The Full Wiki

Advertisements

More info on Kamboj in ancient inscriptions

Kamboj in ancient inscriptions: Map

Advertisements
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



The Kambojas were a Kshatriya or warrior clan of Iron Age Indiamarker, frequently mentioned in (post-Vedic) Sanskrit and Pali literature (though not in the Rigveda), making their first appearance in the Mahabharata and contemporary Vedanga literature (roughly from the 7th century BCE). The Ancient Kamboja Kingdoms were located beyond Gandhara in extreme north-west of India in Central Asia (see Kamboja Location). The Kambojas seem to have occupied a transition region between the Aryan and the Scythian world--- forming probably the northern-most section of the Aryans or the southern-most section of the Scythians thus, sharing the characteristics of the Aryans as well as the Scythians. In the epic Mahabharata, the Kurus and the Kambojas appear intimately connected and allied tribes. The epic story further reveals that a full division (Akshouhini) army of wrathful warriors comprising the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas and other tribes from Central Asia including the Daradas, Tusharas and the Khasas had participated in the Kurukshetra war under the supreme leadership of Sudakshin Kamboj . The Kambojas looms large in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts, and in addition, they also find adequate references in several ancient and medieval era inscriptions, coins and seals. Below are listed some pre-Christian and post-Christian inscriptions which contain some information on Kamboja or the Kambojas.

Achaemenid Inscriptions

Brick inscriptions of earlier Achaemenid kings Cambyses and Cyrus of Anshan

Cambyses (Kambujiya) appears as the name of an earlier member of the Achaemenid line (7th C BCE). He was probably grandson of Cyrus the Great , the son and the successor of Teispes of Anshan, who himself was the successor of Achaemenes the founder of the Achaemenid Dynasty. This Cambyses (Kambujiya) must not be confounded with later Cambyses I (Kambujiya-I), the son of Cyrus I (Kurush I), who was in fact the second of the name in line of Persian kings or Cambyses II (Kambujiya II) who was the son and successor of Cyrus II (Kurush II) or Cyrus the Great.

  • Cambyses appears in Babylonianmarker contract-tablets found at Warka with the title Cambyses (Kambuzi), king of Babylon .


  • Brick Inscription attributed to Cyrus was found at Senkereh in lower Chaldea in which Cyrus says himself "the son of Cambyses (Kambuzi) the powerful king" who repaired the temples at Babylonmarker. He was thus, the Cyrus who reigned at Babylon.


Luftus wrote that he found at Warka "bricks inscribed in a slightly relieved cuneiform characters of Cambyses 'the brother of Cyrus, a person of whom we posses no historical knowledge".

The above probably are the earliest references to the Persian form of the name Kambujiya (Greek Cambyses) and the king referred to is undoubtedly the first of the three Kambujiyas of the Achaemenid line.
The Cyrus cylinder


Cylinder of Achaemenid king, Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)

The Cyrus Cylinder also known as the Cyrus the Great cylinder is a document issued by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II of Persia) in the form of a clay cylinder inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform script. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylonmarker in 539 BC, when Cyrus, king of Anshan, overthrew the Babylonianmarker king Nabonidus, ended the Neo-Babylonian Empire and declared him to become the ruler of all the world. Fragment A of the cylinder is about 23 cm wide and 8 cm in diameter and is inscribed on all sides. It contains lines 1-35 where line 21 contains reference to name Ka-am-bu-zi-ia as the father of Cyrus the Great and line 27 refers to Ka-am-bu-zi-ia as the son of Cyrus the Great. Cyrus, king of Ansan, declared him to become the ruler of all the world. Name Ka-am-bu-zi-ia of the Akkadian script is the same as the Kambujiya mentioned in Old Persian Inscriptions. Cyrus Cylinder was discovered in 1879 and now in the British Museummarker is one of the most famous cuneiform texts. See Cyrus Cylinder: [761968].

Behistun inscriptions of Achaemenid king Darius I

The Behistunmarker inscriptions of Achaemenid king Darius I, the Great refer to the royal name Kambujiya in its various grammatical forms i.e. Kabûjiy-a = Cambyses; Kabûjiy-ahyâ = Cambysis; Kabûjiy-am = Cambysem; Kabûjiy-â = Cambyse. In the old Persian, mb was impossible articulation, hence the actual name Kambûjiya, and its grammatical forms Kambûjiyam, Kambûjiyâ and Kambûjiyahyâ appear in the inscriptions respectively as Kabûjiya, Kabûjiyam, Kabûjiyâ and Kabûjiyahyâ . The Kambûjiya or perhaps Kambaujiya appears as Kambyses or Cambyses in the ancient Greek literature.


Kambûjiya occurs in Egyptmarker as Kambuza, Kambythet (or rather Kambuzia) and Kambunza, in Elemite as Kanbuziya, in Akkadian as Kambuziya, as Kambuzia in Assyrian, as Kanpuziya in Susianamarker and Aramaic as C-n-b-n-z-y etc.. In Zend Avestan it occurs as Kavaus which in the Arabic and modern Persian has given birth to the two distinct forms Kabus and Kavus or Kaus. The Persian historians do not seem to be aware that the name of Kabus, which was borne by the dilemite sovereigns, is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form of Kaubus or Kavuj for the later name renders the identification almost certain. The Georgians even to the present day, name the Hero of the Romance as Kapus, still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian Kaus. Mr Burnouf has examined in the most elaborate manner the etymology of Zend Kavaus , and has endeavored to show the true signification to be the intelligent king. It is indeed very possible that the desire to obtain this meaning in the sacred language may have induced the compilers of the Zend Avesta, under the Sassanians to disfigure the original form of the name, then only known in popular traditions; but perhaps no one will at present pretend to compare the relative antiquity of the forms of the Kavaus and Kabujiya any more than it would be allowable to derive Kurush (Cyrus) from Hycrava , and if we are to seek for the primitive derivation of the name, we must follow the cuneiform rather than the Zend orthography. Supposedly, Kabujiya then to signify literally “a bard” from Kab: “to praise” or color and uji: “a speaker”; and it is further conjectured that from the king of that name was derived the geographical title Kamboja which, retained to the present day in Kamoj of Cafferistan, became also by a regular orthographical procession Kabus, Kabur and Kabul . In modern times, besides Kamoj in Kafiristan, the name is also retained in the Kamboj/Kamboh (an ethnic people) in Punjab.

Most scholars see a connection between the Iranian royal name Kambujiya and the Old Indian ethnic and toponym Kamboja .

According to W. Eiler, the Iranian form of the name i.e Kambujiya (Cambyses) is the original one .

Strabo’s Geography attests Cambysene (Latin form of Greek Kambysēnē) as Country and Mountain region and makes it as one of the northern-most provinces of Armeniamarker, bordering on the Caucasus mountainsmarker through which a road connecting Albaniamarker and Iberia passed . Strabo also attests a large river Cyrus (Kurosh) , which according to Mela rose from Montes Coraxici (main chain of Caucasus) and flowed from Iberia to Albania in nearly a south-east course. Cambyses (Kambujiya), modern Yori, Jora, or Gori another river rising in the Caucasus or according to Mela, in the Coraxici Montes flowed through the province of Cambysene and fell into the Cyrus (Kurosh) after uniting with the Alazonius (Alasan) a little distance away. Province Cambysene got its name from river Cambyses. A close reading of Strabo suggests that Cambysene stretched approximately from the Cyrus river on the west to the Alazonius river on the east .

Ptolemy and Ammianus Marcellinus also mention two rivers called Cyrus (Kurush) and Cambyses (Kambujiya) flowing through Media Atropatenein in easterly direction and falling into the Caspian seamarker---river Cyrus falling between Araxes (Aras) and the Amardus (Sefid Rud) and if the order of Ammianus Marcellinus be correct, then river Cambyses (Kambujiya) would seem to have been closer to the Amardus (Sefid-Rud) and falling into Caspian at Rasht (in Gilan province). In the Epitome of Strabo a nation of the Caspians is spoken of πɛρι τὀν Καμβύσην ποταμόν (Kambysen---Kambujiya?) .

Stephen of Byzantium defines Kambysēnē as a Persikē khōra (Persian country) and relates the name to Achaemenid king Cambyses (i.e. Kambujiya) . The Greek form of the name i.e Kambysēnē, must have been derived in the Hellenistic period from an indigenous name, corresponding to Armenianmarker Kʿambēčan, with the common ending -ēnē. In Georgian it is written Kambečovani, in Arabic Qambīzān . In Sanskrit, it is believed to have been transliterated as Kamboja. Though not attested prior to Strabo, the region Cambysene and the rivers Cyrus and Cambyses are believed to have born these name since remote antiquity.

The territorial name Cambysene (Gk. Kambysēnē) as well as the river names Cyrus (Kurosh) and Cambyses (Kambujiya) occurring in Strabo's Geography and Pliny's Histoires on north of Iran (1) in Media and (2) in Armenia Major as also the ancient ethnics inhabiting therein may be related to the ethno-geographical name Kambuja/Kamboja and Kuru of the Sanskrit texts . According to Ernst Herzfeld also, Cyrus and Cambyses, the names of two rivers, as well as the Achaemenid names Kurosh and Kambujiya were derived from Kuru and Kamboja tribal people as referred to in the Indian texts . It is very probable that before leaving the Caspian region for Iran/Afghanistan and North-west India in the wake of 'volker wanderung' of the ninth/eighth centuries BCE, these Caspians people (Cambusena) may have been living as single tribe spread into the valleys of Cyrus and Cambyses in Armenia. But after migrating to Indian sub-continent, they probably split-up into two distinct clans i.e. Kurus and Kambojas and first settled (1) in Trans-Himalayan region as Uttarakurus (Sinkiang) and Parama Kambojas (Badakshan/Pamirs) and (2) later also moved to cis-Himalayan regions as Kurus (in South-Esat Punjab/Kuruksetra) and Kambojas (in south-west Kashmir/and in Kabul valley). In the Kurukshetra war, the Kurus and Kambojas are seen as very closely allied tribes. However, while referring to the classical names Kambysene and Kambyses, German scholar Friedrich Spiegel speculates that the Iranian Kambojas had probably moved from the Indusmarker-land (Kamboja of the north-west of Indian traditions) and took the name Kamboja with them and lent it to the regions and rivers on north-west of Iranmarker (Armenia and Albania), just as the Indian while moving southwards have done it with names Gangamarker and Kosala etc .

It is also said that Cambyses (Jora, Yori or Gori) was the sacred river Champsis (=Cambyses) of the Scythians before they went to the north Caucasus isthmus via Caspian and Nlanytsch .

The name Cambyses also occurs in Egyptmarker as Kambuza, Kembatet (or rather Kambuzia) and Kambunza, in Elemite Kanbuziya, in Akkadian as Kambuziya and Aram. as Knbwzy etc. In Zend Avestan, the name takes the form of Kavaus and in modern Persian as Kavus and Kaus. Kabus, which was born by the Dilemite sovereigns is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form is Kaubus or "Kabuj" which latter name renders the identification with Sanskrit Kamboja also most certain. The Georgian, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus, still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian . In modern times, the name appears as Kamoj in Kafiristan and Kamboj/Kamboh in East and West Punjab, Haryanamarker, Rajasthanmarker and Uttar Pradeshmarker.

The reflection of royal name Kambûjiya (or Kambaujiya) probably is found in the name of ancient king Kamboja referred to in the Mahabharata i.e: Dhundhumarachcha Kambojo (=Kamboja) Muchukundastato.alabhat . This Kamboja of Mahabharata is also believed by some scholars to be the eponymous originator of tribal name Kamboja, a name which looms large in ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts .

Kambûjiya and Kurush (Cyrus) appear to have been popular names in ancient Iran. At least, three Cyrus and three Kambûjiyas are referred to in ancient sources. Kambujiya I (Cambyses I) was an earlier member of Achaemenid line (7th C BCE). He was probably the son and the successor of Teispes of Anshan, who himself was the successor of Achaemenes the founder of the Dynasty. This Cambyses (Kambujiya) must not be confounded with later Cambyses or Kambujiya, the son of Cyrus I (Kurosh I), who was in fact the second of the name in line of Persian kings (Herod., VII.II). Kambujiya II (Cambyses II) was son of Cyrus I and had ruled Anshan from 600 -559 BCE. He was a Persian king of good family whom king Astyages of Media, had married his daughter Mandane. The issue of this union was Cyrus II, the Great (Herod., I, 46, 107). Kambujiya III (Cambyses III) was son and successor of Cyrus II the great and had ruled Persia from 530 - 522 BCE. He is famous for his conquest of Egypt and the havoc he had wrought upon that country.

Historian Arnold J. Toynbee makes interesting observations on Kamboja and their geographical location and notes that Kamboja and Kuru occur as place names (1) in Armenian in Transcaucasia (South Caucasus or South-Central Eurasia) , (2) in Media Atrapatein , (3) close on north of Hindukushmarker and (4) south of Hindukush in the Indian sub-continent . Interestingly, at all these places, the Kuru (=Cyrus) and Kamboja (=Cambyses) were found to be juxtaposed side by side. Arnold J. Toynbee finds an echo of the usage of the Sanskrit term Bahlikas in its counterpart of the Avestan term 'Pairikas' which he uses to cover the swarm of Euroasian and Central Asian nomads including the Bahlikas (Bactrians), Malavas, Kambojas, Kurus, Madras, Madrakas etc., which in the 'volker wanderung' of the eighth and seventh centuries BCE, poured out of the Euroasian steppe into the Punjab and beyond. Toynbee thus analyses that the Kambojas and Kurus from Caucasian region west of Caspian sea, took part in the 'volker wanderung' of the eighth and seventh centuries BCE and then split into two wings. He further says that these two peoples who stamped their national names on the local landscape must have been closely connected and both played some part in Achaemenian history that had been auspicious as well as important .

James Hope Moulton however remarks: “The names Kuru and Kamboja are of disputed etymology, but there is no reason whatever to doubt their being Aryan. I do not think there has been any suggestion more attractive than that made long ago by Spiegel that they attach themselves to Sanskrit Kura (Kuru) and Kamboja, originally Aryan heroes of the fable, whose names were naturally revived in a royal house (in Persiamarker)....Kamboja is a geographical name, and so is Kuru often: hence their appearance in Iranianmarker similarly to-day as Kur and Kamoj"..

King Asoka’s Inscriptions

Asoka's Rock Edict V alludes to various nations or peoples on the western borders (Aparnata) of ancient India in addition to those named specifically. It says: “Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma." thus telling us that King Ashoka sent missionaries to the Greeks, Kambojas and other people on the north-west borderlands to convert them to Buddhism and recorded this fact in the Rock Edict V .

The Kambojas also find prominent mention as a unit in Rock Edict thirteen of king Asoka . Rock Edict XIII says that “it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest. And it (conquest by Dhamma) has been won here, on the borders, even six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni and here in the king's domain and among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma”. Rock Edict V says that Dhamma Mahamatras were appointed by Asoka thirteen years after his coronation and “They work among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Gandharas, the Rastrikas, the Pitinikas and other peoples on the western borders”.

The Rock Edicts XIII and V containing references to the Kambojas have been found in (1) Shabazgarhi in Peshawarmarker in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistanmarker (in Kharoshthis script), (2) Mansehramarker in Hazara District in North west Frontier Province of Pakistan (in Kharoshthis script), (3) Kalsi in Dehradunmarker District (in Brahmi script), (4) Girnar in Kathiawar (Gujaratmarker) (in Brahmi script) and (5) Dhaulimarker in Orissamarker (in Brahmi script).



Besides the Major Rock edicts as referred to above, several minor edicts of Asoka have also been found in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan and Afghanistan many of which are believed to have been specifically addressed to the Kambojas. For example (1) the Bilingual Inscription found in 1957 in the vicinity of Shar-i-Kuna in Kandhahar is believed to have been directed at the Yavanas of Arachosia and the Kamboja population of Arachosia/Ghaznimarker---the Greek version being designed for the Yavanas and the Aramaic version loaded with archaic Iranian words is said to be designed for the Kambojas ; (2) the second Aramaic inscription of Asoka discovered in 1964 from the old ruins of Kandhahar (Shar-i-Kuna) was similarly directed at the Kambojas of Arachosia/Ghazni; (3) the two unusual Aramaic inscriptions of Asoka found in Lamghan valley---one inscribed on rock called Sultan Baba found in 1932 and the second noticed in 1973 engraved on a cliff known as Sam Baba were both also designed for the Kambojas of Paropamisadae; (4) the Aramaic inscription found few years before 1932 in the neighborhood of Pul-i-Darunta in the Lamghan area of East Afghanistan was also specifically designed for the Kambojas of Paropamisadae; (5) The Sirkap Aramaic inscription of Asoka found earlier in 1914-15 is also believed to have been directed at the Aramaic knowing population living in Taksashila on east side of the Indus . Scholars believe that the Aramaic version of king Asoka’s edicts were specifically meant for the Kambojas .

Kambojas were essentially an Avestan speaking Iraniansmarker. But the Aramaic was the administrative language of the Achaemenids. The Persianmarker conquests of 6th c BCE had spread the use of Aramaic language and script as well as knowledge of Iranian book keeping and architecture in Afghanistanmarker and north-west Indiamarker. Since clans living on west of Panjkora and in the Laghman and Kabulmarker valleys and spreading towards Qandhahar were Iranian Kambojas and hence they knew the Aramaic writing system well. The Aspasioi (Asvayanas) were one among them. The Aramaic versions of Asoka’s edicts found in Lamghan/Kabul valley (Parppamisadae) and in Qandhahar with heavy dose of Iranian vocabulary were meant for these Iranian Kambojas. But the Assakenoi Asvakas or Asvakayanas) section of Kambojas living towards south-east of Panjkora as far as Indus and on its east side, as well as the Gandharans of Pushkalavati and Taksashila were more Indian than Iranian, hence the major edicts of Asoka found at Shabazgarhi (in Peshawar District) and Mansehra (in Hazara district) were meant for these Indianised Kambojas and the Gandharas and were written in Prakrit language and Kharoshthi script.It has to be remembered that the Kambojas had both Indian as well as Iranian affinities . As one would expect at that time, the dividing line between Iranmarker and Indiamarker would have been somewhere between the Kunar and the Swat rivers, possibly on the Guraeus or Panjkora river . Thus, the Kambojas living towards south-east of Panjkora were more under the Indian cultural and linguistic influence while those beyond its north-west were Iranians in culture and language. Iranian language was spoken on the north of Kunar where as the Pracrit on its south . Thus, the Aspasioi of the classical writings located on north-west of Panjkora were known by their Iranian name (from Iranian Aspa= horse), while the Assakenoi of the classical writings located on its south-east towards Swat and Indus are known by their Indian name (from Sanskrit Asva = horse). River Swat was also known anciently by its Indian name as Suvastu (good-dwelling place) whereas the Kunar/Konar or Khonar was known as Khoaspes (Eusapa or Su-Aspa or Hvaspa = means good horses) again illustrating the Iranian influence towards Kunar and beyond.

Vatasvaka coins

The coins bearing Vatasvaka legend in Brahmi characters similar to those on the square copper coins of Pantaleons and Agathocles (c 193o BC) are also connected by identity of type with some of the “single die” coins found in the neighborhood of Taxilamarker and Swat. The date of these coins is fixed at about 200 BCE. Buhler has explained this name as denoting the Vata sub-divion of the Asvaka tribe or as the Asvaka tribe of the Vata or fig-tree clan . Other historians interpret the Vatasvaka legend as denoting "Varta+Asvaka" i.e Asvakas engaged in Vata (cowerie) or Varta (trade). Term Varta includes cattle culture, trade and agriculture. Since Asvakas were especially renowned for breeding and raising horses (Asvas) and as a cavalrymen, hence they were in popular parlance also known as Varta-Asvka which in prakrit was Vatasvaka . The name is connected with Asvakas of Swat valley. In Kautiliya's Arthashastra, besides Shastropajivnah (living by warfare or wielding weapons), the Kambojas are also designated as Varta-Opajivinah (living by agriculture, cattle culture, and trade) . Scholars have identified Asvakas with Kambojas .

Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions (MLCI)

The Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions were discovered in 1896 from Saptarsi mound in the south-eastern part of Mathuramarker city in Uttar Pradeshmarker, Indiamarker, and presently are housed in the British Museummarker, Londonmarker. They are attributed to Saka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula of Mathura. The Capital Inscriptions among other donations, describe the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha by princess Aiyasi Kamuia, mentioned as the "daughter of Kharaosta Kamuio" .

The Mathura Lion Capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura. It mentions Sodasa (Sudasa), son of Rajuvula, who succeeded him and also made Mathura his capital. According to S Konow's interpretations, Aiyasi Kamuia was the chief queen (Agra-Mahishi) of Mahakshatrapa (Great Strap) Rajuvula. She was the daughter of Yuvaraja Kharaostes (Kharaosta) who himself is atated in the Capial inscriptions as Kamuio (= Kamuia)-- a Kamboja . This father and daughter relationship between Yuvaraja Kharoasta and princess Aiyasi is convincing since such designations are naturally inherited by the offsprings from the father and not from the mother side. Yuvaraja Kharaosta of the Mathura Lion Capital is the same person as the Kshatrapa Kharaosta whose coins have been examined by Luders and Rapson. The coins of Kharaosta attest that he was son of Arta , thus indisputably establishing that Arta was also a Kamuia.

According to S. Konow, R. K. Mukerjee, J. L. Kamboj, Kirpal Singh and other scholars, king Moga or Maues was younger brother of Arta. Thus if Yuvaraja Kharaosta, his daughter Aiyasi and his father Arta were Kamuias, same must have been the case with king Maues or Moga. Making use of science of linguistics, S. Konow and others scholars have identified the term Kamuia and Kamuio of the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions with Sanskrit Kamboja or Pali Kambojaka or Kambojika or Iranian name Kambujiya, thus establishing that princess Ayasia Kamuia and her father Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio belonged to the Kamboja/Kambujiya tribe or country . Thus, Kharaosta and Moga, the so-called Scythian rulers of Taksashilamarker, in all probability, were from Kamboja extractions . Scholars like Alfred A. Foucher, Gerard Huet, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini, Serge Thion etc style the Kambojas to be a Royal Clan of the Sakas or Scythians. . This also seems to be confirmed from Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions of Mahaksatrapa Rajuvula and the Rock Edict XIII of King Aśoka .

The style of the Mathura Lion Capital is strikingly Iranian and the epigraph is undoubtedly mixture of Scythian, Iranianmarker and even Indian nomenclature . Even Sakastan (Sakhastan) referred to in the Lion Capital is Iranian name. Names like Kharaostes, Nadia Diaka, Aiyasi, Patika, Kshatrapa etc are Iranian and Bhikhu, Buddhila ets are Prakritic names. Title "king of kings" used by king Moga on his coins is also Iranian rather than Scythian . Machenes, the princess who succeeded king Moga as ruler of Taksashila is said by some scholars to be widow of king Maues. If this so, then as pointed out by Rider, the name Machenes may be related to Iranian Mahi, meaning "moon", and is comparable to Persian mahin, "(beautiful) like the moon" . This may again point to Iranian affinities of king Maues and his family.

Coins of Kharaostes

Kharahostes or Kharaostasa is stated to be an Indo-Scythian satrap ruling in Chuksa in the northern Indian sub-continent around 10 BCE - 10 CE. The Greek and Kharoshthi legends on his coins describe him as son of Arta:

Kharahostei strapei Artauou (Greek legend)
Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa (Kharasshthi legend).


This Kshatrapa Kharaostasa of the coins has been identified with yuvaraya (heir apparent) Kharaosta mentioned in the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions where he bears a surname Kamuio (Kamuia) after his name . He is stated to be father of Aiyasi the chief queen (Agra-Maheshi) of Saka Mahaksharapa Rajuvula. Scholars have identified terms Kamuia/Kamuio appearing as surnames in the Mathura Capital Inscription with Sanskrit name Kamboja or Pali name Kambojika . Thus, we can easily see that princess Aiyasi, his father Kharaosta and his uncle Arta were all Kamuias or Kambojas. Thus, the coins with above legends belong to Kharaostasa (or Yuvaraja Kharaosta) who was a Kamuia or Kamboja ruler of Chuksa—a territory comprising districts of Peshawar, Hazara, Attock and Mianwal in northern Pakistan .

Apracaraja Indravarman's Silver Reliquary

An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary or Apracaraja Indravarman's Silver Reliquary has been found, presumably from Bajaurmarker area of ancient Kapisa . Believed to have been fabricated originally at Taxilamarker, the silver reliquary consists of two parts—the base and the cover—both being fluted , and the cover being topped by a figure of long horned Ibex. It has been dated to around the eighth or ninth decades of the first century BCE and bears six inscriptions written in pointillē style, in Kharoshthi script and Gandhari/north-western Prakrit. In form, the silver vessel is wholly atypical of Buddhist reliquaries and is said to have been originally a wine goblet, similar to others found in Gandhara and Kapisa regions. The vessel was later reused by Apraca king Indravarman as a Reliquary to enshrine Buddhist relics in a stüpa raised by Indravarman. The inscriptions on the silver reliquary have been investigated by Richard Saloman of University of Washington, in an article published in Journal of American Oriental Society and provide important new information not only about the history of the kings of Apraca dynasty themselves but also about their relationships with other rulers of the far north-western region of traditional India i.e modern northern Pakistanmarker and eastern Afghanistanmarker around the beginning of Christian era .

The inscriptions provide important new information on the history of Apraca dynasty of Bajaurmarker, including the names of several previously unknown persons, and on their relationship with Indo-Iranian king Kharayosta -- the Yuvaraya Kharaosta "Kamuio" of the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions or Kharaoṣta (Kharahostes) of the coins. Prince Kharaosta in the Bajaur silver vessel has been described as Yagu-raja as contrasted to Yuva-raja of the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions or the Kshatrapa of the coins. First part Yagu- of the title Yagu-raja used by Kharaosta (Kamuio) is a form of Yauvuga or Yauga or Yaüvasa-- a Kushana title, which is identified with popular Turkic title Yabgu (i.e. tribal chief) . Since this reference pertains to pre-Christian and therefore, pre-Kushana/Pre-Turkic times, this conclusively proves that the 'use of a title is no proof of a ruler's ethnic affinities . The silver reliquary defintely indicates some sort of connections between prince Kharaosta (Khara(y)osta) and the Apraca kings of Bajaur but it is hard to say if the connections are merely of succession only or were formed by blood or ethnic bonds also. The inscription no. II on the silver reliquary was inscribed by yaguraja Khara(y)osata who was the first owner of the silver vessel and the inscriptions no. III, IV, VI and VI on the same reliquary were later inscribed by Apraca king Indravarman which show the latter as the owner of the same vessel. Inscriptions also verify that Apraca king Indravarman had later converted the silver vessel to a Buddhist Reliquary for the stüpa he had raised in Bajaurmarker. The connection of Apraca kings with Yagu-raja Kharaosta has raised chronological questions which call into doubt previously established norms about him and also seem to require a considerably earlier date for the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions (in which he is twice mentioned as Yuvaraja Kharaosta), than is usually attributed to him. Kharaosta is believed to have been the ruler of Cukhsa—a territory comprising districts of Peshawar, Hazara, Attock and Mianwal in northern Pakistan . The Apraca kings of Bajaur are believed to have been an important allies of Kharaosta (Kamuio) in helping to protect his borders from ever-present threat of invasion from the west . It does not, therefore, seem unlikely that Arta (Mahakshatrapa), Kharaosta Kamuio (Yuvaraja), Aiyasia Kamuia (Agra-maheshi—the chief queen of Rajuvula), Maues or Moga (Gandhara king) as well as the rulers of Apraca dynasty of Bajaur were probably all related and were connected by some sort of familial connections. The fact that Kharaosta, his father Arta and his daughter Aiyasi were Kamuio and Kamuia as evidenced by Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions and coins, it becomes very probable that the Apraca dynasty was also probably a Kamuia (Kamboja) dynasty. As stated before, surname Kamuia is simply a Kharoshthised/Prakritised form of Pali Kambojika or Sanskrit Kamboja .

The territory around the findspot of the silver reliquary was the stronghold of the warlike Indo-Iranian people called Aspasioi who had formed the western branch of the Ashvakas of the Sanskrit texts . Prashant Srivastava of the University of Lucknow, has recently written a research monograph which aims to highlight the significant role played by the family of the Apraca kings in ancient Indian history, and has connected this family of the Apraca kings with the Ashvaka clan . But, the Ashvaka clan was none else than a sub-branch of the greater Kamboja tribe spread on either side of the Hindukushmarker. See Ashvakas. These people, identified as sub-branch of the Kambojas, had earlier offered stubborn resistance to Macedonian invader Alexander in 326 BCE and later also constituted an important component of the grand army of Chandragupta Maurya . According to H.W. Bailey, the dynastic/geographic title Apraca/Apaca/Avaca may underlie the modern toponym Bajaur .

See main article: Apracaraja Indravarman's Silver Reliquary

Buddhist inscriptions at Mhar or Mahad (district Kolaba)

Second century AD, Buddhist inscriptions found at Mhar or Mahad in Kolaba district of Maharashtramarker, in Bombay Presidency refers Kumara Kanbhoja Vhenupalita (Sanskrit Kumara Vishnupalita Kambhoja) who ruled in Kolaba during second c BCE . The translated inscription runs as follows:

“To the Perfect one! Kumara (or Prince) Kanbhoja (=Kambhoja) Vhenupalita (=Vishnupalita)’s [5] Lena (=cave), Chaitiyagriha and eight (8) cells; this much work is endowed, and two (2) cisterns on each side of the Lena, also a passage connected with the Lena is presented. It is charitable gift of the Kumara (or Prince)” .

See main article: Prince Vishnupalita Kambhoja

The estimated date for this inscription is second century AD. This demonstrates that the Kambojas from north-west had settled in Konkan region in Maharashtramarker prior to the Christian era (100-150 BCE). The name of the prince i.e Visnupalita Kanbhoja clearly indicates that, by this time the migrant Kambojas had totally acclimatised to the Indian environs and iculture. Also, the surname of the prince i.e. 'Kanbhoja' bears the impress of southern or southwestern Indian influence and is an apparent change from Kamboja which bears Iranianian or Paisachi influence.

The existence of Kamboja principality on west coast of India near Bombay as born out by inscriptional evidence above may further prove the fact that the Kambojas who had migrated to and colonized Sri Lankamarker and later, the Kambuja in Indo-China Peninsula, may have proceeded there via Gujaratmarker/Bombaymarker around this time. The above is just one example of Kamboja principalities. The evidence exists that there were more Kamboja principalities located in western, south-western/southern India.

Clay Seal from Sugh (Haryana)

One clay sealing has been found from Sugh near Barya, situated on the western bank of the river Jamuna which bears the following legend in Kharoshthi: 'Khaharala.putrasya Kambuja.raspaga . The second word of the legend denotes the man who had some kind of connection with the Kambojas. Either he had come from Kamboja, or he belonged to some local family of Kambojas . We find that the villages surrounding the find-spot (Sugh) have their main populace of the Kamboja farmers. It looks very likely that the author of this seal belonged to a section of Kambojas who had transplanted themselves in Punjab/Haryanamarker around second/first century BCE. The person named Khaharal, son of a Raspag Kamboj, appears to be some local ruler but the information is insufficient and incomplete, therefore no final conclusion can be drawn (J. L. Kamboj).

Kharoshthi inscription from Chilas

A short commemorative Kharoshthi inscription has been found by Pakistan Department of Archaeology from Chilasmarker in North-west Frontier Province (NWFPmarker) of Pakistanmarker. It has been transliterated, translated and interpreted by Ahmad Hassan Dani, a world renowned archaeologist, historian and linguist of Pakistanmarker. The inscription bears the Kharosthi term Kaboa or Kamboa which Dr Dani has translated into Sanskrit Kamboja . It is notable that Chilas had formed part of ancient Kamboja kingdom and it is still inhabited by Turko-Iranian population.

Bandoda/Bandora Charters of Bhoja rulers

An Inscription or Charter belonging to the Bhoja rulers of Goa, dating 5th century AD, issued by Bhoja ruler, executed by Nidhivara and written by Buddhadasa of the Kamboja (Brahmin) gotra have been found in Bandora or Bandoda, Goa . Beside Kamboja gotra, the charters from Bhoja rulers also contain reference to Sarasvati/Paddya, Bharadvaja and Hariti Brahmin gotras. Scholars state that Kamboja gotra of the Bandoda/Bandora Charter of Goa is related to Kamboja clan from Afghanistanmarker .

Buddhist Inscriptions at Sanchi

Luders's inscriptions, (No 176 and 472 in the list), refer to the gift of a monk Kaboja (Kamboja) from Nandi-Nagara made at Sanchimarker Buddhist Stupa . According to IHQ: "The monk was a Kamboja of Nandi-Nagara which might have been a place in the neighborhood of Sanch" . But no evidence of any ancient place called Nandi-Nagara situated near Sanchimarker (in Malawamarker) is attested. Probably the Nandi Nagara of the Sanchi Inscriptions refers to modern Nandode (Rajpipli) in Gujaratmarker which place in earlier times was also known as Nandan Nagar or Nandi-puri .

The above pieces of evidence pieced together further support the presence of Kambojas in south-western India in the post-Christian times.

Kadi grant of Chalukya king Mularaja

Kadi grant of Chalukya king Mularaja states that on the occasion of solar eclipse in Samvat 1043, Maharajadhiraja Mularaja, while residing in Anahilapataka, granted ardhastama of Mothera in town of Kamboika to illustrious Mulanathadeva (temple) established at Mandali in the Varddhi visaya . The grant is said to have been written by a Kayastha named Kanchana and ends with the words “of the illustrious Mularaja”. On further prakratization, name Kamoika referred to in above grant changed to Kamboi prior to 15th c AD. 15th century historical records mention this town as Kamboi . Scholars state that Kamboika of the Mularaja grant derives itself from Sanskrit Kambojika (Kamojika => Kamboyika => Kamboika ==> Kamboi) . Kambojika/Kambojaka is Pali name for Kamboja. This name in Kathiawar reminds us of Kamboja immigrants from north-west who had settled in Gujaratmarker/Kathiawar in second/first century BCE. This town in all probability belonged to and was named after the Kamboja settlers. The Kamboi also has an ancient and famous Jaina Tirtha (pilgrim place) by the same name which located in the center of the town.

Assam-patra of king Valabhadeva

Horses of Kambojas also find glorious mention in inscriptions of ancient Assammarker. Verse twelve (12) of the third Assam-patra (1185 AD) of king Valabhadeva of Assam proudly refers to him as a sole one who knows how to wield the sword, the chief of those skilled in the use of dagger and is sole and supreme in the science of archery and the rider of the host of Kamboja horses and best of elephants .

Bengal Inscriptions

Monghyr inscription of Pala king Devapala

The Monghyr grant of Pala Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) states that after defeating the Hunas (of Punjab), Pala king Devapala had visited north-west Kamboja as his Kamboja steeds are said to have gladdened after meeting their sweet hearts (i.e. Kamboja mares) in the Kamboja land . This inscriptions indisputably proves that not only there were Kamboja horses but also there were mercenary soldiers (cavalry) from Kamboja .

R. C. Majumdar writes: "The Palas employed mercenary forces and certainly recruited horses from Kamboja (Ins B.8 V 13). Mr N. G. Majumdar has rightly observed that if the horses could be brought into Bengal from North-Western Frontiers of India during the Pala period, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the traders and the adventurers could also have found their way into that province" . "Mercenary soldiers (specially the cavalry) might have also been recruited from Kamboja and some of them might have been influential chiefs" .

Dinajpore Raj Palace Pillar Inscription

Dinajpore Raj Palace Pillar Inscription of Kambojanvaya Gaudapati referred to as Kunjaraghatavarsa has been found from Dinajpore in Bengladeshmarker from among the ruins of Bangad or Bannagar, which commemorates the rule of Kambojas in north-west Bengalmarker. The scholars are generally of the opinion that the Kamboja rule in Bengal began from about the middle of tenth century AD and the Pillar Inscription is stated to have been erected in 966 AD . Pillar Inscription refers to its author as “Kambojanvayaja Gaudapati” i.e Lord of Gauda, born in the Kamboja line . Dinajpore Pillar Inscription attests that Kambojanvaya Gaudapati was a Siva devotee and had constructed a Siva temple in Bengal .

Irda Copper Plate of Balasor, Orissa

Irda Copper Plate (Irda Tamara.patra) grant is another very important source which powerfully attests the Kamboja rule in north-west Bengal. The Plate was discovered in 1931 from a landlord named Mrityunjaya Narayan Prahraj of Irda, District Balasor in Orissamarker. The Inscription was edited by Dr N. G. Majumdar and was published with his comments in 1934 in the Epigraphia Indica . The Irda Copper plate grant is written in Sanskrit tongue and has 49 lines of text written in ancient Bengali script. The Vamsa or the tribal identity of the rulers mentioned in the Irda Copper Plate is specifically mentioned as Kamboja since Rajayapala, the father of this Nayapala has specifically been referred to as Kamboja-Vamsha-Tilaka (i.e an Ornament of the Kamboja clan or Glory of the Kamboja tribe). The Irda Copper plate grant was issued by Parameshvara Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Nayapala in the month of Karttika, in 13th regnal year of the king from the city of Priyangu. It records the grant of land by Nayapala in Dandabhukti-mandala within the Vardhamana-bhukti . On paleographic grounds Dinajpore Pillar Inscriptions as well the Irda Copper plate have been assigned to the second half of 10th c AD . Hence the scholar community now generally agrees that the Kambojanvaya Gaudapati of Dinajpore Pillar Inscription and the Rajayapala of the Irda Copper Plate who assumed the imperial title Kamboja.vamsha.tilaka Paramasaugata Maharajadhiraja Parameshvara Paramabhattaraka Rajyapala belong to the same Kamboja family and occupied not only north Bengal (Gauda), but also the south-western portion of the province including Vardhamanabhukti . But whereas the Dinajpore Pillar inscription refers to just one Kamboja ruler with a title “Kambojanvaya Gaudapati” (Kunjaraghatavarsa), the Irda Copper Plate inscription, on the other hand, mentions generation after generation of the Kamboja-Pala rulers of Bengal i.e Rajyapala, Narayanapala and Nayapala etc. The Kamboja-Pala kings of Irda Copper Plate had ruled north-west Bengal in 10/11th century . Another known Kamboja king of this line was Dharmapala who ruled in Dandabhukti-mandala in early eleventh c AD . He finds mention in the Tirmulai Inscription dated in the 13th regnal year of Rajendra Chola (c. 1012- 1044 AD) and hence was contemporary of Pala ruler Mahipala-I as well as of Rajendra Chola. Dharmapala was allied with Rajendra Chola against the Palas of Bengal.

Kalanda Copper Plate of Balasor, Orissa

Yet another charter called Kalanda Copper Plate grant shedding light on the Kambojas rulers of Bengal has been discovered from Balasore District, Orissa. It was first noticed by Dr (Mrs) Snigdha Tripathy in the Orissa Historical Research Journal and came from another village called Kalanda. The grant was edited by K. V. Ramesh . This grant was also issued by Kamboja king Parameshvara Paramabhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Nayapala, younger brother of king Narayanapala, son of king Rajyapala and Queen Bhagyadevi, from the city of Pryangu, on 11th day of Asvina in the 14th year of his reign. City of Priyangu was the capital of the rulers of this line .

The Bhaturiya Inscription of Rajyapala

King Rajyapla, the author of the Bhaturiya Inscription is believed by many scholars to be the same Rajyapala who has been referred to as Kamboja-Vamsa-Tilaka in the Irda Copper Plate Inscription. R. C. Majumdar writes : "The Bhaturiya Inscription of Rajyapla refers to name Rajyapla whose commands were obeyed by the Mlechhas, Angas, Kalingas, Odras (Orissamarker), Pandyas, Karnatas, Latas, Suhmas, Gurjaras, Kiratas and in Cinamarker; while the claim is certainly exaggerated, it is significant that Rajyapala’s conquests included Anga, Vanga Suhma and not Gauda or Pandraka. So it has been suggested that only north Bengal was the home of Rajyapala and this Rajayapla has been identified with Rajyapalal of Irda Copper Plate, belonging to the Kamboja-kula" . This if true, would be the third most important inscription about the Kamboja rulers of Bengal.

Bangad or Bangar Grant of Mahipala I

Bangad Charter of Mahipala I is the third very important ancient source about Kamboja rule in Bengal. The Charter asserts that "He (=Mahipala I) had recovered his paternal territories usurped by those who had no claim to their administration". The same fact has also been repeated in the Aamgaachhi Charter of Vigrahapala-3. The History and Culture of the Indian People comments: "Who were the usurpers, the inscription does not tell, but other evidences indicate that the rulers belonging to the Kamboja family were in possession of the north and west Bengal". Scholars believe that Mahipala's Charter alludes to the forcible seizure of northern parts of Bengal by "the Kamboja usurpers" during reign of Gopala II or Vigrahapala II of the Pala dynasty, which the great king Mahipala I, claims to have won back by the force of his arms

Paschimabhag Plate (or Sylhet Plate) of king Sricandra (C 925 -975 AD)

Paschimabhag Copper Plate (Sylhet Plate) also contains references to Kamboja rulers of Bengal. This inscriptionwas introduced by A. H. Dani in a Paper read in the Asian Archaeology Conference Delhi, 1961; and five years later the same inscription was also edited by Kamalakanda Gupta Chaudhury in the Nalini Kanta Bhattasalai Commemmoration Volume published by Dacca Museum in 1966. The Copper Plate was issued by Sricandra (C 925 -975 AD) of the Candra dynasty which mentions the city of Devaparvata on the Ksiroda river in the Samatata country and refers to the Kambojas while describing the achievements and victories of Srticandra’s father, king Trailokyacandra (C 905 -25 AD). Verse 7 of the Paschimabhag plate runs as follows:

Ksiroda=anu Devaparvata iti srimat=sad-etat=puram
Yatr=agantu-janasya vismaya-rsah 'Kamboja-vart-adbhutaih |
Latambi-vanam=atra navika=satair=anvisya siddh-ausadhi-
Vyahara iti ha srutas =Samatatan=nirjitya yat-sainkaih|| .


Translation by A.H. Dani: “This is that glorious city of Devaparvata, the jewl of Ksiroda (river), where by the wonderful news of the Kambojas, the feeling of astonishment of the incoming people (was aroused): it was heard by saying at Samatata that having desired to get here at the Lalambi forest, the perfect medicine by the help of hundred sailers, (the Kambojas) were defeated by him”

The inscription indicates that Samatata was attacked and possibly captured by Kambojas of Gauda who had come to Lalambi forest (forest around the Lalamai range) and attacked the capital of Samatata. Soon afterwards, Trailokyacandra had measured swords with them and defeated the Kambojas and recovered Lalambi back from them . “The Kambojas may have been mentioned as the Gaudas in the Candra plate. But the interpretation of the verse as given by A. H. Dani is very doubtful. The verse is obsecure and does not seem to contain any reference to the defeat of Kambojas” .

Translation by Kamalakanda Gupta Chaudhury: “In cosequence of the strange news of Kambojas, the new-comers to the illustrious capital, like the venrerable mountains (i.e. like Mandara Mountains), in the waters of Ksiroda(sea), were struck with feelings of wonder, whose soldiers conquered Samatata where was situated the forest of Lalamvi, traditionally said to have been filled with sure medicinal herbs sought by hundreds of persons suffering from morbid affections of the nervous system”

Translation by D. C. Sircar: After having conquered Samatata, Traiklokyacandra’s soldiers exclaimed, “The prosperous Devaparvata lying on the Ksiroda is this city where the visitor has the feeling of astonishment at the wonderful reports about the Kambojas and having searched the Lalambi forest in the area through hundreds of boarment, they heard the tales about superbly efficacious medicinal herbs” . According to D. C. Sircar “Shortly before the Candra invasion of Samatata, the city of Devaparvata seems to have been devastated by the Kambojas”

Interpretation by Nagendra K. Singh: 'Trailokyacandra’s stronghold was in the Devaparvata area and he captured power in the whole of Samatata area and at that time the (wonderful) news of the Kambojas capturing power in northern and western Bengal was heard' .

Whatever the interpretation, this inscriptional evidence positively shows that the Kambojas were considerable rulers of northern and western Bengal and parts of Samatata from the early tenth century since the above historical event relates to Trailokyacandra who ruled in Samatata from 905 AD through to 925 AD.

See also Article: Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal

Inscriptions of Rajendra Chola

Karandai (Tanjavur or Tanjore) inscription

Karandai (Tanjavur or Tanjore) plates (v.48) (Sanggham Copper Plate Charter) of about 1020 AD issued by Rajendra Chola (c. 1012- 1044 AD) in the eighth year of his reign states that a Kambhoja king solicited friendship of Rajendra Chola by sending him for the protection of his Royalty (atmalaksmim) a victorious war-chariot with which he (Kamboja king) had defeated the armies which opposed him in battle. The inscription issued in the eighth year of his reign (1020 AD) contains a significant verse in its separate Sanskrit section and it refers to one Kamboja Raja.
Kamboja-rajo ripu-raja sena-jaitrena yen= ajayad=ahaveshu |
tarn prahinot prartthita-mitra-bhavo yennai ratham || .


The inscription says that, in order to seek Chola’s friendship, Kamboja king presented to Rajendra Chola a chariot with which he (Kamboja raja) had won his enemies in many battles .

The Kamboja king mentioned in the Karandai inscriptions is believed to be Dharmapala of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal who ruled in Dandabhukti in the first quarter of 11th century. One king called Dharmapala ruling in Dandabhukti also finds mention in the Tirmulai Inscription which Rajendra Chola had issued in his 13th regnal year (about 1025 AD) . There can not be any doubt that Dharmapala of the Tirumalai Inscription of king Rajendra Chola is Kamboja king Dharmapala of Dandabhukti who was a scion of the Kamboja dynasty to which Nayapala, Narayanapala and Rajyapalal of the Irda Copper Plate grant & Kalanda Copper Plate grant belonged . He was ruling in Dandabhukti-mandala at this time and therefore, was a contemporary of Rajendra Chola. When Dharmapala's kingdom was threatened by illustrious Pala ruler Mahpala-I, the Kamboja ruler Dharmapala appears to have sought friendship and help with Rajendra Chola against the Pala ruler by forming an alliance with the Chola king and presenting him a valuable Ratha (Chariot) as a token of friendship. As a consequence, Rajendra Chola led his victorious northern expedition to the banks of the Gangesmarker and also met Dharmapala in Dandabhukti. This fact demonstrates Kamboja rulers' weakened position and Rajendra Chola’s political influence in Bengal and Bengladesh. (Some scholars however, think that “Kamboja king sent his ratha as a friendly present to Rajendra Chola to avoid war with the latter" ). (See also: Chidambram Inscription below).

Chidambaram Inscription

An inscription in Tamil language, found in Chidambaram refers to one Kamboja (Kambosha-raja) ruler who made a beautiful stone gift as a curio (katchi) to (Kulotunga) Rajendrasoladevar which with latter’s permission, was embedded in front row of the edirambalam of the Nataraja temple . Though K. A. Nilakanta Sastri links this Kamboja king of Chidambram inscription to Cambodia (Kampuchea) , but numerous other scholars say that the Kamboja king mentioned in Chidambram inscriptions is this Dharampala of Kamboj lineage who was ruling in Dandbhukti-mandala of west Bengal during early 11th c AD and was a contemporary of Rajendra Chola . The same Kamboja king had also presented to the Chola king a valuable Ratha (chariot) as a gift (See also: Karandai inscription above).

Mysore Inscriptions

Hoysala Dynasty

Sila Sasana of Balagami, dated 1054 AD

An Inscription of c. AD 1054 from Balagami in Mysoremarker belonging to early Hoysala period informs us that the merchants were generally organized in powerful guilds and corporations which often transcended political divisions and were therefore, not much affected by the wars and revolutions going on about them. The most celebrated guilds mentioned in South Indian Inscriptions of early medieval era are the Manigrammam and Nanadesis or Ainnurrvar. Manigrammama is considered a corruption of Vanigrammam -- an association of mechants. The Ainnurrvar, the Five Hundred Svamis of Ayyavolepura (Aihole), were the most celebrated of the medieval South Indian Merchant guilds. Like the great kings of the age, they had prasasti of their own which recounted their traditions and achievements. They were protectors of the Vira-Bananjudharma i.e the law of the noble merchants—Bananju, being obviously derived from Sanskrit Vanija, merchant. This dharma was embodied in 500 vira-sasanas -- edicts of heroes. They had the picture of a hill on their flags and were noted for their daring and enterprise throughout the world. They claimed descent from the lines of Vasudeva, Khandaji and Mulabhadra and were followers of the creed of Vishnu, Mahesvara and Jina. They visited various lands like Chera, Chola, Pandya, Maleya, Magadha, Kausala, Saurashtra, Dhanushtra, Kurumbha, Kamboja, Golla, Lala, Barvara, Parsa, Nepalamarker, Ekapada, Lambakarna, Istrirajya and Gholamukha etc . They penetrated the land by sea routes and lands into regions of 6 countries. The traded elephants, horses, sapphires, moonstones, pearls, rubies & other gems, cardamoms, cloves, bdellium, sandal, camphor & other perfumes & drugs - they sold their goods whole-sale or hawked them about on their shoulders. The carried their merchandise on Assess, buffalos, adorned with red trappings. The above claim of trading corporations' mythical ancestry is repeated in another account of 11th c. AD. The reference to Kamboja as well as horses in the above inscription shows that Kamboja of north-west is meant.

(XVI) Tamra Sasana of Belur dated 1117 AD

This inscription gives detailed account of the numerous conquests of king Vishnuvardhana of Hoysala (1106 - 1152 AD). It enumerates his numerous glorious achievements in the battle fields and also glorifies the famed horses of Kambojas stating that "....he (Vishnuvardhana) had made the earth tremble under the tramp of his Kamboja horses” . This inscription of king Vishnuvardhana of Hoysala further reinforces the contents of the '"Sasana of Balagami, dated 1054" as mentioned above that South Indian Merchant guilds indeed traded in Kamboja horses north-west Kamboja and Vishnuvardhana of Mysore had a famed fleet of the Kamboja horses in his cavalry which he may have recruited through these merchant guilds of South India.

Sangama Dynasty of Vijayanagara, A.D.1336-1478

Tamra Sasana of Hassan, dated 1335(?)

The copper plate inscription is said to belong to king Harihara I (14th c AD) of the Sangama Dynasty. Not much is known Of Harihara I but Bukka Raya, whom he appointed as his Yuvaraja, was quite famous. With the assistance of Vidyatirthamuni, he became very great and having freed from enemies a hundred royal cities, counting from Dorasmudra, ruled over an empire perfect in its seven parts. Though the establishment of the capital is attributed to Harihara I, and his naming it Vidyanagari after Vidyaranyasripada, the building of the city and the transformation of its name to Vijayanagari or city of victory are said to have been the work of Bukka Raya. In the old inscriptions, the latter has the special titles like "Destroyer of hostile kings", "Champion over kings who break their word", "Sultan over the Hindu Kings", "Master of the eastern, western and southern oceans". The inscription also says that he was “----- valiant as Arjuna among the Pandavas, he mounted one of the elephants at the point of compass, and set out on an expedition of victory: was dreaded as Yama; many kings fell before him, as he thus marched forth: He was a terror to the Turushkas, the Konkana (king) Sankaparya suffered great disgrace; the Gurjaras were seized with trembling; the Kambhojas, the Andhrasmarker and Kalingas were defeated....” . Though the inscription above is historical, but the events mentioned therein do not all seem to be historical. But indeed it does refer to some Kamboja principality near the borders of Vijayanagara empire, neighbors to the Konkanas, Gurjaras, Kalingas, Angas which means it may refer to Kamboja settlement in Kathiawar/Saurashtra or in Malwa somewhere.

Sila Sasana of Belur, dated 1380 AD

The beginning part of this inscription is not known. The inscription was authored by Sri Vira Harihara Maharaja II of the Sangama Dynasty of the Vijayanagara Empire around 1380 AD and refers to the conquests of some one named Gundappa Dandindtha (Gundappa Dandinatha). The a part of the text of inscription runs thus: “.....Having encountered in battle and overcome the kings of Anga, Gangamarker, Kalingamarker, Kathara, Kamboja, Simhala..., Magadha, Malava, Keralamarker, Jiddiya, Chinamarker, Joniga..., Chola, Pandya, Vidarbha, Saurashtra, Kuru, Maru, Pancha, Panchala..., Telunga and, as far as Parasika, he (Gundappa Dandindtha) set up pillars of victory in Kolahana, Kasmira, Mahabota, Kakamukha, Ekapada, Gholamukha and in all these regions caused his name to be greatly renowned by this Gunda Dandddhinatha.... . Again, the inscription above is historical, but the events mentioned therein do not all seem to be historical. But again it does refer to some Kamboja principality near the borders of Vijayanagara empire and may refer to Kamboja principality in/around Kathiawar/Saurashtra or in the neighborhood of Malwa somewhere.

Inscription dated Krodhana Samvat 1374 (AD 1445)

This inscription contains a genealogy of Deva Raya II of Sangama Dynasty of Vijayanagaramarker (15th c AD). Deva Raya I was succeeded by Vijaya Raya and his son Devambika, but the history is not very clear at this period, and Vijaya Raya’s reign was a short one. He was followed by his son Deva Raya II, also called Praudha Deva Raya, who had assumed the special title Gajabentekara or elephant hunter. The mother was Narayanambika, and one inscription describes him as having received the throne from his elder sister, which may perhaps refer to the princess married into the Bahmani family. The inscription gives details of Deva Raya II's conquest and power over neighboring princes. It is claimed in the inscription that he made the faces of Turushkas shriveled up, terrified the Konkana king Santana, made the Andhrasmarker ran into frontier hills, paralysed the Gurjaras power, made the Kanaujas lose their courage and also broke down the Kalingas. The sovereigns of the Anga, Vanga, Kanoujamarker, Kambhoja and Nepalamarker were his sub-servients doing the menial work of holding his umbrella, Chamara stick or vessal . He also had 10,000 Mussalman horsemen in his service. He died on the 24th of May 1446. He had a brother Parvati Raya Odeyar, who in 1425 ruled the Terakanambi kingdom, in the south of Mysore district. Again the inscription refers to prince of Kambhoja and for the same reasons as above, this may be a Kamboja principalirt somewhere near Gujaratmarker/Maharashtramarker on the borders of Vijayanagara.

Tuluva Dynasty of Vijayanagara, A.D.1491-1570

Tamra Sasana of Devanhalli dated ~1550 (?)

Benjamin Lewis Rice dates this inscription to 1580 AD but perhaps it should be dated earlier. Sadasiva Raya (1542-1570 c AD) of Tuluva Dynasty, son of Sri Ranga Raja, a deceased brother of Achyuta by the same mother, was raised to the throne by the great minister Rama Raja (his brother-in-law) as well as the councilors. He is said to be the chief among the kings, is said to have subdued all his enemies in Suragiri (Penukonda), and brought the whole land into subjection to his commands and ....he is praised with folded hands by the kings of Kambhoja, Bhoja, Kalinga, Karahata and others who salute him saying: "May you conquer, may you live long" .

Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara 1542-1646 AD

Copperplate record of the Vijayanagar king Tirumalaraya I

Copper plate of the Vijayanagar king Tirumalaraya I (1565-1572 AD) of Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagaramarker states that Tirumala maharaya adorned the golden throne of Karnataka, ruled the whole world, reduced to submission the Rattas and called himself lord of Kalyanpura, Chalikka Chakravarty, had the title of victor over Gonga of Komaranikota, and displacer of the Raya of Roddi, champion over kings who break their word, rajadhiraja rajaparamesvara, champion over the three kings, Suratrana of the Hindu Bayas with these and other titles, daily praised with folded hands by Kambhoja, Bhoja, Kalinga, Karahata and other princes who had received the rank of door-keepers with such expressions as Victory ! Long life .

The Vilapaka Grant of Venkata II

The Vilapaka Grant of Venkata II (1586-1614 AD) son of king Sriranga of Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagaramarker states that the kings Kambhoja, Bhoja, and Karhata as well as of Ratta and Magadha were defeated by Venkata, the donor of the grant The same grant states that Venkat II was ruling the earth from Setu to Himavat .

All the above inscription refer to the prince of Kambhoja and other kingdom. There appears to have been a Kambohja principality situated somewhere near Gujaratmarker/Maharashtramarker on the borders of Vijayanagara. This may explain as to why so many inscriptions from the rulers of various dynasties of Vijayanagara claim to have won victories over princes of Kambhoja and others like those of Gurjaras, Bhojas, Andhras, Angas, Kalingas and other kingdoms situated on the borders of Vijayanagara empire.

Ancient Inscriptions of Sinhala

See Article: Kamboja colonists of Sri Lanka

Kambojas also find numerous mention in ancient inscriptions of Sinhala or Sri Lankamarker. In fact, the Kambojas (Kaboja/Kabojiya in ancient Sinhalese) and the Damelas (Tamil/Dravida) are the two most referenced ancient ethnic communities inhabiting the Sinhala island during pre-Christian times and of these two, the Kambojas are more nemerously mentioned than the Damelas showing thereby that Kambojas were indeed the predominant Aryan speaking colonists of ancient Sri Lanka. The following is the list of ancient and medieaval age inscriptions which refer to Kambojas in Sri Lanka.
Topographical map of Sri Lanka.


  • [1] No. 622: Gamika-Kabojhaha lene (The cave of the village-councillor Kamboja)
  • [2] No. 623: Gamika-Siaa-putra gamika-Kabojhaha lene (The cave of the village-councillor Kamboja, son of the village-councillor Siva')


  • [3] No. 625 : (1) Cam ika-Siua-putra gamika-Kambojhaha jhitaya upasika-Sumanaya lene (The cave of the female laydevotee Sumana, daughter of the village-councillor Kamboja) .


  • [4] No 625 (2): gamika Kabojhaha ca sava-satasoyesamage pati (The cave of the son of the village-councillor Siva. May there be the attainment of the Path of Beatitude for the village-councillor Kamboja and for all beings .


  • [5] No. 553: Kabojhiya-mahapugiyana Manapadaiane agataanagat-catu-disa-agaia ([The cave] Manapadassana of the members of the Great Corporations of Kambojiyas, [is dedicated] to the Saiügha of the four quarters, present and absent) .


  • [6] No. 990: Gota-Kabojhi(ya]na parumaka-Gopalaha bariya upasika-Citaya lepe iagaio (The cave of the female lay-devotee Citta, wife of Gopala, the chief of the incorporated Kambojiyas, [is dedicated] to the Saiügha) .


  • [7] A Mediaeval era Inscription, found from Polonnaruva in 1887 near Vishnu Temple relates to Maharaja Kalinglankeshwara Bahu Veer-raja Nissanka-Malla Aprati Malla Chakravarati who caused one Charity House to be constructed and named after him as Nissankamalla-Daan-Griha. The southern gate of this Charity House is named as Kamboja Vasala .


  • [8] Mediaval age inscription (1187-1193 AD), found from Ruvanveli Dagva, in Anaradhapura in Sri Lanka. It refers to Kambojdin people, which is modified version of Kamboja. The text in romanised form appears beloe:


Nuvarata hatapsin sat gavak pamanah tan haam satun no narye hakhye abhaya di ber lava dolos meh va tan masut abhaya de Kambojdin ran pili aadibhu kamati vastu de paksheen no badan niyayen samat kot abhaya dee .


Ancient name of Sri Lanka is Sinhala and it is stated that this name was given to this island by Sinhala community. But who were the Sinhalese? Very strangely, the term Sinhala does not occure in any of the numerous ancient inscriptions of Sri Lanka whereas Kamboja occure most numerously. Name Sinhala occurred for the first time in Dipavamsa and later in Mahavamsa which are belated Sinhalese creations of 5th and sixth century AD respectively. It is mentioned in the Mahavamsa that the Island (Sri Lanka) got its name from Vijay and his companions who were called Sinhalas since their ancestors came from place called Sinhapura.

  • There is an epic reference to one Sinhapura kingdom located on upper Indusmarker which shared borders with Kashmira, Trigartas, Daravas, Abhisari, Urasa, Balhikas Daradas and Kambojas. See trans:[761969]. After conquering Trigarta (Jallandhar Doab), Arjuna moves to Abhisara (Naushehra, Rajaurimarker), Darava (Poonchmarker), Uraga (Urasa or Hazara) and after that to Sinhapura and so forth..... The sequence of Arjuna's war expedition is clearly proceeding from south-east to north/north-west direction. This shows that Sinhapura of the epic Mahabharata was located to the north or north-west of Urasa or Hazara as well as Kashmirmarker.


  • Seventh century Chinesemarker pilgrim Hiun Tsang also attests one Sinhapura (Sang-ho-pu-lo) situated about 700 Li (or 140 miles) to south-east from Taksashila (Taxilamarker) . This would locate Sinhapura in Taki in Punjab which is a plain country. However, Sinhapura is described by Hiuen Tsang as a network of mountain defiles which will not apply to the plain country like Taki . For the same reason, the town of Sanghohi identified by M. V. de St Martin with it can not be the place in question .


  • Alexander Cunningham identifies Hiuen Tsang's Sinhapura with Keta or Ketaksh. If this is accepted, its distance from Taksashila comes out to be about 350 Li (70 miles) instead of 700 Li (or 140 miles) (per Si-yu-Ki). This poses serious difficulties in accepting Keta located on north of the Salt-Range as the seat of Ancient Sinhapura. “This identification to which Cunningham himself did not adhere, has since been conveniently established by Stein to his own satisfaction and that of Dr Buhler” .


Thomas Watters disagrees with Stein and Buhler and comments that "the first paragraph of Hiuen Tsang on Sinhapura is full of serious difficulties and if the rest of the narrative from Sinhapura onwards is to be assumed correct, then the “north-east” should be substituted for “south-east” in the statement of direction of Sinhapura from Taxksashila. Thus, from the context here, it would seem clear that Hiuen Tsang places Sinhapura to the north of Taksashilamarker rightly or wrongly" . Very interestingly “Fang Chih”, also locates Sinhapura to the north of Taksashila .

Thus, if Sinhapura was in the north of Taksashila as is also corroborated by Mahabharata, then Sinhapura must have lied in ancient Kamboja. It is notable that ancient Kamboja confederation had extended from Kapisa to Swat and Rajaurymarker in south-east and from Kapisa to Kabulmarker in the south-west, and it probably included Ghazni as well .
Ancient Sinhala


A section of this people had transplated themselves from north-west and had settled in Kathiawar/Saurashtra prior to Christian era. To perpetuate the memory of their ancestral home Sinhapura located in north-west in Kamboja, these immigrants to Saurashtra/Gujarat appear to have founded another Sinhapura in Kathiawar. There is one place called Sihor near Gulf of Cambay in Kathiawad. It had been a capital of the Gohil Rajputs in the 17th century. The Charter of Maitraka king Dhruvasena I (525 AD-545 AD) indeed addresses.this place as Sinhapura.. Thus Sinhapura is indeed attested in Kathiawar. Kamboimarker, a town located 10 km west of Chanasma on the Harij-Mehsana road north of Kathiawar and the Gulf of Cambaymarker are also said to hold relics of Sanskrit Kamboja .

Thus, it seems very likely that the Kambojas were same as the Sinhalas and it were the Kambojas who had colonized Sri Lankamarker centuries prior to the beginning of Christian era. This also explains as to why there is no reference to name “Sinhala” while ethnic name Kamboja is documented as the most referenced Aryan community in ancient Sri Lankan inscriptions. The evoulution of Sinhala identity is a later phenomenon in Sri Lanka and also carries the relics of ancient Sinhapura of south-west Kashmirmarker i.e the land of ancient Kambojas.

See also



References

  1. The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter, (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland); Cf: Mahabharata 5.19.21-23.
  2. Cities and Civilization‎, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye - Cities and towns.
  3. The History of Herodotus, 1889, p 396, George Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, John Gardner Wilkinson.
  4. See: History, VII.II, Herodotus.
  5. Classical Literature of Antiquities, 1963, p 201, Editor Harry Thurston Peck; Cf: Herodotus and the Empires of the East, 1899, p 77, Herbert Cushing Tolman, James Henry Stevenson, Johannes Nikel; Journal, 1973, p 123 K.R. Cama Oriental Institute - Iranian philology.
  6. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1888, p 787, Thomas Spencer Baynes.
  7. Travels and Researches in Chaldæa and Susiana, 1857, p 222, William Kennett Loftus.
  8. Translation Biblical Archaeology, I, p 210 f.
  9. Histories, 1996 edition, p 107, Herodotus, Trans. George Rawlinson, Tom Griffith, p 107; The History of Herodotus: A New English Version, Ed. with Copious Notes and and Appendices, 1889, p 217, George Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, John Gardner Wilkinson - History
  10. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archæology‎, 1877, p 577, Society of Biblical Archæology (London, England).
  11. The New Werner Twentieth Century Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Standard Work of Reference in Art, Literature, Science, History, Geography, Commerce, Biography, Discovery and Invention, 1907, p 648, Profs. SPENCER BAYNES, LLD., And W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.
  12. The New Werner Twentieth Century Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Standard Work of Reference in Art, Literature, Science, History, Geography, Commerce, Biography, Discovery and Invention, 1907, p 647-48, Encyclopedias and dictionaries.
  13. Bh. I. 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 43, 44 (Nominative).
  14. Bh. I. 29, 30, 39 (Genitive).
  15. Bh. I, 45, 46 (Accusative).
  16. “Bh. I. 40 (Ablative).
  17. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland‎, 1849, p 97 or Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription, 1849, p 97, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften, 1881, p 214, Friedrich Spiegel; See also Old Iranian Online: [1].
  18. Ein neuer Kambyses text, p 5; Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Standard Work of Reference in Art, Literature, 1907, p 648.
  19. Encyclopaedia Iranica, See entry 3150: Cambyses, Dandamayev, M.
  20. Yacna, p 438, sqq..
  21. It can hardly be doubted that the Zend Avesta alludes to Cambyses, the elder and Cyrus, the Great under the names of Kai-Kaus and Kai-Khusru; but probably the actual forms under which the names are expressed, Kava-us and Hycrava are the adoptions of the Sassanian age.
  22. Wilson (Visnu Purana, p 374); Lassen (Ind. Alter., p 439) & Troyer (Rajatarangini, Trans I, p 496) are agreed in identifying Kamboja and Kamoj, but connection of the name Kamboja with that of Kabul has altogether been over-looked.
  23. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland‎, 1849, p 97, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Asia; OR Cuneiform Inscriptions: Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription, 1849, p 97,‎ Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson.
  24. Cf: Reisen im indischen Archipel, Singapore, Batavia, Manilla und Japan, 1869, p 216; Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asien: Studien und Reisen, 1869, p 216, Dr Philip Wilhelm Adolf Bastian).
  25. The History of Antiquity, 1881, p 327, Max Duncker.
  26. See: Names in Vedic India, Data for Linguistic situation, C 1900-500 BC, footnote 24, Michael Witzel, Der Name Kambyses (Kanbuji¬ya), Zeitschrift fur Indologie und Iranistik 2, 1923, pp. 140-52, J. Charpentier; ; Ramayana of Valmiki, Canto No VI, The King, p 14, fn 13:6, Ralph T. H. Griffth: i.e "Name Kamboja is etymologically connected with Cambyses which in the cuneiform inscription of Behistun is written Ka(m)bujia"; L'Inde aux temps des Maurya, p. 15 and 40. La Valle Poussin; Early Zoroastrian, 2005, p 45, James Hope Moulton, Kessinger Publishing; Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 68-71, H. W. Bailey; Kyros, Beitrage zur Namen-forschung, II (1964), p 210, W. Eiler; Aryan and Non-Aryan Names in Vedic India, Data for Linguistic situation, C 1900-500 BC, footnote 24, Michael Witzel; The Home of the Aryan, p 6, footnote 11, Michael Witzel, Harvard University. Other prominent scholars include C. Lassen, A. A. Macdonell, A. B. Keith, G. Kuhn, A. Hoffman, G. K. Nariman, S. Levi, H. W. Bellew, Dr Markwart, S. Sen, D. R. Bhandarkar, V. S. Aggarwala, Musa Khan Jalzai etc.
  27. http://books.google.com/books?id=kQ6zTASmo6kC&pg=PA18&dq=Harmatta+two+most+cited+readings&sig=MLzfVWvuYZFnaS6BN3wnFurlKhc .
  28. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1849, p 97; Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription‎, 1849, p 97, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson - Cuneiform inscriptions ([2]).
  29. Kyros, Beitrage zur Namen-forschung, II (1964), p 213, 1974, p 54, W. Eiler; Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca. 550-330 B.C.), 2007, p 19, Jan Tavernier.
  30. Strabo Geography 11.14.4; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1907, p 648.
  31. Strabo Geography, 11.4.5; cf. 11.3.5; see also W. Fabricius, Theophanes von Mytilene, Ph.D. dissertation, Halle, 1888, pp. 146, 160, and map; K. Trever, Ocherki po istorii i kul’ture Kavkazskoĭ Albanii (Essays on history and culture of Caucasian Albania), Moscow, 1959, p. 113 and map.
  32. A. Herrmann, in Pauly-Wissowa, X/2, col. 1810, s.v. Kambysene; See also: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1907, p 648.
  33. Pompey, Mela iii. 5; Histoires, Pliny vi. 10
  34. A. Herrmann, in Pauly-Wissowa, X/2, col. 1810, s.v. Kambysene; See also: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1907, p 648.
  35. Pompey, Mela (iii. 5); Nat. Histoires, Pliny (vi. 10)
  36. Geography 11.4.1-5.
  37. See also:A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography‎, 1878, p 737, William Smith - Classical geography.
  38. See also entry Cambysene by Marie Louise Chaumont, Encyclopedia Iranica.
  39. Ptolemy Geog vi. 2. § 1.
  40. Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii. 6).
  41. Epitome, xi.
  42. See also: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography‎, 1878, p 489, William Smith - Classical geography.
  43. Cf: Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations – 1950, pp 25, 149, 165, Chandra Chakraberty.
  44. Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, Berlin, 1849, p. 351, (s.v. Kambysēnē), A. Meineke, ed.; Cf: Marie Louise Chaumont, “Cambysene,” Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, 2005; See also: Muhammad A. Dandamayev, "Cambyses", Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, 2005, available at www.iranica.com.
  45. The Persian Empire: Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East, 1968, p 345, Ernst Herzfeld, Gerold Walser.
  46. Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations – 1950, p 149, 165, Chandra Chakraberty; The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, 1907, p 648; Eranische Alterthumskunde, Vol II, p 294; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel - Old Persian inscriptions; Zur Erklärung des Avesta, Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft‎, 1872, p 716, Von Fr. Spiegel- Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft - Oriental philology.
  47. See: The Origin of the Names Cyrus and Cambyses), The Persian Empire' Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East, Ernst Herzfeld, ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden, 1968, esp. p. 345; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1952, p 14, Chandra Chakraberty; Cf: Der name Kambyses (Kabujiya), Zeitschrift fur Indologie und Iranistik, II, 1923, pp 140 sqq., 144f, J Charpentier; Beiträge zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arischen, celtischen und slawischen sprachen, 1858, p 32 sqq., Friedrich Spiegel, Published by F. Dümmler, Item notes: Bd.1-2; Histoire, 1968, p 90, Ammianus Marcellinus, Trans. Edouard Galletier, Jacques Fontaine; cf: Modern Researches in Sanskrit: Dr. Veermani Pd. Upadhyaya Felicitation Volume, 1987, p 24, Veermani Prasad Upadhyaya, Satiya Deva Misra - Sanskrit philology; cf: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete des Deutschen, griechischen und lateinischen, 1856, p 12, Adalbert Kuhn - Indo-European philology; Racial Basis of Indian Culture, 1997, pp 128, 137, 148, Chandra Chakraberty; Cf: Der Aufstand Gaumātas und die Anfänge Dareios' I.‎, 1978, p 201, Josef Wiesehöfer - Iran; Early Zoroastrianism, p 45, James Hope Moulton, Published by Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 1421267659, 9781421267654; The Thinker: Zoroastrian and Israel, A Review of World-wide Christian Thought, 1892, p 490, J. H. Moulton etc .
  48. Cf: "Cambyses", Encyclopaedia Iranica Online, 2005, Muhammad A. Dandamayev, available at www.iranica.com.
  49. Cf:A Study of History, Vol. VII (London, 1961), pp. 652-654, Arnold J. Toynbee; Punjab History Conference. 1996, p 43, Editor Gursharan Singh.
  50. Ref: Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1872, p 716, Friedrich Spiegel, Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft - Oriental philology; Cf: Erânische Alterthumskunde‎, 1871, p 442, Friedrich Spiegel - Iran.
  51. The Deluged Civilization of the Caucasus Isthmus, Chapter 11, The Egyptian and Aryan Home-lands, section 12, Reginald Aubrey Fessendan.
  52. Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Standard Work of Reference in Art, Literature..., i907, pp 648.
  53. While discussing Kambujiya of the old Persian Inscriptions (Cambyses/Kambyses of the Greeks, Kamboja of Sanskrit or Kamoj of Kafirstan/Nurestan), Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1990, observes as under: "Kambujiya, Kabujiya, Cambyses is the true vernacular orthography of name which was written Kambyses by the Greeks and Kauvays in Zend....From the name of a king Kambyses was derived the geographical title of Kamboja (Sanskrit), which is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferstan....the Persian historians do not seem to be aware that the name Kabus, which was born by the Dilemite sovereigns is the same with the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form is Kaubus or Kabuj, for latter name renders the identification also most certain. The Georgians, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus, still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian...." (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, p 97, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal Asiatic Society [etc.], By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Cf: Reisen im indischen Archipel, Singapore, Batavia, Manilla und Japan, 1869, p 216; Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asien: Studien und Reisen, 1869, p 216, Dr Philip Wilhelm Adolf Bastian).
  54. Mahabharat12.167.1-87 Vulgo; Mahabharata12.161.1-87 (Critical).
  55. See entry KAMBOJA (kingdom, people) in : Puranic Encyclopaedia, 1979, Vettam (Ed ) Mani.
  56. As noted above, Cambysene/Cambyses (Kamboja, modern Jori or Jora) and Cyrus/Kyros (Kuru, modern Kura) as place names/river names were anciently located in Armenia Major (See: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography‎, 1878, pp 488/489, 737, William Smith - Classical geography.; The Geography of Ananias of Širak, 1992, p p 146, Robert H. Hewsen, Anania Shirakatsʻi, Moses; Strabo XI. 14.4; Histoires‎, 2002, p 90, Ammianus Marcellinus, Edouard Galletier, Jacques Fontaine, Guy Sabbah, Edmond Frézouls, J.-D. Berger, Marie-Anne Marié, Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle; Revue des études arméniennes, 1985, pp 71-72, Société des études armeniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian). Modern Republic of Georgia is located on River Kura (See: Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Inc, Merriam-Webster).
  57. For Cyrus/Kyros =Kuru/Kura, Kurush, and Cambyses/Cambysene = Kamboja, Kambujiya See: Erânische Alterthumskunde, 1871, pp 442, 496, Friedrich Spiegel; The New Werner Twentieth Century Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1907, p 648; Histoires‎, 2002, p 90 Ammianus Marcellinus, Eng Trans: Edouard Galletier, Jacques Fontaine, Guy Sabbah, Edmond Frézouls, J.-D. Berger, Marie-Anne Marié, Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle.
  58. Ptolemy Geog vi. 2. § 1; Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii. 6; A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography‎, 1878, p 489, William Smith - Classical geography.
  59. Classical Dictionary of Geography, Mythology and Geography, p 141, Willaim Smith.
  60. Uttarakuru and the (Parama)-Kamboja located in Trans-Himalaya i.e north of Hindukush/Karakoram (See Mahabharata 2, Chapters 26/27, Trans: Kisari Mohan Ganguli.
  61. Kamboja of SW Kashmir/NW Punjab (Mahabharata 7.4.5) and Kuru of the Kurukshetra, east Punjab. Place name Kura, reminding of Kuru, is also found in Salt-range, Punjab which contains sixth century inscription of emperor Toramana, end of 5th c AD. (See: Buddhist Sects in India, 1998, p 55, Nalinaksha Dutt).
  62. A Study of History, Vol. VII (London, 1961), pp. 652-654, Arnold J. Toynbee.
  63. Punjab History Conference. 1996, p 43, Editor Gursharan Singh.
  64. Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik ..., 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel - Old Persian inscriptions
  65. Early Zoroastrianism, 2005, Page 45, James Hope Moulton; Zoroastrian and Israel, The Thinker: A Review of World-wide Christian Thought, 1892, p 490, fn, Theology.
  66. Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika).
  67. Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism‎, 1968, p 520, Benjamin Walker; The North-west India of the Second Century B.C., 1974, p 40, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - India; Tribes in Ancient India, 1973, p 7, B. C. Law - Ethnology; Buddhism in India: From the Sixth Century B.C. to the Third Century A.D.‎, 1996 edition, p 79, Ashok Kumar Anand; The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods‎, 1983, p 951, Ehsan Yar-Shater, W. B. Fisher - Iran.
  68. Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, 1997, p 156, Hemchandra Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukherjee; Asoka and His Inscriptions‎, 1968, p 149, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa..
  69. Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXXIII p 383ff; Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXXIV, pp 1-8; Epigraphia Indica, Vol XIX, pp 251-53; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 610, H. C. Raychaudhury, B.N. Mukerjee; Studies in Aramaiav Edicts of Asoka, 1980, Calcuta, B. N. Mukerjee; Studies in The Geography of Ancient and Medieaval India, 1971, p 199, D. C. Sircar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 3, J. L. Kamboj; Journal of Indian History, 1965, p 345, University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Allahabad Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala
  70. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 605-609, 601, 610, 612, 617, Dr H. C. Raychaudhuru, Dr B. N. Mukerjee.
  71. Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXXIII p 383ff; Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXXIV, pp 1-8; Epigraphia Indica, Vol XIX, pp 251-53; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 610, H. C. Raychaudhury, B.N. Mukerjee; Studies in The Geography of Ancient and Medieaval India, 1971, p 199, D. C. Sircar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 3, J. L. Kamboj; Journal of Indian History, 1965, p 345, University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Allahabad Dept. of Modern Indian History, University of Travancore, University of Kerala
  72. “The fact that Aramaic versions of the edicts were made indicate that thye Kambojas enjoyed measure of autonomy—and that they not only preserved their Iranian identity but also governed in some measure by the members of their own community, on whom was laid the responsibility of transmitting to them the king’s words, and having these engraved on stone (History of Zoroastrianism or Handbuch Der Orientalistik, 1991, p 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck).
  73. Studies in Aramaic Edicts of Aśoka, 2000, p 29 sqq., Bratindra Nath Mukherjee.
  74. Ācārya-vandanā: D.R. Bhandarkar Birth Centenary Volume‎, 1984, p 225, Devadatta Ramakrishna Bhandarkar, Samaresh Bandyopadhyay, University of Calcutta
  75. Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce, 1985, p 220, Mary Boyce.
  76. Journal Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste.
  77. The History of Ancient Iran‎ , 1984, p 154, Richard Nelson Frye.
  78. Vedic Index of names & subjects by Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138.
  79. See more Refs: Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.); Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311; Cf: D. D. Kosambi Commemoration Volume, 1977, p 287, Damodar Dharmanand Kosambi, Lallanji Gopal, Jai Prakash Singh, Nisar Ahmed, Dipak Malik etc.
  80. The Pathans, 1965, pp 55 -56, Olaf Caroe, Macmillan & Co Ltd.,New York
  81. Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C., 1978, p 152, n 12, Paul Goukowsky.
  82. On the Origin of the Indian Brahma Alphabet, 1898, p 48, Georg Bühler.
  83. Ind. Stud., III, p 46, Georg Bühler.
  84. Indian coins, 1889, p 14, Edward James Rapson.
  85. A Tribal History of Ancient India: A Numismatic Approach‎, 1974, p 28, Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta.
  86. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Age of Imperial Unity, 1968, p 45, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatraya Pusalker, Asoke Kumar Majumdar; Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times [Parts I and II]‎, 1955, p 121, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal - Constitutional history; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 11, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  87. Kautiliya's Arthashstra 11.1.1-4.
  88. History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 106, Etienne Lamotte, Sara Webb-Boin; Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times [Parts I and II]‎, 1955, p 140, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal - Constitutional history; Glimpses of Ancient Panjab‎, 1966, p 23, Buddha Prakash - Punjab (India); Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C.‎, 1978, p 152, Paul Goukowsky - Greece; Punjab Past and Present: Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, 1976, p 10, Ganda Singh, Harbans Singh, Norman Gerald Barrier - History History of Poros‎, 1967, p 12, Buddha Prakash ; Cf: Ancient India in a New Light‎, 1989, p 263, Kaikhushru Dhunjibhoy Sethna; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, 272, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; Historie du bouddhisme Indien, p110, Dr E. Lamotte;. Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133 fn 6, pp 216-20, (Also Commentary p 576 fn 22), Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi; Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S Kirpal Singh; Sir Thomas H. Holdich, in his classic book, (The Gates of India, p 102-03), writes that the Aspasians (Aspasioi) represent the modern Kafirs. But the modern Kafirs, especially the Siah-Posh Kafirs (Kamoz/Camoje, Kamtoz) etc are considered to be modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas.
  89. :A2 Agra-maheshi Ayasia (i.e Chief Queen Ayasia)" :A3 Kamuia dhida (i.e The Kamua daughter of) :A4 Kharaostasa yuvarana (i.e. The heir-apparent Kharahostes)" :E1 Kharaosto yuvaraya (i.e. The heir-apparent Kharahostes)" :………………………………………. :E’ Kamuio (i.e. Kamuia) .
  90. Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions: With the Exception of Those of Aśoka‎, 1991 edition, p xxxvi, Sten Konow - Inscriptions, Pali.
  91. Our Heritage‎, 1971, p 59, Sanskrit College (Calcutta, India). Dept. of Post-Graduate Training and Research - Indo-Aryan philology.
  92. Journal of Indian History, 1933, p 21, University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Kerala, University of Travancore.
  93. :Kṣatrapasa Pra Kharaoṣtasa Artasa Putrasa (i.e. Chhatrapa Kharaosta, son of Arta (See: Philologica indica , 1940, p 252, Dr Heinrich Lüders; Caucasica, 1967, p 105, Dr Adolf Dirr, Gerhard Deeters, A. Major; Provincial Administration in Ancient India, 600 B.C.-550 A.D., 1981, p 283, Arun Kumar Sinha).
  94. Ref: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions: With the Exception of Those of Aśoka‎, 1991 edition, pp xxxvi, 35, Sten Konow - Inscriptions, Pali; Comprehensive History of India, 1957, Vol II, p 270, Dr K. A. Nilakanta Sastri; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220-21, R. K. Mukerjee; Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol XVI, 1930, Part III, IV, p 229, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ṛtam, p 46, by Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - 1834, p 141, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute, Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 3, J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, p 141-42, K. S. Dardi; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 11, Kirpal Singh etc etc.
  95. Cf: S Konow: "It is impossible to speak with confidence about these matters. I shall only add that if Kharaosta and his father Arta were Kambojas, the same may have been the case with Moga and we understand why the Kambojas are sometimes mentioned togather with the Sakas and Yavanas "(See: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions: With the Exception of Those of Aśoka,1991 edition, pp xxxvii & 36, S Konow‎, Sten Konow - Inscriptions); Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 3, J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 11, Kirpal Singh; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220-21, Dr R. K. Mukerjee.
  96. Ref: La vieille route de l'Inde de Bactres à Taxila, p 271, Alfred A. Foucher.
  97. See also entry: Kamboja in online "Heritage du Sanskrit Dictionnaire, Sanskrit-Francais", 2008, p 101, Gerard Huet, which defines Kamboja as: Clan royal Kamboja des Śakās:(i.e Kambojas, a royal clan of the Sakas/Scythians). See link: [3]
  98. See ref: A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aśoka: the first Greek inscription discovered in Afghanistan , 1964, p 17, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini - Aśoka, India, Published by Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente, 1964
  99. See further references: Watching Cambodia: Ten Paths to Enter the Cambodian Tangle‎, 1993, p 51, Serge Thion - History. See also: Tai World: A Digest of Articles from the Thai -Yunnan Project Newsletter‎, Andrew Walker, Nicholas Tapp - Folklore - 2001 or Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter (NEWSLETTER is edited by Scott Bamber and published in the Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies; printed at Central Printery; the masthead is by Susan Wigham of Graphic Design (all of The Australian National University); Cf: Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute - India; cf: Notes on Indo-Scythian chronology, Journal of Indian History, xii, 21; Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S. Konow; Cf: History of Indian Administration, p 94, B. N. Puri.
  100. IMPORTANT NOTE: Indian Epic Mahabharata (See: Mahabharata 5.19.21-23; See also: The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) powerfully attests that Kamboja ruler Sudakshin Kamboj had marshaled and lead an Akshuni army of wrathful warriors which besides the Kambojas, also comprised a strong contingent from the Sakas (or Scythians). This fact clearly proves that the Sakas, in general, were subservient to the Kamboja ruler Sudakshina Kamboj and that Sudakshina's clan was ruling over the Sakas. Thus from epic evidence also, the Kambojas were indeed a royal or ruling Scythian clan and the Scythians had formed an indispensable part of the Kamboja army. Furthermore, the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions also connect yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuia (Kamboja) and his daughter Aiyasi Kamuia (Kamboja), chief queen of the Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, to the imperial house ruling in Taxila (See: Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions, Edition 1991, p 36, Sten Konow)
  101. See ref: A bilingual Graeco-Aramaic edict by Aśoka: the first Greek inscription discovered in Afghanistan , 1964, p 17, Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni Garbini - Aśoka, India, Published by Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo Oriente, 1964.
  102. See Rock Edict 13, 30 (see Bloch).
  103. Ancient India, 1922, p 575, Edward James Rapson.
  104. Cf: Epigraphia Indica, IX, pp 138ff; J.R.A.S., 1906, 207f, 215f; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 384, H. C. Raychaudhury.
  105. The Cambridge Shorter History of India, p 68, J. Allen, T. Wolseley Haig, H. H. Dodwell.
  106. Svasti Śrī: Dr. B.Ch. Chhabra Felicitation Volume‎, 1984, p 188, K. V. Ramesh, Bahadur C Chhabra, Agam Prasad, S. P. Tewari - Inscriptions; For Machenes being an Iranian name, see also: The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India‎, 1983, p 30, Numismatic Society of India - Numismatics.
  107. History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era‎, 1988, p 459, Etienne Lamotte, Sara Webb-Boin; A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 267, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri; Political History of Ancient India, 1997, p 398 sqq, Hemchandra Raychaudhuri, B. N. Mukherjee; The Śakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture‎, 1976, p 70, Vishwa Mitra Mohan - Indo-Scythians;Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions: 1991 edition, pp 35-36, Sten Konow; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland‎, 1905, p 794, Oriental philology; History of Civilizations of Central Asia‎, 1999, p 201, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, Unesco, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth - Asia, Central.
  108. :A2 agra-maheshi ayasia; :A3 Kamuia dhida :A4 Kharaostasa yuvarana :. :. :. :E1 Kharaosto yuvaraya :. E’ Kamuio ::(Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions) .
  109. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, p xxxvi; see also p 36, Dr Sten Konow;Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, 1971, Editor C. E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 35, Dr Moti Chandra; Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol XVI, 1930, Part III, IV, p 229, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220-21, Dr R. K. Mukerjee;Comprehensive History of India, 1957, Vol II, p 270, Dr K. A. Nilakanta Sastri;India and the World, 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Parkash; Ṛtam, p 46, by Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, pp 165, 149, 46, 37 Chandra Chakraberty; Jouranl of Indian History, 1921, p 21, University of Kerala, University of Alahhabad, Department of History; Cf: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - 1834, p 141, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1926, p 11, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; Our Heritage, 1960, p 59, Sanskrit College (Calcutta, India), Dept. of Post-Graduate Training and Research, India) Sanskrit College (Calcutta - Indo-Aryan philology etc etc.
  110. Taxila, An Illustrated Account of Archaeological Excavations Carried out at Taxila, Vol I, 1951, p 55, Cambridge University Press, Sir John Marshal.
  111. The item belongs to the Shumei Culture Foundation in Otsu, Japan and was loaned to Los Angeles County Museum of Art, when it was studied by Richard Saloman of the University of Washington, USA, who examined and studied the inscriptions and published his results in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, 1996, pp 1418-452.
  112. An Inscribed Silver Buddhist Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Jounrnal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 116, No 3, 1996, pp 1-2, Richard Saloman.
  113. IMPORTANT: Kapisa formed the heart of ancient Kamboja. In fact, scholars assert that Kapisa is simply an alternative name for the Kamboja. See main article: Kapisa Province
  114. Fluting is an Iranian motif (Richard Saloman) .
  115. Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol I, 116, 1996, pp 418-452, Richard Saloman.
  116. See: Gandhari ecritic, Gandhari parlee, In Dialectes dans les litteratures indo-aryennes, ed Colette Caillat, p455, n 32; Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol I, 116, 1996., p 441, Richard Saloman.
  117. Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol I, 116, 1996, p 441, Richard Saloman.
  118. Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol I, 116, 1996, p 450, Richard Saloman.
  119. See: Mathura Lion Capital Inscription A4 & E’.
  120. OJournal of American Oriental Society, Vol I, 116, 1996, p 442, Richard Saloman.
  121. Cf: Refs: Corpus Inscrioptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part I, pp xxxvi, 36, S Konow: "I shall only add that if Kharaosta and his father Arta were Kambojas, the same may have been the case with Moga, and we understand why the Kambojas are sometimes mentioned with the Sakas and Yavanas" (Dr S Konow); Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Ancient Kamboja in Iran and Islam, 1971, Editor C. E. Bosworth, Edinburgh, 1971, p 66, Dr H. W. Bailey; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 35, Dr Moti Chandra; Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol XVI, 1930, Part III, IV, p 229, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220-21, Dr R. K. Mukerjee;Comprehensive History of India, 1957, Vol II, p 270, Dr K. A. Nilakanta Sastri;India and the World, 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Parkash; Ṛtam, p 46, by Akhila Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, pp 165, 149, 46, 37 Chandra Chakraberty; Jouranl of Indian History, 1921, p 21, University of Kerala, University of Alahhabad, Department of History; Cf: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - 1834, p 141, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1926, p 11, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute; Our Heritage, 1960, p 59, Sanskrit College (Calcutta, India), Dept. of Post-Graduate Training and Research, India) Sanskrit College (Calcutta - Indo-Aryan philology; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 41, 306-09, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, p 141; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 168-69, Kirpal Singh Dardi; Balocistān: Siyāsī Kashmakash, Muz̤mirāt Va Rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrīتاريخ قوم كمبوه: جديد تحقيق كى روشنى ميں, 1996, p 221, Yusuf Husain etc.
  122. Arrian calls them Aspasioi. The people derived their name from Iranian Aspa = horse. Panini calls them Aśvayanas.
  123. From Sanskrit Ashva = horse. Arrian calls them Assakenoi. They were the eastern branch of the Ashvakas mentioned as Ashvakayanas by Panini's Ashtadhyayi, Ashvakas in Mahabharata.
  124. It is also important to note that the name of one of the kings of Apraca dynasty is Aspavarman. This king has also been referred to simply as Aspa i.e Aspa-bhrata-putrasa. Aspavarman was son of Apraca king Indravarman. The "Aspa" part of the name (Aspavarman) alludes to connections with the Aspasians or Aspasioi of Arrian.
  125. Many kings of Apraca dynasty have used Varman as the surname or last name. Varman as surname implies Kshatriya caste and has been used by Ksatyriya lineages in ancient times (See entry "Varman" in Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary; See also entry "Varman" in: Cologne Digital Sanskrit English Dictionary). It is worthy to note that the Kambojas have repeatedly been described as Kshatriyas in ancient Indian texts (See:Panini's Astadhyayi Sutra 4.1.168-175; Harivamsa 14.19-20; Vayu Purana, 88.127-43; Manusmriti X.43-44; Mahabharata 13.33.20-21); Cf also: (Mahabharata 13.35.17-18); Kautiliya's Arthashastra 11.1.1-4. Thus the fact that many kings of the Apraca dynasty used Varman last name indicates that the Apraca dynasty belonged to Kshatriya lineage and hence most likely belonged to the Ashvaka branch of the Indo-Iranian Kamboja tribe.
  126. The Apracharajas: A History Based on Coins and Inscriptions, ISBN : 8173200742, 2007, Dr. Prashant Srivastava, Reader, Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, University of Lucknow.
  127. Mudrarakshasa Act II; History of Porus, 1967, pp 9, 89, Dr Buddha Praksha.
  128. They find pre-eminent mention as Kambojas in the Rock Edicts V as well XIII of king Asoka (reign 273 BCE to 232 BCE) located in Shabaz Garhi in Peshawar Valley and Mansehra District of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.
  129. Two Kharoshthi Casket Inscriptions from Avaca, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1978, p 10, Dr H. W. Bailey; cf: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 701, Commentary, Dr B. N. Mukerjee
  130. Baudha Rock Temples of Ajanta, Their Paintings and Sculptures, Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, P 2 & fn 8, Dr. J. Burgess.
  131. Baudha Rock Temples of Ajanta, Their Paintings and Sculptures, Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, P 2, fn 8, Dr. J. Burgess; Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India), Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India).
  132. For full text of the Prakrit & Sanskrit versions of the Mhar/Mhad Inscription and its English trans., see: Archaeological Survey of Western India, 1879, p 2, and fn 5, Dr J. Burgess.
  133. Maharashtra State gazetteers, 1964, p 57, Maharashtra (India), Gazetteers Dept, Maharashtra (India).
  134. Ancient Srugana near Jagadhari in Ambala District, Haryana.
  135. Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals‎, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta - Numismatics; Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak; See also: Pracina Kamboja, jana aura janapada = Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Jia Lal Kamboj.
  136. Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals‎, 1989, p 24, Parmanand Gupta - Numismatics
  137. Bharat ke Prachin Mudrank, by Swami Om Nand ji Sarasvati, 1973, Rohtak.
  138. Cf also: Pracina Kamboja, jana aura janapada = Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Jia Lal Kamboj.
  139. Chilas: The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar), 1983, p 120, Ahmad Hasan Dani - Chilás Region (Pakistan).
  140. The Name 'Cambyses', Pakistan Archaeology‎, 1991, p 123, Wojciech Skalmowski, Pakistan Dept. of Archaeology, Pakistan Dept. of Archaeology & Museums - Pakistan.
  141. The Cultural History of Goa from 10000 B.C.-1352 A.D.‎, 1986, p 206, Anant Ramkrishna Sinai Dhume - Goa, Daman and Diu (India)
  142. Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu, 1979, p 66, Vithal Trimbak Gune, Goa, Daman and Diu (India).
  143. Also: K. C. Chaṭṭopādhyāya Memorial Volume‎, 1975, p 24, Kshetresh Chandra Chattopadhyaya - India Civilization.
  144. Indica‎, 2004, p 65, Saint Xavier's College, Bombay Heras Institute of Indian History and Culture.
  145. A Socio-cultural History of Goa from the Bhojas to the Vijayanagara‎, 1999, p 118, Vithal Raghavendra Mitragotri - Goa (India : State).
  146. Kleine Schriften‎, 1985, p 352, Otto Stein, Friedrich Wilhelm.
  147. Epigraphia Indika, II, p 97. no. 7=L. 176; p 387, no. 287= L.472; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, Vol 25-26, p 127.
  148. Report of Tours in Bundelkhand and Malwa in 1874-75 and 1876-77, 1880, p 58, Alexander Cunningham.
  149. Buddhism in Malwa‎, 1976, p 53, S. M. Pahadiya - Buddhism.
  150. The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1949, Vol 25-26, p 127.
  151. The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, 1885, p 1218, Edward Balfour.
  152. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2002, Vol I, p 95, Col James Tod.
  153. Jīvana Tathā Saṃskr̥ti, 1976, Ānandapriya, Vidyālaṅkāra Śaṅkaradeva, Vedālaṅkāra Dalīpa, Yaśodabahana Paramāra.
  154. NOTE: There is repeated ancient reference to Nandipura or Nandipuri as a region east of Bharoach in south-east Gujarat on Karjah river in former Rajpipli State where a second branch of the Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled during 7th c AD. It’s modern name is Nandode (Rajpipli) and is located in eastern Gujarat not far from Bhroach. It has been the Capital of the Gurjara-Pratiharas (See also: History and Culture of Indian People, The Classical age, p 66,155).
  155. Indian Antiquarium, VI, 192-93, G. Buhler.
  156. History and Culture of Indian People, The Delhi Sultanate, p 155, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
  157. Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, Dr J. L. kamboj.
  158. Sanskrit: Kambojavajivrajavahnendryantabhavad valabha deva aye | Kielhorn, F. (ed) Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 184, 187; Inscriptions of Ancient Assam‎, 1978, p 298, Mukunda Madhava Sharma; Social History of Kamrup, 1983, p 233, Nagendranath Vasu.
  159. :Kambojesu cha yasya vaji-yuvabhidharvastanaya-rajaujaso| :heshamishrit-hari-heshtarvah kaantishchran viikashtah || 13||. ::(Monghyr C.P. Ins of Devapalal, B.8 V 13).
  160. See: The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D.: (Cir. 750 A. D.-Cir. 1200 A. D.), 1993, p 63, Jhunu Bagchi.
  161. The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest‎, 1939, p 143, Pramode Lal Paul - Bengal.
  162. The Military History of Bengal, 1977, p 24, P. Sensarma - Bengal (India); Military History of Kalinga‎, 1986, p 15, Harish Chandra Das .
  163. Epigraphia Indica XXII.153.
  164. Dynastic History Of Magadha‎, 1977, p 208, George E. Somers.
  165. Dynastic History of Northern India, I. p 311; Indian Historical Quarterly, XV, p 511; History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, pp 316, 127, 182-83.
  166. Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D.: cir. 450--1200 A. D.‎, 1977, p 208, Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha.
  167. Epigraphia Indica, pp 304ff.
  168. History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 183, R. C. Majumdar - Bengal (India).
  169. Cf: The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D.: (Cir. 750 A. D.-Cir. 1200 A. D.), 1993, p 63, Jhunu Bagchi.
  170. The Early Rulers of Khajurāho, 1958, p 45, Sisirkumar Mitra.
  171. The Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol 9, 1933, p 789; Journal of the Oriental Institute, 1965, p 447, Oriental Institute (Vadodara, India); Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal (N.S.), II, p 619; J. and Proceedings, A. S. B., 1911, p 615; The Early History of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest, 1914, p 399, Vincent Arthur Smith .
  172. The Modern Review‎, 1937, p 324, edited by Ramananda Chatterjee.
  173. The People and Culture of Bengal, a Study in Origins, 2002, p 561, Annapurna Chattopadhyaya; Early Historical Perspective of North Bengal‎ , 1987, p 58, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, Pranjal Kumar Bhattacharyya, Akshaya Kumar Maitreya Museum; The Modern Review, 1937, p 324 edited by Ramananda Chatterjee.
  174. Epigraphia Indica, XXII, 1933-34, pp 150-158, Dr N. G. Majumdar; Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar .
  175. Kambojavamshatilaka Paramasaugata Maharajadhiraja parameshvara paramabhattAraka Rajyapala
  176. New Aspects of History of Orissa, 1971, p 1, N. K. Sahu, S. C. Behera; Prācī-jyoti: Digest of Indological Studies‎, 2002, p 104, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra University Institute of Indic Studies - Indic philology; Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 75, fn 189, Dilip Kumar Ganguly; Abhinandana-Bhāratī, 1982, p 107, Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri.
  177. Journal of the Varendra Research Museum‎ , 1972, p 109, Varendra Research Museum, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh
  178. Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, 1942, p 379, Benoychandra Sen.
  179. Journal of Indian History‎, 1986, p 182, University of Allahabad Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala Dept. of History, University of Kerala - India; History of the Koch Kingdom, C. 1515-1615, 1989, p 9, D. Nath.
  180. Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 315, Dr J. L Kamboj; Ancient India, 1956, p 382-83, Dr R. K. Mukerjee, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 208-210, S Kirpal Singh
  181. See Refs: Journal of the Varendra Research Museum‎, 1972, p 109, Varendra Research Museum, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh.
  182. The Dacca University Studies - 1935, p 133, University of Dacca.
  183. Indian Historical Quarterly, 1939, Item notes: v.15 1939, p 508, Published by Calcutta Oriental Press, India .
  184. Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs, 1942, pp 380, 399, Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  185. Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 53, Dilip Kumar Ganguly.
  186. Journal of the Varendra Research Museum, p 109, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh.
  187. The Early Rulers of Khajurāho, 1877, p 63, Sisirkumar Mitra; Abhinandana-Bhāratī: Professor Krishna Kanta Handiqui Felicitation Volume, 1982, p 110, Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri.
  188. History of Bengal, Vol I, p 139, Edi. R. C. Majumdar, Reprint, Delhi, B.R. Publishing, 2003, ISBN 81-7646-238-1.
  189. Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  190. cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  191. The Indian Historical Quarterly‎, India, 1938, p 508, item notes: v.15, 1939, Published by Calcutta Oriental Press.
  192. Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal: Pre-Muhammadan Epochs‎; 1942, p 399, Benoychandra Sen - Bengal (India).
  193. Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  194. cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  195. The Orissa Historical Research Journal, Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum, Item notes: v.16 no.4-v.22 no.1 1975-1977, Published by Superintendent, Research and Museum, Orissa, 1975.
  196. Journal of the Epigraphical Society of India, Item notes: v.16, 1990, p iii, Epigraphical Society of India.
  197. THE KAMBOJA RULERS OF BENGAL, by D.C. Sircar, Abhinandana-Bhāratī: Professor Krishna Kanta Handiqui Felicitation Volume‎, 1982, p 107 sqq., Editors Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri.
  198. New Aspects of History of Orissa, 1971, p 1, N. K. Sahu, S. C. Behera; Prācī-jyoti: Digest of Indological Studies‎, 2002, p 104, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra University Institute of Indic Studies - Indic philology.
  199. Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 75, fn 189, Dilip Kumar Ganguly.
  200. The Orissa Historical Research Journal, Item notes: v.16 no.4-v.22 no.1 1975-1977, p 111 sqq., Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum; Journal of Ancient Indian History‎, 1983, p 37, University of Calcutta Dept. of Ancient Indian History and Culture - India.
  201. Epigraphia Indika, XXXIII, p 150.
  202. History of Bengal, 1971, pp 127-28, R. C. Majumdar.
  203. See also: The Dynamics of Santal Traditions in a Peasant Society, 2003, p 208, George E. Somers.
  204. Inscription No 5
  205. :hataskalavipashah sangre bahudarppad :anudhikrit vilupatan rayamasadhya pitram :nihitcharanpadamo bhubhutan murdhin tasmad :abhavadvanipalah shrimahipaladehah || 11 || :(verse 11, Inscription No 5
  206. History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 55, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar; The struggle for Empire, p 24, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar; Advanced History of India‎, 1971, p 251, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, G. Srinivasachari; West Bengal District Gazetteers‎, 1985, p 87, Jatindra Chandra Sengupta - West Bengal (India); Ancient India, History and Archaeology: History and Archaeology‎, 1994, p 76, Dilip Kumar Ganguly - Social Science; The Indo-Aryan Races: A Study of the Origin of Indo-Aryan People and Institutions, 1916, p 174, Ramaprasad Chanda; Ancient India‎, 1971, p 317, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; The Indian Historical Quarterly, Item notes: v.6 1930, p 157;
  207. See: Candellas of Jejakbhukti, 2003, p 48, R.K. Dikshit; Ancient India, 2003, p 651, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History of Bengal, I, 133; Dr R. C. Majumdar, The Dynastic History of Northern India, II, 676, Dr H. C. Ray; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 399, Dr B. C. Sen; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 312, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Bengal: Past and Present, P 77, by Calcutta Historical Society; Islam in Bangladesh, 1992, p 6, U A B Razia Akt Banu.
  208. Translation by D C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 150-51
  209. See also: Epigraphic Discoveries in East Pakistan, 1924, p 24, D. C. Sircar.
  210. Sylhet Copper Plate Inscriptions of Sricandra, 5th Regal Year’, Paper read in the Asian Archaology Conference Delhi, 1961, p 2, A. S. Dani.
  211. Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh, p 13, Nagendra K. Singh.
  212. Nalini Kanta Bhattasalai Commemmoration Volume published by Dacca Museum in 1966, pp 169, 172, 183, Kamalakanda Gupta Chaudhury.
  213. Translation by D C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 150-51; See also: Epigraphic Discoveries in East Pakistan, 1924, p 24, D. C. Sircar.
  214. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 152, Dineshchandra Sircar.
  215. Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh, pp 14-15, Nagendra K. Singh.
  216. From Sanskrit section of Sangham Copper Plate Charter, See: Journal of Indian History: Golden Jubilee Volume‎, 1973, p 114, T. K. Ravindran, Trivandrum, India (City). University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Kerala; The Journal of Oriental Research, 1952, p 151, Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Indo-Aryan philology.
  217. Journal of Indian History, 1973, p 114, T. K. Ravindram, University of Kerala, Department of History.
  218. .The Cōlas‎, 1955, p 220, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, - Chola (Indic people); Encyclopaedia of Tamil literature‎, 1990, p 68, Shu Hikosaka, Institute of Asian Studies (Madras, India), G. John Samuel; A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 15, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress; See also: The Journal of Oriental Research, 1952, p 151, Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Indo-Aryan philology.
  219. Journal of the Varendra Research Museum‎, 1972, p 109, Varendra Research Museum, Varendra Research Museum - Bangladesh.
  220. The Orissa Historical Research Journal‎, 1975, p 114, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum, Orissa State Museum - Orissa (India).
  221. West Bengal District Gazetteers, 1965, p 73, Editor Jatindra Chandra Sengupta.
  222. Historical geography and dynastic history of Orissa, up to the rise of the imperial Gaṅgas, 1975, p 66, Dilip Kumar Ganguly.
  223. Cf: The Early Rulers of Khajurāho, 1958, p 62-63, Sisirkumar Mitra; Ancient Indian History and Civilization, 1999, p 281, Sailendra Nath Sen.
  224. The Orissa Historical Research Journal‎, 1975, p 114, Kedarnath Mahapatra, Orissa (India) Superintendent, Research and Museum, Orissa State Museum - Orissa (India).
  225. West Bengal District Gazetteers‎, 1985, p 87, Editor Jatindra Chandra Sengupta; Also see: West Bengal District Gazetteers‎, 1965, p 63, West Bengal (India), Jatindra Chandra Sengupta - West Bengal (India) - 1965.
  226. Indian Historical Quarterly, 1939, Item notes: v.15 1939, p 508, Published by Calcutta Oriental Press, India.
  227. Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Dacca University Studies - 1935, p 133, University of Dacca; Ancient India, History and Archaeology, 1994, p 53, Dilip Kumar Ganguly; Abhinandana-Bhāratī: Professor Krishna Kanta Handiqui Felicitation Volume, 1982, p 110, Krishna Kanta Handiqui, Pratap Chandra Choudhury, Biswanarayan Shastri; cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  228. Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress‎, 1953, p 10, Indian Science Congress Association, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal).
  229. :Rajendra sola devarku Kambosharajan katchiyaaga kattina kallu, idu :udaiyar rajendra sola devar tiruvaai molindaruli udaiyar :tiruchrirramblam udaiyar koyilil mun vaittadu indakkallu tiruvedir :ambalattu tiru kkai sarattil tiru mum pattikku melai ppattiyille vaittadu
  230. Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, pp 105-106, (Editor) E. Hultsch; A Comprehensive History of India, 1957, p 39, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress; History of Tamilnad‎, 1978, p 222, N. Subrahmanian - Tamil Nadu (India); Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kamboja Through the Ages, 2005, p 13, Kirpal Singh
  231. A Comprehensive History of India‎, 1957, p 15, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Indian History Congress - India.
  232. Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 333-335, Dr J. L. Kamboj
  233. cf: Decline of kingdom of Magdha, p 413, f.n. 2; Sinha B. P; Cf: Journal of Oriental Research, Madras (JOR), XIX, pp. 151.
  234. Ref: Sila Sasana at Balagami, dated 1054: Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, pp 121- 124 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice.
  235. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar, 1958, p 321, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri; The Journal of the Bihar Purāvid Parishad‎, 1981, p 248, Bihar Purāvid Parishad.
  236. Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy (ARSIE), 342 of 1912.
  237. 'History & Culture of Indian People Vol V, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar etc p 527; THE REGIONAL KINGDOMS OF EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA, A History of India , 1998, p 119, Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund; Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, pp 121- 124 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice; .
  238. Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, pp 260- 264 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice; Epigraphia Carnatica, 1902, p xii, Benjamin Lewis Rice, Mysore Archaeological Survey, Inscriptions; B1.47 dated 1121.
  239. Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, p 277 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice.
  240. Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, p 222 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice.
  241. A History of Vijayanagar, 1993, p 284, Bangalore Suryanarain Row.
  242. See: Tamra Sasana at Devanhalli dated ~1550 (?); Mysore Inscriptions, 1879, pp 252-55 sqq, Benjamin Lewis Rice.
  243. Based on Copperplate record of the Vijayanagar king Tirumalaraya, ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MYSORE ARCHEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT, 1945; Cf: Mysore and Coorg from the inscriptions, 1909, p 122, Benjamin Lewis Rice.
  244. Epigraphia Indica, IV, p 270; Journal‎, 1928, p 102, Bombay Historical Society.
  245. Journal, 1928, p 102, Bombay Historical Society, Item notes: v.1-2 1928-.
  246. History of Ceylon, Vol I, Part 1, 1970, p 86 sqq., S. Parnavitana.
  247. History of Ceylon, Vol I, Part 1, 1970, p 86 sqq.
  248. Discovered in 1887 by S. M. Burros; Ref: Journal of Ceylone B Branch of Royal Asiatic Society., Vol X., X No 34, 1887, pp64-67.
  249. See: Original text quoted in: Epigraphicia Zeylanka, Vol II., Part I & II., p 70-83, Don Martino de Zilva Wickeremsinghe; Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, p 354, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Rhys David, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society Vol VII., p 187, p 353f; Muller. E. AIC., No 145; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society Vol XV., 1914, pp 170-71.
  250. Mahabharata II.27.20.
  251. :Tatah Kashmirakan viraan ksatriyaan ksatriya rsabhah | :vyajayat Lohitamshaiva mandalair dasabhih saha ||17|| :tatas Trigartan kaunteyo Darvankoka nadasca | :ksatriya bahavo rajann upavartanta sarvasah ||18|| :Abhisarimtatoramyam vijigye kurunandanah | :Uraga avasinamsaiva rocamanamraneajayat ||19|| :tatah Sinhapuran ramyan chitrayudhasurakshitam | :pramathadbalamasthaya pakashasanirahave || 20 || :tatah Suhmamshcha Sumalashcha kirtti pandavarshabhah | :sahitah sarvasainyena pramathatkurunandanah || 21 || :tatah paramavikranto Bahlikankurunandanah | :mahata parimardena vashe chakre durasadan || 22 || :grihitva tu balan saram phalgu chotsrijya pandavah | :Daradansaha Kambojairajayatpakashasanih || 23 || :(Mahabharata II.27.20-23)
  252. Si-yu-ki byy Hsüan-tsang, Trans Samuel Beal, 1906, p 143 sqq.
  253. On Yuan Chwang’s Travels, in India, Oriental Trans Fund , New Series Vol XIV, 1904, p 248 seq, Thomas Watters, Edited after his death by: Rhys David, S. W. Bushell, Royal Asiatic Society.
  254. See: Si.yu-ki of Hsüan-tsang, Trans. 1906, p 143, Samuel Beal.
  255. Ibid.
  256. On Yuan Chwang’s Travels, in India, Oriental Trans Fund , New Series Vol XIV, 1904, p 249, Thomas Watters, Edited after his death by: Rhys David, S. W. Bushell, Royal Asiatic Society.
  257. On Yuan Chwang’s Travels, in India, Oriental Trans Fund , New Series Vol XIV, 1904, p 249, Thomas Watters, Edited after his death by: Rhys David, S. W. Bushell, Royal Asiatic Society.
  258. On Yuan Chwang’s Travels, in India, Oriental Trans Fund , New Series Vol XIV, 1904, p 249, Thomas Watters, Edited after his death by: Rhys David, S. W. Bushell, Royal Asiatic Society
  259. The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic History, 1971, p 65, I︠U︡riĭ Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ, I͡Uriĭ Vladimirovich Gankovskiĭ - Ethnology; History of the Pathans‎, 2002, p 11, Haroon Rashid; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, pp 132 sqq., H. C. Raychaudhury
  260. "Sinhapura, from which the original Sinhalese came to Ceylon, is said in the Mahavamsa to have been in the country of lala i.e Lata. If Lata be taken to correspond to Gujerat, the Sinhapura in that region may be represented by the modern Sihor in Kathiawad." (History of Ceylon, 1973, p. 91, K. M. De Silva, Hem Chandra Ray). See also: A Concise History of Ceylon: From the Earliest Times to the Arrival of the Portuguese in 1505, edition 1961, p. 25, Cyril Wace Nicholas, Senarat Paranavitana;Gujarat State Gazetteers‎, 1969, p 49, Gujarat (India) - Gujarat (India).
  261. Epigraphica Indica, XVII, p. 110
  262. A stream of Aryan speakers started from Sinhapura (Lata)-- 'Sihore' and Soparaka in west coast. These Sinhalas or people of 'lion clan' probably brought Aryan language into the island (The Cambridge History of India India, Vol I, Ancient India, 1968, p. 549, E. J. Rapson).
  263. For Kamboja Cambay connections, see refs: Epigraphia Indica, Vol XXIV, pp 45-46; Vangar Jatya Itihaas, Rajanya Kanda (in Bengali), Nagendra Nath Vasu; The Spirit of Islam Or the Life and Teachings of Mohammad: or the life and teachings of Mohammed, 2002, p 359, Ameer Ali Syed; Asiatick Researches: Or, Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal, for Inquiring Into the..., 1801, p 129, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India); Encyclopedia of Religions Or Faiths of Man 1906, 2003 Edition, p 282, J. G. R. Forlong; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1990, p 232, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Published 1990, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal, Asiatic Society etc.; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 305, 332; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 161, 216; Kim (by Rudyard Kipling - 1901), Chapter XI, Page 266, line 23, Notes on the text by Sharad Keskar; Cf: Ancient India, 1956, p 383, Dr R. K. Mukerjee.


External links

  • Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription (Henry Creswicke Rawlinson): [761970]
  • Some scholars on Kambujiya/Kamboja[761971]
  • The Edicts of King Ashoka: [761972]
  • The Edicts of King Ashoka: [761973]



Embed code:
Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message