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Kealakekua Bay is located on the Kona coastmarker of the island of Hawai imarker about south of Kailua-Konamarker.Settled over a thousand years ago, the surrounding area contains many archeological and historical sites such as religious temples, and was listed in the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii in 1973 as the Kealakekua Bay Historical District.The bay is a marine life conservation district, a popular destination for kayaking, Scuba diving and snorkeling.

Ancient History

Settlement on Kealakekua Bay has a long history.Hikiau Heiau was a luakini temple of Ancient Hawaii at the south end of the bay, at coordinates , associated with funeral rites.The large platform of volcanic rock was originally over 16 feet high, 250 feet long, and 100 feet wide.The sheer cliff face called Pali Kapu O Keōua overlooking the bay was the burial place of Hawaiian royalty. The name means "forbidden cliffs of Keōua " in honor of Keōua Nui, sometimes known as the "father of kings" since many rulers were his descendants. The difficulty in accessing the cliff kept the exact burial places secret.

The village of Ka awaloa was at the north end of the bay in ancient times, where the Puhina O Lono Heiau was built, along with some royal residences.The name of the village means "the distant Kava", from the medicinal plant used in religious rituals.The name of the bay comes from ke ala ke kua in the Hawaiian Language which means "the god's pathway" because this area was the focus of extensive Makahiki celebrations in honor of the god Lono. Another name for the area north of the bay was hale ki'i, due to the large number of wood carvings, beter known today as "Tiki".

Captain Cook

Although there are theories that Spanish or Dutch sailors might have stopped here much earlier, the first documented European to arrive was in 1779.Captain James Cook and his ships, the Resolution and Discovery, first sighted Kealakekua Bay on the morning of January 17, 1779. He estimated several thousand people lived in the two villages. On January 28, he performed the first Christian service on the islands, for the funeral of a crew member who had died.


Unbeknownst to him, Cook had entered the bay during Makahiki, which might have led some of the Hawaiians to think he was part of the Lono festivities. This was also a traditionally peaceful time of year, so he was welcomed and given food. Cook and his crew stayed for several weeks, returning to sea shortly after the end of the festival; but after suffering damage during a storm, the ships returned two weeks later on February 14, 1779. This time relations were not as smooth.

After some Hawaiians took one of Resolution's small boats, Cook attempted to lure Hawaiian chief Kalani ōpu u aboard until the boat was returned. A skirmish ensued during which Cook was struck in the head and stabbed, on nearly the very spot where he had first set foot on the island. This death was depicted the series of paintings Death of Cook. Several local businesses use "Captain Cook" in their name. In fact, the traditional land division (ahupua a) of Kealakekua, is now known as Captain Cook, Hawaiimarker due to a post office located in the Captain Cook Coffee Company store, up the slopes of Mauna Loamarker. The town now called Kealakekua, Hawaiimarker was in the land division known as Haleki i.

Turmoil

When Kalani ōpu u died in 1782, his oldest son Kiwala o officially inherited the kingdom, but his nephew Kamehameha I had an important military post, guardian of the god Kūka ilimoku. A younger son, Keōua Kuahu ula, was not happy about this and provoked Kamehameha. The forces met just south of the bay at the battle of Moku ōhaimarker.Kamehameha won control of the west and north sides of the island, but Keōua escaped. It would take over a decade to consolidate his control.

In 1786, merchant ships of the King George's Sound Company under command of Captain Nathaniel Portlock and Captain George Dixon anchored in the harbor, but avoided coming ashore since they had been on Cook's voyage he met his demise. In December 1788, the HMS Iphigenia arrived with Chief Ka iana, who had already traveled to China. The first American ship was probably the Lady Washington around this time under Captain John Kendrick. Two sailors, Parson Howel and James Boyd, left the ship (in 1790 or when it returned in 1793) and lived on the island.In March 1790, the American ship Eleanora arrived at Kealakekua Bay and sent a British sailor ashore named John Young, to determine if the sister ship, the schooner Fair American, had arrived for its planned rendez-vous. He was detained by Kamehameha's men, in order to prevent the Eleanora's Captain Simon Metcalfe from hearing the news of the demise of the ship, including the death of the Captain's son, after the massacre at Olowalumarker. Young and Isaac Davis, the lone survivor of the Fair American, slowly adjusted to the island lifestyle. They instructed Hawaiians in the use of the captured cannon and muskets, becoming respected advisors to Kamehameha. In 1791 Spanish explorer Manuel Quimper visited on the ship Princess Royal.

More visitors



Although his story is not as dramatic as Cook's, another important visitor,George Vancouver arrived to winter in the islands in March of 1792 with a small fleet of British ships. He had been a young midshipman on Cook's fatal voyage 13 years earlier and commanded the party to attempt to recover Cook's remains. This time he avoided anchoring in Kealakekua Bay, but did meet some canoes who were interested in trading. The common request was for firearms, which Vancouver resisted. One included chief Ka iana, who would later turn against Kamehameha. He suspected Ka iana intended to seize his ships, so left him behind and headed up the coast. There he was surprised to encounter a Hawaiian who in broken English introduced himself as "Jack", and told of traveling to America on a fur-trading ship. Through him, Vancouver met Ke eaumoku Pāpa iahiahi, who gave him a favorable impression of Kamehameha (his son-in-law). He spent the rest of the winter in O ahumarker.

Vancouver returned in February of 1793, and this time picked up Ke eaumoku and anchored in Kealakekua Bay. When Kamehameha came to greet the ship, he brought John Young, now fluent in the Hawaiian Language, as an interpreter. This greatly helped to develop a trusted trading relationship instead of the escalating theft and violence that surrounded their meeting 14 years before. The Hawaiians presented a war game which was often part of the Makahiki celebration. Impressed by the warrior's abilities, Vancouver fired off some fireworks at night to demonstrate his military technology.

Vancouver presented some cattle that had been picked up in California. They were weak and barely alive, so he convinced Kamehameha to avoid killing them for ten years.Scottish doctor James Lind had recommended the use of citrus juice to prevent scurvy on long voyages. The botanist Archibald Menzies had picked up some citrus fruit seeds in South Africa, and dropped them off here, so that future ships might be able to replenish their stocks at the Hawaiian islands.

Vancouver left in March 1793 after visiting the other islands to continue his expedition, and returned again January 13, 1794. He still hoped to broker a truce between Kamehameha and the other islands. His first step was to reconcile Kamehameha with Queen Ka ahumanu.He dropped off more cattle and sheep from California, and discovered a cow left the year before had delivered a calf. The cattle were eventually to become pests, until the "Hawaiian Cowboys" known as the Paniolo were recruited.

The ship's carpenters instructed the Hawaiians and the British advisors how to build a 36-foot Europeam-style ship, which they named the Britania. On February 25, 1794, Vancouver gathered leaders from around the island onto his ship and negotiated a treaty. Although sometimes called "ceeding" Hawaii to Great Britain, the treaty was never ratified by British Parliament.

Decline

For the next few years, Kamehameha was engaged in his war campaigns, and then spent his last years at Kamakahonumarker to the north. By this time other harbors such as Lahainamarker and Honolulumarker became popular with visiting ships. By 1804, the heiau was falling into disuse. In 1814, a British ship HMS Forrester arrived in the midsts of a mutiny, and Otto von Kotzebue arrived on a mission from the Russian Empiremarker in 1816.

When Kamehameha I died in 1819, his oldest son Liholiho officially inherited the kingdom, calling himself Kamehameha II. His nephew Keaoua Kekuaokalani inherited the important military and religious post of guardian of Kūka ilimoku. However, true power was held by Kamehameha's widow Queen ka ahumanu. She had been convinced by Vancouver and other visitors that the European customs should be adopted, and in the Ai Noa declared an end to the old Kapu system.

Kekuaokalani was outraged by this threat to the old traditions, which still were respected by most common people. He gathered religious supporters at Ka awaloa, threatening to take the kingdom by force as happened 37 years earlier. After a failed attempt to negotiate peace, he marched his army north to meet Kalanimoku's troops who were gathered at Kamakahonu. They met in the Battle of Kuamo omarker. Both sides had muskets, but Kalanimoku had cannon mounted on double-hulled canoes, and devastated the fighters for the old religion, who still lie buried in the lava rock.

The wood Ki'i carvings were burned, and the temples fell into disrepair. A small Christian church was built in 1824 in Ka awaloa by the Hawaiian misionaries, and the narrow trail widened to a donkey cart road in the late 1820s, but population declined and shifted to other areas.In 1825, Admiral Lord Byron (cousin of the famous poet) on the ship erected a monument to Cook and removed many of the old artifacts.The last royalty known to live here was a high chief named Naihe known as the "national orator" and his wife Chiefess Kapi olanimarker, early converts to Christianity.In 1929, she was saddened to find the destruction of the temples included desecrating the bones of her ancestors at the Pu uhonua o Hōnaunaumarker.She removed the remains of the old chiefs and hid them in the Pali Kapu O Keōua cliffs. She then ordered this last temple to be destroyed. The bones were later moved to the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaiimarker in 1858, under direction of King Kamehameha IV.

In 1839 a massive stone church was built just south of the bay. It fell into ruin, and a smaller building called Kahikolu Churchmarker was built in 1852. This also fell into ruin, but has been rebuilt.In 1894 a wharf was constructed at the village at the south of the bay, now called Napo opo o. A steamer landed in the early 20th century when Kona coffee became a popular crop in the upland areas.

Recreation

A large white stone monument was built in 1874 on the order of Princess Likelike and was deeded to the United Kingdommarker in 1877. The chain around the monument is supported by four cannon from the ship HMS Fantome placed with their breaches embedded in the rock in 1876. It marks the approximate location of Cook's death. It is located at coordinates . The inscription reads:
Cook Monument on the northern shore of the bay
In Memory of

the great circumnavigator

Captain James Cook, R.N.

who discovered these islands on the 18th of

January, 1778, and fell near this spot on

the 14th of February, 1779.

Unfortunately you cannot simply drive to the monument; this remote location is only accessible by water or a steep trail. Many visitors rent a Kayak and paddle across the bay, about 1.5 miles from its Southern end. The pier at Napo opo omarker can be accessed down a narrow road off the Hawaii Belt Roadmarker.The beach sand was mostly removed by Hurricane Iniki in 1992.Boat tours are also available leaving from Honokōhau harbormarker, Keauhou Baymarker, and the Kailua pier.

Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins frequent Kealakekua Bay, especially in the morning. The bay serves are a place for them to rest, feed, and a nursery for mothers and their calves. Due to the calm water conditions, extensive coral reef, and thriving underwater life, Kealakekua Bay offers some of the best snorkeling and diving in Hawaii. In the shallow waters adjacent to the monument are best for snorkeling and Scuba diving.

About around the bay was designated a State Historic Park in 1967, and it was added as a Historic District to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 as site 73000651. The of the bay itself were declared a Marine Life Conservation District in 1969.

A narrow one-lane road to the south leads to Pu uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Parkmarker, which contains more historic sites, and is another snorkel spot.

Pop culture

In Arthur C. Clarke's book Rendezvous with Rama, Kealakekua Bay is mentioned as a place where the Commander of the Space Survey Vessel Endeavour, Bill Norton, visited.The 1933 song My Little Grass Shack in Kealakekua, Hawaii mentions the state fish which can be found in the bay: the Humuhumunukunukuapua a (Reef triggerfish).

References

  1. Kealakekua Bay brochure at the official State Park web site
  2. Van James, Ancient Sites of Hawai i, 1995, Mutual Publishing, ISBN 978-1566472005 Page 94
  3. Lookup of "Palikapuokeoua" in Hawaiian Place Names web site
  4. lookup of "Kaawaloa" in Hawaiian Place Names web site
  5. lookup of "Kealakekua Bay" in Hawaiian Place Names web site
  6. lookup of "Kealakekua" Hawaiian Place Names web site
  7. Thomas S.Dye (2003) Archaeological Survey of a Portion of Ke ei Makai
  8. "A Cultural History of Three Traditional Hawaiian Sites on the West Coast of Hawai i Island" by Diane Lee Rhodes, on National Park Service web site
  9. "Early Plant Introductions in Hawai i" by Kenneth M. Nagata, Hawaiian Journal of History, 1985
  10. Shoreline access map at Hawai i County web site
  11. Kealakekua Stewardship Area Management Plan Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources web site


External links




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