations of the Christian Frankish emperors, principally with the building of the Danevirkemarker, a wall stretching across South Jutland at the shortest distance from the North Seamarker to the Baltic Seamarker.

Charlemagne removed pagan Saxons from the southernmost part of the peninsula at the Baltic Sea — the later Holstein area — and moved Abodrites (or Obotrites), a group of Wendish Slavs who pledged allegiance to Charlemagne and who had for the most part converted to Christianity, into the area instead.

To speed transit between the Baltic and the North Sea, canals have been built across the peninsula, notably the Eiderkanal in the late 18th century and the Kiel Canalmarker, completed in 1895 and still in use.

During World War I, the Battle of Jutlandmarker was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the Britishmarker Royal Navy engaged the German Navy leading to heavy casualties and ship losses on both sides. The battle was initially regarded a German victory, based on the total number of capital ships sunk and the number of sailors killed. However, the British fleet remained in control of the North Sea, and in tactical terms most commentators regard Jutland either as a German victory or as indecisive.

Danish part

Dialect

Main article: Jutlandic — See also: Danish language: Dialects


Typical of Jutland are the distinctive Jutish dialects which differ substantially from Standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic and South Jutlandic. Dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark and the dialect-speaking Jutlander remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes.

Cities

The largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are:
  1. Århusmarker
  2. Aalborgmarker
  3. Esbjergmarker
  4. Randersmarker
  5. Koldingmarker
  6. Horsensmarker
  7. Vejle
  8. Herningmarker
  9. Silkeborgmarker
  10. Fredericiamarker
  11. Viborgmarker
  12. Holstebromarker
  13. Sønderborgmarker
  14. Hjørring
  15. Frederikshavnmarker
  16. Haderslev
  17. Skivemarker


Aarhusmarker, Randersmarker, Koldingmarker, Horsensmarker, Vejle, Fredericiamarker, Haderslev along with a number of smaller towns make up the East Jutland metropolitan area. Administratively, Danish Jutland consists of Region Nordjyllandmarker, Region Midtjyllandmarker, and the western half of Region Syddanmarkmarker which also covers Funenmarker.

German part

Main article: Schleswig-Holsteinmarker
The southern third of the Jutland peninsula is made up of the Germanmarker Bundesland of Schleswig-Holsteinmarker. Schleswig-Holstein comprises two parts, the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which have passed back and forth between the Danes and Germans rulers several times. The last adjustment of the Danish-German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark's regaining Northern Schleswig ( or more commonly today: Sønderjylland).

The historical southern border of Jutland is the river Eider, which is also the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the historical border between the Danish and German realms from c. 800 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the Jutland peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or even as "Jutlanders", but rather with North Germany ( ) consider themselves Northern Germans ( ).

The medieval Code of Jutland applied for Schleswig until 1900 when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some rarely used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider today, but not south of the Eider.

Cities

The largest cities in the German part of Jutland or the Jutland Peninsula are Kielmarker, Lübeckmarker, Flensburgmarker, and Neumünstermarker.

References

External links



See also




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