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Karachay-Cherkess Republic ( ; Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика; Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ), or Karachay-Cherkessia ( ) is a federal subject of Russiamarker (a republic). The direct romanization of the republic's Russian name is Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika or Karachayevo-Cherkessiya.

Geography



Time zone



Karachay-Cherkessia is located in the Moscow Time Zone (MSK/MSD). UTC offset is +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD).


Rivers

There are 172 rivers on the territory of the republic. Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are approximately 130 lakes in the republic.

Mountains



The landscape of the republic is mostly mountainous (~80% of the territory). Mount Elbrusmarker, the highest mountain in Europe, is situated on the border with the Kabardino-Balkar Republic.

Natural resources

Karachay-Cherkessia's natural resources include gold, coal, clays, and more.

Climate

  • Average January temperature:
  • Average July temperature:
  • Average annual precipitation: (plains) to (mountains)


Administrative divisions

Demographics

  • Population: 439,470 (2002)
    • Urban: 193,531 (44.0%)
    • Rural: 245,939 (56.0%)
    • Male: 205,481 (46.8%)
    • Female: 233,989 (53.2%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,139
  • Average age: 33.2 years
    • Urban: 33.4 years
    • Rural: 33.1 years
    • Male: 31.0 years
    • Female: 35.2 years
  • Number of households: 127,488 (with 437,338 people)
    • Urban: 62,858 (with 192,642people)
    • Rural: 65,130 (with 244,696 people)
  • Vital statistics (2005)
    • Births: 5,194 (birth rate 12.0)
    • Deaths: 5,131 (death rate 11.9)


  • Ethnic groups
According to the 2002 Census, Karachays make up 38.5% of the republic's population, followed by Russians (33.6%) and Cherkes (11.3%). Other groups include Abazins (7.4%), Nogais (3.4%), Ossetians (3,333, or 0.8%), Ukrainians (3,331, or 0.8%), Armenians (3,197, or 0.7%), Tatars (2,021, or 0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Karachays 52,875 (52.0%) 70,932 (29.2%) 67,830 (24.4%) 97,104 (28.2%) 109,196 (29.7%) 129,449 (31.2%) 169,198 (38.5%)
Cherkess 16,186 (15.9%) 17,667 (7.3%) 24,145 (8.7%) 31,190 (9.0%) 34,430 (9.4%) 40,241 (9.7%) 49,591 (11.3%)
Abazins 13,731 (13.5%) 14,138 (5.8%) 18,159 (6.5%) 22,896 (6.6%) 24,245 (6.6%) 27,475 (6.6%) 32,346 (7.4%)
Russians 2,593 (2.6%) 118,785 (48.8%) 141,843 (51.0%) 162,442 (47.1%) 165,451 (45.1%) 175,931 (42.4%) 147,878 (33.6%)
Nogais 6,263 (6.2%) 6,869 (2.8%) 8,903 (3.2%) 11,062 (3.2%) 11,872 (3.2%) 12,993 (3.1%) 14,873 (3.4%)
Others 9,961 (9.8%) 14,810 (6.1%) 17,079 (6.1%) 19,957 (5.8%) 21,917 (6.0%) 28,881 (7.0%) 25,584 (5.8%)


History

Map of Karachay-Cherkessia


Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was created on January 12, 1922. It was split into Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National District on April 26, 1926. Cherkess National District was elevated to an autonomous oblast status on April 30, 1928. In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was abolished and the Karachay population was deported to Kazakhstanmarker and Uzbekistanmarker accused of collaboration with the Nazis. Most of the Karchay territory was split between Stavropol Krai and Georgiamarker. The remaining territory populated by the Cherkessians was known as Cherkess Autonomous Oblast until January 9, 1957 when it was re-established into Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast in its former borders due to the re-habilitation of the Karachay. On July 3, 1991, the autonomous oblast was elevated to the status of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia (under the jurisdiction of the Russian SFSR). With the dissolution of the Soviet Unionmarker in December 1991, the words "Autonomous Soviet Socialist" was dropped from the name.

Politics

The head of government in Karachay-Cherkessia is the President. As of summer 2008, the president is Boris Safarovich Ebzeyev, a former judge of the Constitutional Court of Russian Federation.

Ethnic tension is a considerable problem in the republic. In May 1999 Karachay-Cherkessia conducted its first ever free regional presidential election. When Vladimir Semyonov, a Karachay, won the election over Stanislav Derev, a Circassian, there were protests by supporters of Derev, with widespread allegations of fraud. A court ruling later upheld the election result, prompting thousands of Derev's supporters to march in protest, many advocating partition of the republic.

A car-bomb that killed two people in March 2001 was blamed on Chechen separatists. In September 2007, the FSB killed Abubakar, the chief Islamic extremist of the republic.

Economy

Industry is mostly concentrated in the capital of the republic, Cherkesskmarker. Chemical, wood, and food industries are the most developed.

Science

The republic is the home of what was the largest telescope of the world when it was built, a very large radiotelescope (600 meters in diameter), and the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science dedicated to the study of astronomy. These facilities are located on the bank of the Zelenchuk river, between the villages of Zelenchukskaya and Arkhyz.

References

Sources



External links




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