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Kathleen Babineaux Blanco (born December 15, 1942) is a former Democratic Governor of Louisiana, having served from January 2004 until January 2008. She was the first woman to be elected to the office of governor of Louisianamarker.

Less than two years into her term as governor, Hurricane Katrina, the most devastating hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States, struck New Orleansmarker and Louisianamarker. Blanco was criticized for the inadequate government response to the disaster.

Blanco announced in March 2007 that she would not seek re-election later that year, saying that she would instead "focus [her] time and [her] energy for the [remainder of her term] on the people's work, not on politics."

Early life and career

She was born Kathleen Babineaux in New Iberia, Louisiana, the daughter of Louis Babineaux and his wife, the former Lucille Fremin. Her grandfather was a farmer, the family owned a country store, and her father was a small businessman and farmer who moved to the hamlet of Coteau near New Iberia; the community has one church and elementary one school. Blanco attended Mount Carmel Academy, an all-girls school run by the Catholic Sisters of Mount Carmel, which was situated on the banks of Bayou Teche. (The school closed in the mid 1980s with the majority of girls transferring to Catholic High School). In 1964, Blanco received a Bachelor of Science in Business Education from the University of Southwestern Louisiana (now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette) where she was a member of Kappa Delta sorority. Following college, she taught high school business. She married Raymond Blanco, a football coach and educator, on August 8, 1964; they have four daughters: Karmen, Monique, Nicole, and Pilar and two sons: Ray (Jr.) and Ben.

Prior to her election as governor, she served a four-year term as a State Representative in the Louisiana Legislature from 1984 to 1988, representing part of the Lafayettemarker area. She was then elected to a six-year term as Public Service Commissioner in 1988 and was re-elected in 1994. In the 1988 general election for the PSC, she defeated the Republican Kernan "Skip" Hand of Kennermarker, later a state representative (1992-1994) and a judge of the 24th Judicial District from 1994-2008. In that race, Blanco won all but Hand's own Jefferson Parish and the southeastern coastal parishes of Plaqueminesmarker and St. Bernardmarker in the race against Hand.

From 1996 to 2004, she served two four-year terms as Lieutenant Governor. In her first election as lieutenant governor, one of her Democratic rivals, Buddy Caldwell, a district attorney in northeastern Louisiana, dropped out of the race. He emerged in 2007 as the Democratic choice for state attorney general, as Blanco was retiring from state politics.

Governor of Louisiana

Before Katrina: 2004 and 2005

Blanco was elected on November 15, 2003, defeating her Republican opponent Bobby Jindal, in the general election, by a margin of 52 percent to 48 percent. On January 12 of 2004 she took the oath of office in both English and French languages, succeeding Murphy J. Foster, Jr. as Governor of Louisiana. She kept Foster's Chief of Staff, Andy Kopplin, on under the same post. Blanco traveled more than her predecessor, seeking new sources of economic development for the state. She visited Nova Scotia, and in December 2004 visited Cubamarker to boost its trade with the state. During this controversial visit, she met with President Fidel Castro, with whom the United States government has no formal diplomatic relations. In 2005, Governor Blanco also visited Asia (primarily Japanmarker, South Koreamarker, and Taiwanmarker).

Before Katrina, a major focus of Governor Blanco's time in office was the future of the American football team the New Orleans Saints, one of two major sports franchises in the state of Louisiana. Blanco's position on the Saints was highly inconsistent at one time or another, Governor Blanco 1) proposed the construction of a new stadium for the team, 2) proposed to renovate the Louisiana Superdome, and 3) implied that the state cannot afford to retain the team. This led to a lengthy impasse between Governor Blanco and Saints' owner Tom Benson. In the spring of 2005, Benson halted negotiations between the team and the State until after the 2005 NFL season was over.

Blanco had a difficult working relation with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin. Despite having joined the Democratic Party of the United States in 2001, Nagin endorsed Republican Party of the United States/Republican candidate Bobby Jindal (rather than Blanco) for Governor of Louisiana/governor in Louisiana gubernatorial election, 2003. The two politicians were subsequently at odds, especially following Hurricane Katrina when both Blanco and Nagin exchanged blame for the inadequate governmental response.

As Governor, she was a member of the National Governors Association, Southern Governors' Association, and the Democratic Governors Association.

Hurricane Katrina

Actions in advance of Katrina

On August 27, 2005, Governor Blanco, speaking about Hurricane Katrina , told the media in Jefferson Parish, "I believe we are prepared. That's the one thing that I've always been able to brag about." Later that day she issued a request for federal assistance and USD $9 million in aid to President George W. Bush, which stated, "...I have determined that this incident is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the State and affected local governments, and that supplementary Federal assistance is necessary to save lives, protect property, public health, and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a disaster. I am specifically requesting emergency protective measures, direct Federal Assistance, Individual and Household Program (IHP) assistance, Special Needs Program assistance, and debris removal." Also in the requesting letter, the governor stated: "In response to the situation I have taken appropriate action under State law and directed the execution of the State Emergency Plan on August 26, 2005 in accordance with Section 501 (a) of the Stafford Act. A State of Emergency has been issued for the State in order to support the evacuations of the coastal areas in accordance with our State Evacuation Plan."

FEMA issued a statement dated August 27, that President Bush authorized the allocation of federal resources, "following a review of FEMA's analysis of the state's request for federal assistance. A White House statement of the same date also acknowledges this authorization of aid by President Bush. On August 28, Governor Blanco sent a letter to President Bush, which increased the amount of aid requested to US $130 million.

Actions following Katrina and Rita

New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Blanco, President Bush and Louisiana Senator David Vitter
On September 1, 2005, Governor Blanco authorized United States National Guard troops to "shoot and kill" rioters and looters, which followed President Bush's statement that looters in New Orleans and elsewhere in the chaotic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina should be treated with "zero tolerance."

President Bush continued to press the offer so Governor Blanco rejected it in writing on September 6, citing the need for flexibility in National Guard operations, particularly the need for Guard in areas other than New Orleans where the military is not currently operating. Governor Haley Barbour of Mississippi reportedly declined a similar offer from the President. Had either state's National Guard been federalized, they would not have been able to directly enforce Louisiana state law (i.e., control looting) under the provisions of the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act. It has not previously been a policy during natural disasters to combine the command of National Guard and military operations under the authority of the President. President Bush has the power to take command of National Guard brigades under the Insurrection Act without the agreement of a state Governor, but no President has done this since Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s and President Bush has so far also declined to do so. However, Governor Blanco and Major General Bennett Landreneau, commander of Louisiana's National Guard, have co-operated closely with Lieutenant General Russel L. Honoré, who was then commanding military operations under Joint Task Force Katrina.

CNN and Fox News reported the Louisiana Homeland Security Department (which operates under the authority of Governor Blanco) refused to allow the American Red Cross to enter the city of New Orleans. [45294], [45295] The [45296] American Red Cross confirms that the organization had not been allowed to enter the city to provide aid but also states that it is providing relief at the evacuation centers: "As the remaining people are evacuated from New Orleans, the most appropriate role for the Red Cross is to provide a safe place for people to stay and to see that their emergency needs are met. We are fully staffed and equipped to handle these individuals once they are evacuated." The deputy director of Louisiana's Homeland Security Department, Colonel Jay Mayeaux, has stated that he asked the Red Cross to delay relief operations for 24 hours for logistical reasons, and by the time that was up the evacuations had already begun.

On September 14, after President Bush had accepted responsibility for all problems that occurred at the federal level, Governor Blanco accepted responsibility for all problems that occurred at the state level. Blanco stated, "At the state level, we must take a careful look at what went wrong and make sure it never happens again. The buck stops here, and as your governor, I take full responsibility." In 2006, a Congressional report later stated that the "National Response Plan did not adequately provide a way for federal assets to quickly supplement or, if necessary, supplant first responders."

After Katrina: 2006 and 2007

Governor Blanco continued to press President Bush and Congress for additional recovery funds for Louisiana, pointing out the disparity in assistance received by Louisiana compared to neighboring Mississippi, in spite of statements by members of the Louisiana State Republican Party that recommended quietly accepting what was offered and then possibly request more aid at a later date. Assisted by protests in the press, including the Washington Post and the New York Times, which referred to the treatment of Louisiana and New Orleans as "America's Shame,' in February 2006, Governor Blanco and the Louisiana Recovery Authority negotiated an additional $4.2 billion in aid for rebuilding housing in Louisiana.

Early in 2006, Blanco was inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfieldmarker.

On June 19, 2006, Governor Blanco announced that she would send the National Guard to patrol the streets of New Orleans after five teenagers were killed, in an effort to combat a greatly increased rate of violent crime. As of March 2007, the National Guard is still stationed in New Orleans.

On June 19, 2006, Blanco signed into law a ban on most forms of abortion (unless the life of the mother was in danger or her health would be permanently damaged) once it passed the state legislature. Although she felt exclusions for rape or incest would have "been reasonable," she felt she should not veto based on those reasons. The bill would only go into effect if the United States Supreme Court reversed Roe v. Wade.

In August 2006, Blanco filed a lawsuit "to force the federal government to spend part of its oil and gas income from the Outer Continental Shelf to help shore up Louisiana's coastline".

In December 2006, Blanco called a special session of the Louisiana State Legislature which she intended to use to dispense $2.1 billion worth of tax cuts, teacher raises, road projects and other spending programs. Legislators allied with Blanco attempted to lift a spending cap imposed by the state constitution, but Republican lawmakers rejected the governor’s spending measure. The high-profile defeat further eroded Blanco’s political reputation.

By late 2006 and early 2007, Blanco was facing increasingly heated accusations of delays and incompetence in administering the Road Home Program, a state-run program which Blanco had set up following Katrina in order to distribute federal aid money to Katrina victims for damage to their homes. By January 2007, fewer than 250 of an estimated 100,000 applicants had received payments from the program, and many of the payments were apparently based on assessments which grossly undervalued the cost of damage to homes.

Facing an upcoming re-election campaign with greatly reduced popularity, Blanco made repeated public criticisms of the administration of President Bush in January 2007. Noting that Bush neglected to mention Gulf Coast reconstruction in his 2007 State of the Union Address, Blanco called for a bipartisan Congressional investigation into the conduct of the Bush administration following Katrina, to determine whether partisan politics played a role in the slow response to the storm. This call followed comments by former FEMA director Michael D. Brown, who claimed that the White House offer to federalize the National Guard in the days following the storm was part of a plan to upstage Blanco. Blanco has also repeated accusations that Mississippi received preferential treatment because its governor, Haley Barbour, is Republican.

Blanco announced on March 20, 2007 that she would not seek re-election. On January 14, 2008, Bobby Jindal succeeded her as governor.

Electoral history

State Representative, 45th Representative District, 1987

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 24, 1987

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 7,713 (60%) Elected
J Luke LeBlanc Democratic 5,037 (40%) Defeated

Public Service Commission, District 2, 1988

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 1, 1988

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 44,450 (32%) Runoff
Kernan "Skip" Hand Republican 25,293 (18%) Runoff
George Ackel Democratic 23,383 (17%) Defeated
Edward "Bubby" Lyons Democratic 22,082 (16%) Defeated
Others n.a. 22,314 (17%) Defeated

Second Ballot, November 8, 1988

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 161,270 (57%) Elected
Kernan "Skip" Hand Republican 120,392 (43%) Defeated

Public Service Commission, District 2, 1994

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 1, 1994

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic Unopposed Elected

Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, 1995

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 21, 1995

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 590,410 (44%) Runoff
Suzanne Mayfield Krieger Republican 211,520 (16%) Runoff
Chris John Democratic 206,915 (15%) Defeated
Others n.a. 342,910 (25%) Defeated

Second Ballot, November 18, 1995

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 964,559 (65%) Elected
Suzanne Mayfield Krieger Republican 513,613 (35%) Defeated

Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, 1999

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 23, 1999

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 968,249 (80%) Elected
Kevin Joseph Duplantis Republican 121,296 (10%) Defeated
Others n.a. 117,467 (10%) Defeated

Governor of Louisiana, 2003

Threshold > 50%

First Ballot, October 4, 2003

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Bobby Jindal Republican 443,389 (33%) Runoff
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 250,136 (18%) Runoff
Richard Ieyoub Democratic 223,513 (16%) Defeated
Claude "Buddy" Leach Democratic 187,872 (14%) Defeated
Others n.a. 257,614 (19%) Defeated

Second Ballot, November 15, 2003

Candidate Affiliation Support Outcome
Kathleen Blanco Democratic 731,358 (52%) Elected
Bobby Jindal Republican 676,484 (48%) Defeated


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