Katherine Harris (born April
5, 1957, Key West,
Florida) is an American Republican politician, former Secretary of State of Florida,
and former member of the United States House of
Harris won the 2002
to represent Florida's 13th
in the U.S. House of Representatives.
She held that post from 2003 to 2007. Harris lost the November 7,
2006, election to represent Florida in the United States Senate
Harris rose to national attention due to her controversial role as
Secretary of State of Florida in the 2000 presidential
Harris' family is one of Florida's wealthiest and most politically
influential. Her father, George W. Harris, Jr., owned Citrus and Chemical
Bank in Lakeland,
Her grandfather was Ben Hill Griffin, Jr.
, a wealthy
businessman in the citrus and cattle industries and a powerful
figure in the state legislature, who, shortly before his death in
1990, was ranked as the 261st richest American on the Forbes 400
list. Ben Hill Griffin Stadium at the University of Florida is named for him. Becker, Jo, and Dana Milbank.
"Controversy swirls around Harris." Washington Post.
November 14, 2000. Harris married Swedish businessman
Anders Sven Axel Ebbeson (born March 16, 1945) in 1996 and has one
Harris comes from a family that is active in Christian evangelism.
Her grandfather was a Christian missionary in Africa, while her
aunt and uncle were missionaries in India and now head the Arab
World Missions. Harris studied under Dr. Francis Schaeffer at a L’Abris Fellowship
International center. Harris attended an all girls Christian camp
in the hills of Asheville North Carolina called Greystone. She says
her faith is “the most important thing in my life.” Harris grew up
in the Presbyterian
Church in America (she has criticized the Presbyterian Church for being
"more liberal"). Currently she attends Calvary Chapel in Sarasota,
Education and early career
Harris graduated from Bartow High School in Bartow, Florida, in 1975, and then attended the University of Madrid in 1978.
received a bachelor of arts degree
in history from Agnes Scott
College in Decatur, Georgia, in 1979, and then studied under Christian theologian
Francis Schaeffer at the L'Abri community in Huemoz, Switzerland, not far from Lausanne. While in college she was an intern for U.S.
Representative Andy Ireland.
received a mid-career masters degree in public administration from
School of Government in 1997 with a concentration in international trade. Before
entering politics, Harris was a marketing executive at IBM and a vice president of a commercial real estate firm.
Early political career
Harris entered politics by winning election to the Florida Senate in 1994 in one of the most
expensive state races in Florida history to date. Harris' political
career was guided by Dan
Berger, Adam Goodman, and Benjamin McKay, along with her
campaign manager, David Lapides.
Florida Senate and Riscorp
the 1994 state senate election, Sarasota-based
Riscorp, Inc. made illegal contributions totaling $400,000 to
dozens of political candidates and committees, including $20,600 to
the Harris campaign. Harris played a prominent role in
introducing the CEO of Riscorp to various Florida legislators. Two
years later, in 1996, Harris sponsored a bill "to block Riscorp
competitors from getting a greater share of Florida workers' compensation market, [and]
also pushed a proposal that would hurt a particular competitor."
This issue later emerged during her campaign for Florida Secretary
of State in 1998. According to a SunHerald column from June, 2005,
"Harris denied any knowledge of the scheme, was never charged with
any crime and was cleared of wrongdoing by a state investigator."
The CEO of Riscorp, William Griffin, eventually pled guilty to
illegal campaign donations amongst allegations of other serious
wrongdoing at Riscorp and served prison time in 1998. The election
of Jeb Bush as governor of Florida was a
major factor in stopping further investigation into the Riscorp
Secretary of State
Harris was elected Florida Secretary of State in 1998,
defeating then-incumbent Sandra
Mortham. Her office played a leading role in the closely
contested 2000 U.S. presidential election. Her SoS campaign was
guided by Mark Reichelderfer, Trey Evers, Benjamin McKay, Adam
Goodman and sometimes Dan Berger.
During her first 22 months in office, Harris spent more than
$106,000 for travel, more than any cabinet officer or the governor. She visited eight countries on
ten foreign trips, which included Iran, India, and the
In early 2001, Florida Senate leaders eliminated the $3.4 million
that Harris had budgeted for international relations for the year,
assigning it instead to Enterprise
Florida, the state's economic development agency. But Florida
House leader Tom Feeney said that he
disagreed with the Senate and felt Harris was an able advocate to
foreign countries. After the House refused to go along with the
proposed budget action, the Senate agreed to restore the money but
insisted on a review committee, appointed by Senate President John
McKay, Feeney, and governor Jeb Bush, to
evaluate all of Harris' expenditures on international affairs since
July 1, 1999, and produce a report.
2000 US presidential election
As Secretary of State for the State of Florida, Harris was a
central figure in the 2000
US presidential election in Florida. Harris certified that the
Republican candidate, then-Texas Governor George W. Bush,
had defeated the Democratic candidate,
then-Vice President Al Gore, in the popular
vote of Florida and thus certified the Republican slate of electors. The margin
separating Bush from Gore was 537 votes. Harris ordered a halt
after several recounts. Her ruling was challenged, and she
prevailed in the first court of jurisdiction, and then overturned
on appeal by the Florida Supreme Court.
decision was reversed by the U.S. Supreme
Court in Bush
v. Gore. In a
per curiam decision, by a 7–2
vote, the Court in Bush v. Gore held that the Florida
Supreme Court's method for recounting ballots was a violation of
the Equal Protection Clause
of the Fourteenth
Amendment. By a 5–4 vote, the Court held that no
alternative method could be established within the time limits set
by the State of Florida. Three of the concurring justices also
asserted that the Florida Supreme Court had violated
Article II, § 1, cl. 2 of the Constitution, by misinterpreting
Florida election law that had been enacted by the Florida
The decision allowed Florida
Secretary of State Katherine Harris's previous certification of
George W. Bush as the winner of Florida's electoral
votes to stand. Florida's 25 electoral votes gave Bush, the
Republican candidate, 271 electoral votes, defeating Democratic
candidate Al Gore, who ended up with 266 electoral votes (with one
D.C. elector abstaining).
Harris later wrote Center of the Storm, her own memoir of
the 2000 election controversy.
United States Congresswoman
In 2002, Harris ran against Sarasota Attorney Jan Schneider for the congressional district
vacated by retiring Republican Rep. Dan Miller, winning by 10
percentage points in this solidly Republican district.
Harris considered running for the seat of retiring Senator Bob Graham in 2004 but was reportedly dissuaded
by the Bush White House to allow Secretary
of Housing and Urban Development Mel
Martinez to run for the open seat. Martinez went on to narrowly
beat challenger Betty Castor. Harris
ran for re-election to her House seat in 2004; she was re-elected
with a margin almost identical to her previous showing.
In a 2004
speech in Venice,
Florida, Harris claimed that a "Middle Eastern" man was arrested for attempting
to blow up the power grid in Carmel, Indiana; Carmel Mayor James Brainard and a spokesman for
Indiana Gov. Joe Kernan said they
had no knowledge of such a plot. Brainard said he had never spoken
During a 2004 campaign stop in Sarasota, a local resident, Barry
Seltzer, "tr[ied] to 'intimidate' a group of Harris supporters" by
menacing Harris and her supporters with his automobile. Witnesses
described Seltzer as having swerved off the road and onto the
sidewalk, directing it at Harris and her supporters. Nobody was
injured in the incident. Seltzer, who claimed he was "exercising
[his] political expression," was eventually arrested and charged
with assault with a deadly weapon.
Involvement in the MZM scandal
In 2005 and 2006, Harris became immersed in political
controversy when a major corporate campaign donor, Mitchell Wade,
founder of defense contractor
MZM was implicated in several bribery scandal concerning Harris and her
campaign, said to have occurred from 2004 through 2006. One alleged
incident of attempted bribary resulted in the criminal conviction
and resignation of California congressman Randy
"Duke" Cunningham, as well as the conviction of Mitchell Wade
of MZM (now renamed "Athena Innovative Solutions"). Wade had
bundled together and donated to Harris' campaign $32,000 in
contributions from his employees at MZM, Inc., then reimbursed
those employees for the contributions.
Regarding this issue, U.S. Attorney Kenneth Wainstein has recently said
that Harris did not appear to know the donations were obtained
illegally. Harris has maintained she had no personal knowledge that
her campaign was given illegal contributions. For its part, Wade
admitted that the donations to the Harris campaign were illegal and
were part of an attempt to influence Harris to MZM's benefit.
Documents filed with Wade's plea say that he took Harris to dinner
in March 2005, a year after the illegal contributions, where they
discussed the possibility of another fundraiser and the possibility
of getting funding for a Navy counterintelligence program placed in
Harris subsequently sent a letter on April 26, 2005 to defense
appropriations subcommittee Chairman C. W. Bill Young, in which Harris sought $10 million
for a Navy project backed by Wade. In the letter, Harris emphasized
the importance of the project, asking that it be added to her list
of five priorities and identifying it as her new No. 3. Harris
later released the April 26, 2005 letter for legal scrutiny, but
neither she nor Young would turn over the request form (RFP) used
for the proposal.
CQPolitics noted "Harris’ former political strategist, Ed Rollins, spoke on the record about the dinner
and detailed a meal that cost $2,800, far in excess of the $50
limit on gifts that members of Congress are allowed to accept" at
the Washington restaurant Citronelle. Wade and Harris discussed
MZM's desire for a $10 million appropriation, and Wade offered to
host a fundraiser for Harris' 2006 Senate campaign. Regarding the MZM
contributions, the Sentinel article goes on to say "The
Justice Department has said Wade, who personally handed many of the
checks to Harris, did not tell Harris the contributions were
illegal". Regarding the expensive meal, the article quotes
Harris as saying that she personally had only a "beverage and
appetizer" worth less than "$100". House rules prohibit accepting
any gift worth $50 or more.
Rollins said that he had conducted a thorough internal
investigation into Harris' ties to MZM in hopes of finding
conclusive proof of her innocence; but when he could not, he and
other advisers, including her lawyer, urged her to drop her
candidacy rather than risk federal corruption charges. Although he
did not believe Harris intentionally broke any laws, "her story
kept changing. Our great concern was that you get into trouble when
you don't tell the same story twice ... Maybe you don't think you
did anything wrong, but then maybe you start getting questioned
about it and so forth, and you may perjure yourself. ... Unlike
Cunningham, I don't think she set out to violate the law, but I
think she was very careless. She heard whatever she wanted to hear,
but we could find no evidence whatsoever that this was a project
going into her district."
Although Rollins recalled discussing the $2,800 meal with Harris,
Harris told the Orlando Sentinel on
April 19, 2006, that the cost of the meal was "news to me", and
that her campaign had since "reimbursed" the restaurant for the
cost of the meal. According to the reporter, when questioned as to
why she would reimburse the restaurant for a meal that had been
paid for by MZM, Harris abruptly terminated the interview, and her
spokesman later called and requested unsuccessfully that the story
not be printed. The next day, Harris' campaign issued a statement
that she had believed her campaign had reimbursed the restaurant,
and that she had donated $100 "which will more than adequately
compensate for the cost of my beverage and appetizer". Harris also
asserted that most of the cost of the meal was from Wade ordering
several unopened bottles of wine to take home, although the
management of the restaurant denies ever allowing anyone to take
unopened bottles of wine off the premises, saying "Why would we
jeopardize our liquor license for the sake of selling a couple
bottles of wine?"
In the weeks following the expensive meal, former senior Harris
staffers claimed that "they initially rejected a defense
contractor's $10 million appropriation request last year but
reversed course after being instructed by Harris to approve
In May 2006, Harris' campaign spokesman Christopher Ingram acknowledged that she
had also had a previous dinner with Wade in the same restaurant in
March 2004, when the $32,000 in illegal donations had been given to
her campaign. Ingram told the press that he did not know how much
that meal cost, but that a charitable donation of an unknown amount
had been given to a charity whose name he did not know, equivalent
to her share of the meal. "She takes responsibility for the
oversight that there was no reimbursement," he said.
Mona Tate Yost, an aide to Harris, left to work for MZM during the
time Wade was pressing Harris to secure federal funding (April or
On July 17, 2006, Ed Rollins confirmed that Justice Department
lawyers and FBI agents had recently questioned her about the
$32,000 in donations. Rollins noted: "I assume more [interviews]
will be coming, though. They were very serious."
On September 7, 2006, Federal investigators questioned Jim Dornan,
who quit as Harris's campaign manager the previous November.
2006 Senate race
On June 7, 2005, with support from her new campaign advisors
of Ed Rollins and Jim Dornan, Harris announced her candidacy for
the 2006 Florida United States Senate election, challenging
incumbent Democrat Bill Nelson.
Both lackluster fundraising relative to Nelson and controversy over campaign
contributions from MZM caused Harris to fall far behind in all
polls by May 2006.Late in the primary race, Republican contender
Will McBride polled only 31 points behind Nelson in a hypothetical
election against him, while Harris polled 33 points behind Nelson
in the same poll. However, Harris showed she was still popular
among Republican voters by winning the September 5 primary over
McBride and two other challengers with approximately 50% of the
Despite Harris' support of many Republican causes and her previous
statewide victories, some party leaders expressed doubt about her
- In May 2006, Florida Governor Jeb
Bush questioned Harris's ability to win the general election
and encouraged others to challenge her in the primary.
- Karl Rove expressed doubts about
her statewide appeal.
- National Republicans openly criticized her campaign and
tried to convince other GOP candidates to challenge Harris in the
- Florida state House of Representatives Speaker Allan Bense declined the candidacy on May 11
despite public courting by many leaders including Governor
- Conservative pundit and former Republican Congressman
Joe Scarborough was also
unsuccessfully recruited to enter the race. Departing Harris aides
claim that Harris called potential Scarborough supporters and
raised the death of an aide in order to prevent his entry into the
race. Scarborough later told Nelson that drawing Harris as an
opponent in the race made him "the luckiest man in
Nelson defeated Harris by over one million votes; Harris polled
less than 39% of the vote.
By late July 2006, she had gone through three campaign
managers and her campaign was floundering. At that time, it was
disclosed that state Republican Party leaders had told Harris they
would not support her because she could not win in the general
Financial problems plagued her Senate campaign from the start.
During the primary, it was clear that the incumbent Senator Nelson
had a substantial financial advantage.
On the March 15, 2006, edition of Fox
News Channel's Hannity
& Colmes, Harris pledged to spend $10 million of her
own money, which she said was all of her inheritance, on her
campaign. She also stated that her run is dedicated to the memory
of her father.
Despite her promise, the $10 million never materialized. Reports
surfaced that Harris would not actually receive the inheritance
from her father, who instead left his entire estate to her mother.
She donated $3 million to her campaign, but later took back
$100,000, fueling speculation that she would be unable to donate
the promised amount.
In October, Harris announced that she was trying to sell her house
in Washington to raise money for her campaign, but the home was not
publicly listed for sale and no sale was ever announced.
In late February 2006, in the midst of revelations surrounding
Mitchell Wade's illegal contributions, Harris' campaign finance
director and campaign treasurer both resigned.
On April 1, 2006 Harris' top campaign advisor, pollster and
campaign manager all resigned with a half-dozen other staffers.
Republican pollster and consultant David Johnson said, "I've never
seen staffers go like this. It's just imploding."
In early April 2006, Harris told the Tampa Tribune that
some of her ex-campaign staffers and the national Republican party
were deliberately sabotaging her campaign by "putting knives in her
back" and had warned her that if she did not back out of the
campaign, she would get an "April surprise". Former campaign
staffer Ed Rollins said "They were all good professionals...There
was no backstabbing. It's insulting that she would even say that.
If she wants to know what went wrong with the campaign, maybe she
needs to take a good look in the mirror."
In June, the Harris campaign received a legal bill for thousands of
dollars that contained a reference to "DOJ subpoena". Later, an
ex-aide told the Associated Press that Harris had received a grand
jury subpoena from federal investigators, but kept it from her top
advisers, prompting several staff members to quit when they found
On June 8, 2006, Harris' fourth chief of staff, Fred Asbell, left
in order to pursue a "business opportunity". Asbell said he'd
"greatly enjoyed" his time with the campaign and he would remain in
a consultant position.
On July 13, 2006, Harris' campaign manager Glenn Hodas, spokesman
Chris Ingram, field director Pat Thomas, political director Brian
Brooks and Deputy field director John K. Byers all resigned from
her campaign. Hodas cited Harris' "tantrums" and "increasingly
erratic behavior" as his reasons for leaving. An anonymous campaign
worker described Harris as "very difficult to work with. The more
that we put her out there, the more she shot herself in the
In late August, Harris lost another key staffer, Rhyan Metzler, in
the wake of a disastrous political rally at Orlando Executive
Airport. Only 40 people showed up for the event, and Harris blamed
the paltry turnout in part on a last-minute change in location. She
claimed that a tree fell on the hangar that was originally
scheduled to hold the rally, forcing her campaign to switch to
another hangar. Airport officials, however, stated that no trees
had fallen, and that the event in fact took place in the hangar
that Harris' campaign had originally booked. Harris' campaign
blamed Metzler for the comments Harris made after the rally.
On August 31, 2006, Harris was interviewed on the Hardball television show, where she responded
to the criticisms from her former staffers with "We have their
email traffic, we know what was behind all that, we know who's been
paid and who isn't."
Lack of Republican support
News Journal suggested that Harris might withdraw from the
Senate race after winning a primary victory, thereby allowing the
Republicans to nominate another candidate, such as Tom Gallagher, to run against Bill Nelson.
In August, Katherine Harris touted political endorsements from
fellow Republican lawmakers on her campaign web site. However, some
of those cited claim that they never endorsed her. This conflict
resulted in several Republican congressmen calling the Harris
campaign to complain after the St. Petersburg Times
notified them of the endorsements listed on Harris' Web site. A
short time later, their names were removed without comment from
Harris' Web site.
Of Harris' three primary opponents, only Will McBride endorsed her
candidacy for the general election. In the first few days after the
primary, a number of Republican nominees such as Charlie Crist and Tom Lee went on a statewide unity tour
with Gov. Bush. Harris was not invited; Republicans said the tour
was only for nominees to statewide offices. Harris claimed Bush
would campaign with her sometime in the two months before the
election, but the governor's office denied this.
President Bush did not make public appearances or private meetings
with Harris before the primary. He did, however, appear with her at
a fundraiser on September 21 in Tampa.
All 22 of Florida's daily newspapers endorsed Nelson.
Controversy over religion
Harris was a headline speaker at the Coral Ridge Presbyterian
Church's "Reclaiming America for Christ" conference held in Ft.
Lauderdale on March 17–18, 2006. The conference web site invited
attendees to attend in order to "reclaim this nation for Christ."
The stated mission of ReclaimAmerica.org is "To inform, equip,
motivate, and support Christians; enabling them to defend and
implement the Biblical principles on which our country was
founded." As part of her speech, Harris urged conferees to "win
back America for God." Her appearance was noted in a Rolling Stone article covering the
In an interview with the Florida Baptist Witness on August
24, 2006, Harris called for Christians to vote on religious lines.
“We have to have the faithful in government and
over time, that lie we have been told, the separation of church and
state, people have internalized, thinking that they needed to
avoid politics and that is so wrong because God is the one who
chooses our rulers.
And if we are the ones not actively involved in
electing those godly men and women and if people aren’t involved in
helping godly men in getting elected then we’re going to have a
nation of secular laws.
That’s not what our founding fathers
intended and that’s certainly isn’t what God
… we need to take back this
… And if we don’t get involved as Christians then
how could we possibly take this back?
…If you are not electing Christians, tried and
true, under public scrutiny and pressure, if you’re not electing
Christians then in essence you are going to legislate
They can legislate sin.
They can say that abortion is
They can vote to sustain gay
And that will take western civilization, indeed
other nations because people look to our country as one nation as
under God and whenever we legislate sin and we say abortion is
permissible and we say gay unions are permissible, then average
citizens who are not Christians, because they don’t know better, we
are leading them astray and it’s wrong.”
Rep. Debbie Wasserman
Schultz (D-FL) said she was "disgusted" by the comments "and
deeply disappointed in Representative Harris personally,” adding
"clearly shows that she does not deserve to be a representative."
Two of Harris’ primary opponents denounced her statements,
Republican Will McBride (an attorney and son of a pastor) stated
“I’m a Christian, and I’m a Republican, and I don’t share her
views. There are people of other faiths and backgrounds of
outstanding integrity who know how to tell the truth.” Developer Peter Monroe, another GOP primary
opponent called on her to quit the race and resign from Congress.
He called her suggestion that non-Christian voters are ignorant of
morality when voting as “contemptible, arrogant and wicked.” On
August 26, 2006, Harris' campaign released a "Statement of
Clarification", that stated, “In the interview, Harris was speaking
to a Christian audience, addressing a common misperception that
people of faith should not be actively involved in government.
Addressing this Christian publication, Harris provided a statement
that explains her deep grounding in Judeo-Christian values." The
press release went on to mention her past support of Israel and
quoted her Jewish campaign manager Bryan G. Rudnick, who stated “As the grandson of
Holocaust survivors, I know that she encourages people of all
faiths to engage in government so that our country can continue to
thrive on the principles set forth by our founding fathers, without
malice towards anyone.” At an appearance at an Orlando gun show
that same day, she said "it breaks my heart" to think people
understood her comments as bigoted. When asked if she thought the
Founding Fathers intended the nation to have secular laws she
“I think that our laws, I mean, I look at how the
law originated, even from Moses, the Ten
And I don't believe, that uh….
That's how all of our laws originated in the
United States, period.
I think that's the basis of our rule of
On October 3, 2006, Harris participated in a prayer service via
phone call and stirred even more controversy. In one instance, she
called for the elimination of the separation of church and state
when she said,
"Treat the pastors' hearts so that those who think
there's no place for government, have them understand kingdom
government, and how they need to be involved in the governance on
this earth because God is our governance."
Harris then went on and called for Jews to be converted to
"And Father God, right now on the day after the
Jewish new year, Father, after the day after atonement, as they
enter into their new year, Father God, I just pray that you would
bring the hearts and minds of our Jewish brothers and sisters into
Replacements in the 13th Congressional District
Vern Buchanan was the Republican
nominee and Christine Jennings
the Democratic nominee to replace Harris in the 2006 election.
The race had been ranked as "leaning Democratic" by CQ Politics, but Buchanan scored a very narrow
victory, winning the election by a few hundred votes.
Political positions and voting record
Harris is a conservative
Republican on most issues. She is pro-life
and has voted against embryonic stem cell research.
She opposes oil-drilling in Florida's coastal waters. Harris
supported reforming Social Security to include private accounts.
She has voted in favor of granting legal status to fetuses via the
Unborn Victims of
Violence Act. She supports tax cuts and
Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, which restricts
bankruptcy filings. Harris is also in favor of welfare reform, school vouchers, the Patriot Act, the Flag Desecration Amendment, the
Amendment, and the 2003
invasion of Iraq. In a televised debate with Nelson on November
1, however, she repeatedly declined to say whether she would still
support the Iraq War Resolution
knowing that Iraq did not have the weapons of mass destruction
attributed to it. In an earlier debate with Nelson, Harris was
asked to comment on trade of arms with foreign nations and the
potential threat of their acquisition by terrorist groups. Harris
responded that "we know we don't want to have arms going to the
rogue nations like China."
In popular culture
Katherine Harris was the subject of some popular skits on Saturday Night
Live; she was also portrayed by actress Laura Dern in the 2008 film Recount which won Dern a Golden Globe for the role. Harris is also
referenced in the DVD: "An Evening with
Kevin Smith 2: Evening Harder".
- "The Woman in Charge" CBS News, November 26 2000.
- Joe Follick, "Tracks in Florida's Sand", Tampa Tribune, July
- Calendar and Exhibits, Museum of Florida
History. June 10, 2006.
- "Project Vote Smart — Representative Harris"
Project Vote Smart. Accessed April
- Rado, Diane. "Harris backed bill aiding Riscorp"
St. Petersburg Times, August 25,
- "Katherine Harris" NNDB, Accessed April 30, 2006.
- Gleason, Brian. "Will Harris get dragged into finance scandal?"
Sun and Weekly Herald, June 28,
- "Katherine Harris" infoplease, Accessed on
April 30, 2006.
- Morgan, Lucy. "Millions for Harris' trips under review"
St. Petersburg Times, July 31,
- "Katherine Harris 'Oops' On Terror"
August 5, 2004.
- HeraldTribune.com - News - News stories about
Sarasota, Manatee and Charlotte counties in Florida, from the
newspapers of record. - HeraldTribune.com
- "Man accused of trying to run down Rep. Katherine
October 27, 2004.
- "Feds interview Harris' ex-campaign manager",
St. Petersburg Times
- "Gov. Bush Doubts Harris Can Win Sen. Seat",
Press, May 8, 2006.
- "Story of 'Joe's dead intern' began Harris' slide,
insiders say", Miami Herald, July 14, 2006.
- can't elude Harris vs. Nelson", St. Petersburg
Times, May 11, 2006.
- "Harris in to win with her own $10M"
Sarasota Herald-Tribune, March
- "Harris campaign awaits her cash"
St. Petersburg Times, August 26,
- "Harris Vows to Sell Home to Raise Cash for
Campaign" "Washington Wire," Wall Street
Journal, October 18, 2006.
- HeraldTribune.com - News - News stories about
Sarasota, Manatee and Charlotte counties in Florida, from the
newspapers of record. - HeraldTribune.com
- "Harris loses 4th chief of staff"
Orlando Sentinel, June 8,
- State: Backing Harris? Her list
- Coral Ridge Ministries
- Coral Ridge Ministries
- The Crusaders : Rolling Stone
- Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
- Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
- Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
- Rado, Diane. " Harris backed bill aiding Riscorp." St.
Petersburg Times. August 25, 1998. 
- "Mid-career Master in Public Administration." John F. Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University. 2005.
- Tapper, Jake. "The woman under fire." Salon. November