Kelantan is a state of
capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu.
The Arabic honorific of the state is
, ("The Blissful Abode").
is positioned in the north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. It is bordered by Narathiwat
Province of Thailand to the
north, Terengganu to the south-east, Perak to the west,
and Pahang to the
south. To the north-east of Kelantan is the South China Sea.
Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula,
Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning"
(see alternate theories below), is an agrarian
state with lush paddy fields
, rustic fishing villages and
-lined beaches. Kelantan is home
to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in Malaysia,
including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements.
With the Islamic Party of
(PAS) in power for many years, Kelantan is also
Malaysia's most socially conservative and Islamic state.
The name Kelantan is said to be a corruption of gelam
, i.e. the Malay
, or swamp tea tree (Melaleuca leucadendron
). Other theories claim
the name comes from the Malay word kilatan
'shiny/glittery' or kolam tanah
, 'clay pool'. Kelantan was
( ) by the Siamese when it was
under their influence.
The early history of Kelantan traces distinct human settlement
dating back to prehistoric times. Early Kelantan had links to the Funan Kingdom, the Khmer
Empire, Srivijaya and Siam .
Around 1411, Raja Kumar, the ruler of Kelantan, became independent
of Siam, and Kelantan became an important centre of trade by the
end of the 15th century.
Kelantan became a vassal state of the Malacca Sultanate.
With the fall of Malacca in
1511, Kelantan was divided up and ruled by petty chieftains, paying
tribute to Patani
, which in turn was a vassal
of Siam ruling from Ayuthaya. In 1603, most of these petty Kelantan
chiefs became subject to Patani.
Around 1760, a chieftain of Kubang Labu in Kelantan succeeded in
unifying the territory of the present Kelantan. Shortly thereafter, in
1764, Long Yunos was appointed as the Penghulu of Kota Bharu while his brother, Nik Muhammadiah, ruled as
Sultan Muhammad I of Legeh in Ayer
Nik Muhammadiah or Sultan Muhammad I,
officially became the first sultan of Kelantan.
In 1812, Long Senik, the adopted son of Mohammad I, sided with the
Thais and was appointed by them as the Sultan of Kelantan, known as
Sultan Muhammad II. He broke from Terengganu's influence and became
a tributary of the Thais. In the 1820s, Kelantan was one of the
most populous and prosperous states in the Malay Peninsula, having
avoided the wars and disputes which plagued the southern and
western states. Thais continued to play their role in manipulating
Kelantan throughout the 19th century.
terms of the Anglo-Siamese
Treaty of 1909, the Thais surrendered its claims over Kelantan,
Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Great Britain, and Kelantan thus became one of the Unfederated Malay States with a
was the first place in Malaya to be occupied by the Japanese, who invaded on December 8, 1941.
Japanese occupation, Kelantan came again under control of Siam, but
after the defeat of Japan in August 1945, Kelantan reverted to
became part of the Federation of Malaya on February 1, 1948 and together with other states
attained independence on August 31, 1957. On September 16,
1963, Kelantan became one of the component states of Malaysia.
high on the slopes of Gunung Korbu, the second highest peak in Peninsular
Malaysia, the Nengiri River flows east to merge first with
the Galas, and then with the Lebir — the latter born in the wilds
of Taman Negara
National Park — before
turning decisively northwards and emptying into the shallow waters
of the South China Sea. From Kuala Krai the conjoined streams become
River, a broad, mud-coloured stream which dominates the
fertile coastal plains and defines the
geography of the region.
The Kelantan River valley is a
fertile rice-bowl, rich in hardwoods and rubber
and lush with tropical fruits.
For centuries, Kelantan was all but separated from the rest of the
country by the Titiwangsa
, a mountain range running from north to south through
the peninsula. Weeks of hard travel were required to reach
Kelantan. The "easy way" to Kelantan was to sail around the
peninsula, braving the sea and pirates. For this reason Kelantan's
history often involves the sea, and boats. Even today, many of its
people are very much tied to the sea. A discussion with many
coastal residents will confirm that their ancestors, as far back as
they know, were "of the sea."
In the early 1980s, trunk roads
built to link it with nearby states. Presently, one can travel by
road from the capital city Kuala Lumpur to Kota Bharu through the
mountain range within 5 hours.
Kelantan has a chiefly agrarian
dominated by rice
along its 96-kilometre coastline is also an important economic
activity. Cottage industries
which employ traditional skills in handicraft production such as
, woodcarving and songket
weaving are also evident. Logging activities
are active given the vast remaining area of forest. In recent
years, tourism, especially to offshore islands, has increased in
importance. A few reputable hotels have been established and more
modern shopping malls have been opened to cater for urban
Kota Bharu, the capital, is the major urban centre, and there
are also plans to open up the southern portion of the state under
an ambitious multi-million-dollar development project.
main market at the city centre is a top attraction.
has a GDP per capita at about
RM10000, which is about one-third that of other richer states like
Selangor and Penang.
it is a well-known fact that many Kelantanese are involved in small
and medium businesses and enjoy good income, but not reflected in
the GDP calculation since in most cases the income is not
Starting from 2008, Kelantan will have its own airline company,
, with Sultan Ismail Petra
Airport as its hub. Amrose Air plans to service both domestic
and international routes, with the international destinations
including Bangkok and Jeddah.
Kelantan has a tropical climate
with temperatures from 21 to 32 °C and intermittent rain throughout
the year. The wet season is the east-coast monsoon season
from November to
Politics and government
of Kelantan came into
force in 1949 and is divided into two sections:
- The first part of the laws
- The second part of the laws enforced upon the people
Sultan of Kelantan
The Sultan of Kelantan
Constitutional Ruler of his State. The role, duties and powers of
the Sultan are as laid out in the State's constitution and other
state laws. The Constitution proclaims that the executive power of
the state is vested in the sultan, that he is the Head of the
Religion of Islam in the state and that he is the source of all
honours and dignities in the state. The current ruler of the State
is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Al-Sultan Ismail Petra bin Almarhum
Al-Sultan Yahya Petra.
State Executive Council
The State Executive Council is established by the constitution. It
is composed of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman, and ten
other members. The Menteri Besar and other members of the council
are appointed by the Sultan of Kelantan from members of the State
Assembly. The current Menteri Besar is Dato' Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
(Tok Guru), a religious teacher and Mursyidul Am (spiritual leader)
The flag consists of a white emblem on
a red background.
The red background signifies the loyalty of the people of
The white emblem stands for the sanctity of the office of the
A part of the deeply conservative Malay
heartlands, Kelantan has been ruled by the opposition Islamic Party of Malaysia
since 1990, with re-elections in 1995, 1999 and 2004. It is
currently one of four Malaysian states not ruled by the Barisan Nasional coalition
after the 2008 elections.
Almost all PAS members are Malay Muslims, as are about 95% of
The state of Kelantan is almost synonymous with PAS, as Kelantan
has been under PAS rule for two lengthy periods. (Neighbouring
Terengganu has also been under PAS rule twice, but for short
periods each time [1959–1962 and 1999–2004].) The first period of
PAS rule in Kelantan began two years after independence, in 1959,
and lasted 18 years (1959–1978); the current period is 18 years
long and counting.
The interval between the two periods of PAS government, when the
Barisan Nasional Party ruled the state, was only about 12 years (11
March 1978 to 21 October 1990). In the 1990 General Election, PAS
returned with an overwhelming victory, winning all the 39 State and
13 Parliamentary seats. The victory was achieved through the
PAS-led opposition coalition, called Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah
the following General Election in 1995, PAS won again, though with
a reduced majority. PAS won big in 1999, due in significant part to
Malay anger over the treatment of former Deputy Prime Minister
by then–Prime Minister
officials of the national government. However, PAS very nearly lost
control of Kelantan, retaining it with only a 1 seat majority, in
2004, when Barisan Nasional
the new leadership of Abdullah
following Tun Mahathir's retirement, won by a landslide
nationally. However, after the Malaysian general election,
, PAS regained the two-third majority of seats in the state
For years, PAS has attempted to impose a strict interpretation of
on Kelantan. It has
succeeded in imposing certain social strictures such as single-sex
queues in supermarkets; separate public benches for men and women;
and limiting entertainment centres to prohibit "salacious
behaviour". Proposals to institute punishments such as amputation
of limbs for thievery and execution for blasphemy (collectively
known as Hudud Law
), however, have been
blocked by the national government on constitutional grounds.
One of the most controversial steps PAS has taken in Kelantan is to
place tough restrictions or outright bans on the traditional
performance of syncretic Malay theatrical forms, such as Wayang Kulit
, and Main Puteri
.PAS also took action to vanish any
sculpture that looked like human or animal, modified versions
without the traditional references to Hindu dewa
traditional Malay hantu
(spirits or ghosts) and otherwise
in keeping with orthodox Islam
tolerated in certain cases. Also restricted are public performances
by women: Aside from Quran
performances are completely banned if any men are in the audience.
While PAS has maintained that these steps were essential to promote
Islam and put an end to immoral behaviour among the Muslim
population, many consider them an act of defiance against Barisan
Nasional's laws — which are more tolerant or laxer, depending on
one's viewpoint — and also a major loss to Malay traditional
There have been allegations that the Federal Government
deliberately withholds funding for development projects in Kelantan
as one way to pressure the voters of Kelantan into voting Barisan
Nasional back into the State Government.
The largely rural state preserves rich Malay traditions such as
kite-flying contests, top-spinning contests, and bird singing
competitions, and traditional handicrafts such as batik
, and silver
crafts. As a border state and former vassal state of Thailand,
Kelantan has absorbed influences from Thai customs and traditions
that help to make the state's culture distinct from those of other
states of Malaysia. The Kelantanese people, regardless of ethnic
origin, are proud of their state and its unique local culture and
All the ethnicities generally live together harmoniously in
Kelantan. For example, members of the Thai community received a
permit to build a very large statue of the Buddha without any
objection from the Malay community or the PAS government that
granted the permit.
Masjid Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra
Kelantan Malays is a different breed. Unlike the normal Malays,
they are believed to originate from old Malay civilizations from
the north, not south. Many Kelantanese also have Thai ancestry.
This is why they have always been different from other Malays in
Malaysia, both culturally and physically. However, they are
considered and treated as normal Malays.
distinguished from standard Malay as well as other Malay dialects
by its unique grammar, pronunciation and figures of speech.
Kelantanese Malay is the only lingua
of the state, is used in the local mass media, and is so
commonly used for daily communication that some Kelantanese cannot
speak the standard form of Malay, as promoted by the Federal
Government. The dialect is also prevalent beyond the
state borders into southern Thailand and in Besut, the northernmost district of Terengganu.
Whilst the Arab
has less influence in the other
parts of Malaysia, it is still widely used in writing and printing
the Malay language in Kelantan. Signboards in Kelantan are written
in both Jawi
and Rumi. To a certain extent,
is also used.
95% of Kelantan's population are ethnic Malay, and under the
Malaysian Constitution, all Malays are Muslims; therefore, Islam is
the most influential religion in the state.
To most Malaysians, Kelantan is synonymous with Malay arts and crafts
. Kota Bharu, as the state
capital, is a popular centre for such pursuits as silat
, martial arts
kertok drumming. Here, too, more than any other place in Malaysia,
the traditional pastimes of top-spinning — known as gasing — and
the flying of giant, elaborately-decorated kites called wau, are
still much in evidence.
ethnic Thai inhabitants of
Kelantan are mostly centered in an area around the coastal town of
Tumpat, site of
most of the state's two hundred or so Buddhist temples, and
noteworthy for its number of relatively well-off Siamese
dialect of the Thai language spoken in
Kelantan is called "Tak Bai", after the southernmost coastal town
Bai of Narathiwat Province, just across the Golok
River from Malaysia. Tak Bai
Reclining Buddha in Wat Photivihan.
substantially from standard southern Thai and other regional Thai
dialects, and it seems certain that the Kelantan Thais are the
descendants of an original enclave of Narathiwat settlers
established in sparsely-populated Malay territory as long as four
is also visible, in that hundreds
of Thai wats
can be found throughout the state.
The longest statue of a sleeping Buddha in Southeast Asia
can be found in Wat Photivihan
, in Tumpat.
The reclining Buddha at Wat Photivihan in Kelantan opened in 1980.
This temple is very popular with pilgrims and devotees. The Buddha
statue is believed to be about forty meters long. There are
visitors who are surprised to see a temple of such size in this
Muslim majority state but the reason is due to the fact that this
district is filled with strong Thai influenced. The Metta Chanting
is using the original language (Pali), or in Thai
The Thai group will conduct the religious celebration at the Wat
such as Tok'katinna, Loy Krathong
, and so forth. One
thousand visitors will attend this function.
Chinese assimilation in Kelantan is manifested as: "Malay
behaviour as frontstage and Chinese behaviour as backstage".
"Frontstage" or public behaviour includes speaking Kelantanese
Malay even when among themselves, adopting Malay-style clothing,
and observing certain Malay customs and holidays. "Backstage" or
private behaviour includes maintaining certain traditional Chinese
beliefs and customs confined only within the home.
In Kelantan, the Chinese see themselves as either Cina Kampung
(village Chinese) or Cina Bandar (town
Chinese). Famous Chinese villages in Kelantan include
Kampung Tok'kong (300 year old
temple), Batu Jong, Kampung Jelatok, Kampung Temangan, Kampung Mata
Ayer, Kampung Tawang, Kampung Balai, etc.
parts of Malaysia, the Chinese see themselves as Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, identifying themselves by the Han subgroup their ancestors were part of in
However, this is not so in Kelantan.
Descendants of the earlier waves of small-scale migration are known
as Orang Cina kita (our very own Chinese) and the elders are seen
as Orang Kelantan betul (true Kelantanese). Speaking the
Kelantanese Malay dialect with fluency unites both Cina Kampung and
The Chinese in Kelantan have native speaker competence in the
Kelantanese dialect. It is impossible to tell a Malay from a
Chinese by listening to his speech in the Kelantanese dialect,
without looking at the person.
The accommodations of the Chinese population have made
communication between Chinese and Malays in Kelantan both easy and
common. As a consequence, Kelantanese and Chinese view each other
as individuals, rather than simply as representatives of cultural
categories. The ability of the Chinese in Kelantan to accommodate
Malay culture has facilitated significant entrepreneurial
Much of Chinese culture still continues until today; such as lion
and dragon dancing during the CNY, temple celebration, religious
The village of Kampung Tok'kong
the Kelantan state of Malaysian is well known for a historically
significant Chinese Temple known as Seng Choon Keong. the distance
about 25 km from kota bharu city. Its a 1 km paddy field
village, with the old folk home that transform into modern living
house day by day. many youngster are migrate to town because demand
for jobs and better lifestyle. they will come back gathering when
cny or family gathering.
With the approximately 500 of villagers. The temple is
approximately 300 years old. The temple is dedicated to the worship
of the Goddess Matsu
. almost every
Friday and Every year on the equivalent date to the 23rd of March
on the Chinese Calendar, the birthday of Mazu is commemorated about
three days with the concert, lion dance, and also wayang kulit.
Chinese, and Mazu followers go there to pay homage to Mazu, and to
offer prayers for health and wealth, as well as for personal safety
and security. Annually, the Seng Choon Keong lion dance association
will tour the state during the Chinese New Year to conduct
traditional cultural rituals aimed at driving away evil spirits and
Unlike the Chinese in other parts of Malaysia, Chinese Kelantanese
prefer to conduct their wedding party at home rather than at a
restaurant. This reflects their mindset that their presence to
celebrate the newly weds is more important than the wedding
banquet. This is further proven by their generosity of the money
gifts to the newly weds. The wedding ceremony begins on Thursday
night and proceeds until the next morning because the weekend
holiday is Friday in Kelantan. For good luck, the groom has to
bring home the bride before 12 noon on the Friday.
Most Chinese villagers will bury their deceased ones at the local
town cemetery. Others cremate the dead at the nearest Wat. If the
deceased is old, a three day funeral ceremony and memorial is
conducted, complete with chanting from the monks. But if the
deceased is of the younger generation, they are either buried or
cremated as soon as possible. They also offers prayers for
anniversary for the death.
In addition, there are Orang Asli
, people who have lived in the forests
of Kelantan and Perak for thousands of years. Some of the Temiar
maintain traditional beliefs in their natural
surroundings and other forms of animist
elements, while some of them have embraced Islam, instead.
Kelantanese cuisine, heavily influenced by Thai cuisine, is quite popular among Malaysians.
In fact, many visitors come to Kelantan
just to taste the special delicacies that cannot be found
elsewhere. The use of sugar is a must in every Kelantanese kitchen,
and thus most Kelantanese dishes are sweet.
Kelantanese food makes more use of coconut
than anywhere else in the country. Curries
are richer, creamier, and more influenced by
the tastes of nearby Thailand.
Apart from delicacies imported from Thailand, there are delicacies
which are invented by the Kelantanese themselves such as:
This is a mix of white rice and brown glutinous rice (special
glutinous rice) which is cooked with coconut milk
(santan), blended onions and
garlic and some spices (such as fenugreek
(Malay: halba). Fish or chicken curry comes as an add-on to
complete the dishes together with mildly brown sugared sambal
(chili paste), so it's recommended to take only a small portion as
it is extremely filling. The Nasi Dagang is one of the tastiest
dishes in Kelantan and goes well with fish curry, pickle,
hard-boiled eggs.See here for the main article about Nasi Dagang
Nasi Kerabu literally means "rice salad". Kelantan has a variety of
Nasi Kerabu. Nasi kerabu biasa (normal) or nasi kerabu putih
(white) which comes with its own sambal tumis (a special coconut
milk based gravy with local herbs and spices, with a hint of
chillies) or Nasi kerabu Hitam (black) though the actual color is
blue (after the rice is soaked and cooked with a local flower
although some people use artificial equivalents) and nasi kerabu
kuning (yellow) which use tumeric in the preparation of the rice.
Nasi Kerabu Hitan and Kuning does not require a sambal tumis,
instead, it has a watery chilly sauce which makes it slightly
hotter. The “kerabu” (salad) could be any vegetables or edible
leaves though the more or less standard version will have daun
kesum, taugeh (bean sprout), thinly cut; long green beans, bunga
kantan, cucumber (connoisseurs will insist “seeded”), and daun
kadok. Apart from that it is also served with fried breaded fish,
, salted egg, "solok lada" (fish fillet and
coconut-stuffed chillis), and pickled garlic (local gherkins)
Rice packed in a cone-shaped banana
pack of Nasi Tumpang consists of an omelette
, meat floss
chicken and/or shrimp curry
and sweet gravy. It is traditionally meant for
Wood-fire broiled chicken dressed with sweet coconut gravy. Ayam
Golek/Ayam Percik is eaten with white rice in major family dishes
and serve during a feast.
Most Kelantanese have Nasi Berlauk as their breakfast. Nasi Berlauk
is rice served with fish or chicken and vegetables cooked with
tumeric and galangal infused yellow gravy.
is the local term for raw vegetables - the meal
consists of white rice served with a variety of raw vegetables, and
is considered one of the healthiest dishes found in Malay
Also termed as chlorophyll
, the Khau-Jam is a green rice cooked using up to seven
types of herbs, and served with raw vegetables (such as bean
sprouts, cucumber, and long beans), fish flakes and local
. The meal is often accompanied by Budu
and sometimes served with deep-fried fish.
These are Kelantanese fish crackers. Their texture and colour are
noticeably rougher and darker than the usual variety found on the
West Coast of Malaysia. Like the curries, the crackers are
influenced by Thai cooking and produce a sharper, saltier
These are Kelantanese fish sausages. Made by combining fish flesh
and sago, keropok gote is rolled into long firm sticks and then
steamed or boiled. To enjoy it, one has to cut it into desired bite
sized and deep fried. Different from Terengganu's keropok lekor,
the Kelantan variety is thicker and longer in size and has to be
fried to be eaten. Keropok Gote is probably the one snack which all
Kelantanese children grow up with. It is a must at all school
dish, white noodles served with
gravy (curry or otherwise) and vegetables, is made differently in
every state in Malaysia. The laksa Kelantan employs the creamy
white gravy which is richer and has full-bodied flavour. The main
ingredient is fish flesh, although connoisseurs would certainly
prefer the ones made of eels. Laksam is another version with
thicker noodle (similar to kuey teow). Laksa or laksam is served
with ulam similar in nasi kerabu, with a pinch of salt and belachan
for added taste
In English, 'Chocolate Banana' which is supposedly the favourite
flavour of ice cream in the Kelantan district.
This yummy drink usually can be found and sold at some morning
markets (so called Pasar Pagi in the weekend) and night markets. It
is made from young coconut juice, blend with its flesh and some
ice, plus little amount of cream soda drink and milk. It will form
like ice blended, and usually served with vanilla ice-cream on top
of the drink. It is hard to find this drink sold outside
Perhaps the most characteristic Kelantanese-Thai dish is 'kaeng
matsaman'—a mouth-watering beef curry cooked with peanuts, potatoes
and chopped red onions in a thick coconut milk sauce. Other
Kelantanese-Thai specialties include: 'kaeng phanaeng kai'—savoury
chicken and coconut curry. 'Kaeng som nom mai dong'—hot and sour
fish ragout with pickled bamboo
. 'Pla see
siad haeng thawt'—deep fried semi-dried pla see
'Khao yam pak tai'—an intriguing breakfast salad. The presentation
is exquisite. A small pile of fragrant boiled rice, accompanied by
finely chopped heaps of lemon grass
peanuts, bean sprouts, green beans, sour mango and chopped makrut
or kaffir lime
is served with spicy
, fresh lime
and a piquant sweet-sour sauce. It's
unusual, elegant, and very typical of Kelantan. Kelantanese dishes,
like central Thai, are usually accompanied by generous helpings of
'khao suay', or "beautiful rice"—the best of which, 'khao hawm
Mali', or jasmine-fragrance rice, is steamed until each grain is
tender but separate. When something tastes this good, the Thais
utter in full emotion:-"Pisek!"
- Somtam is a papaya salad with a salty, spicy, and sour taste.
The main items in it are young, unripe papaya, soy sauce,
groundnuts, fish sauce, lime juice, and chilies. These items are
combined in a mortar, pounded with a pestle for few seconds and
served. The salty and lime juicy taste is very popular. This light
dish is widely available in regions with large numbers of ethnic
Thais, such as Tumpat and Siamese wats.
- Contrary to popular belief, Cholek is not just a dipping sauce,
but can also refer to a snack eaten with the sauce. Cholek comes in
various forms, including meaty cholek, cholek ayam (chicken),
cholek perut (cow intestines), cholek pelepong (paru-liver), and
also a variety of cholek buah (fruits)m such as cholek pauh
The sauce or "the cholek" comes in various forms.• Cholek manis
(with brown sugar).• A sweet, sour and very mildly hot version.
This cholek is different from other chili sauces because cholek is
very thin and rather sweet. This dipping sauce is used for any kind
of chicken, but also goes well with shrimp, fish cake, spring roll,
- Budu is a salted (fermented) anchovy sauce
eaten with rice, grilled fish and vegetables/salads (ulam). A bit
of lime juice, hot chilis and onions are added on for taste. Also,
tempoyak (fermented durian) or fresh durian is added for good
Once so combined, the purple-brownish condiment has a blend of
salty and sour taste. Nowadays, other types of fish are also used
to create Budu. Famous budu maker villages are Kg. Tawang, Bachok
and Kg. Penambang near Kota Bharu.Similar sauces are found in the
Philippines and Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia).
- Tempoyak is a fermented durian dip, used
with normal white rice. Most unforgettable is eating the
Those with high blood pressure should beware of the high salt
content of this condiment, however.
- Another famous Thai dish is 'pakpek belut'. The main ingredient
of this cook is eel. Many Thai restaurants
around Tumpat and Wakaf Bharu make this dish their main attraction.
Some customers prefer it spicy, and some prefer it less spicy. This
dish is not easy to cook; it needs some experience in handling the
heat, natural ingredients, salt, and the eel itself. This dish is
also influenced by Chinese cuisine, for whom there is a belief that
eating this exotic food is more healthy.
Kelantan is known as the cradle of Malay culture based on the
diverse cultural activities practised by Kelantanese. Among the
popular cultural practices are Dikir
, Wayang Kulit
, Wayang Kulit
, Mak Yong
, Main Puteri
bird-singing competition and handicrafts.
Among the handicraft products that are songket
, silverware and
mengkuang. The Kandis Recource Centre
provides information on the
Kelantanese wood carving.
Government structure of Kelantan
Districts in Kelantan are called Jajahan
s, though actually
the direct translation of Tanah Jajahan
in Malay to
English is 'Occupied Territories'. Kelantan was a divided feudal
state, a common situation in the Malay Peninsula, with separate
petty local rulers. However, a strong one managed to rise and
conquer all these small petty territories. In the end, Kelantan
became united under one Sultan
, from left to right, are written in Rumi
- Jajahan Kota Bharu (كوتا بارو)
- Jajahan Pasir Mas (ڤاسير مس)
- Jajahan Tumpat
- Jajahan Pasir Puteh (ڤاسير
- Jajahan Bachok
- Jajahan Kuala Krai (كوالا
- Jajahan Machang (ماچڠ)
- Jajahan Tanah Merah
- Jajahan Jeli
- Jajahan Gua Musang (ڬوا موسڠ)
- Jajahan Ketereh
- Jajahan Kubang Kerian
- Jajahan Pengkalan KuKubur
The Goanese Bandmaster of the Kelantan Police Band, Haji Mohamed bin Mohamed
(1888–1939) was ordered to compose a song (only tunes) to
be played to the then-Sultan of Kelantan, Ismail, on July 5, 1927.
Subsequently, the words were composed by Mahmood bin Hamzah
(1893–1971), who was
the State secretary at that time.
Original Malay version
Lanjutkan usia Al-Sultan kami
Sultan Kelantan raja ikrami
Aman sentosa Tuhan sirami
Kekal memerintah kami
Kasih dan taat setia disembahkan
Segala kebesaran Allah cucurkan
Translated English version
Prolonged be the life of our Sultan
The divine Sultan of Kelantan
In peace with God's blessing
Forever rule us
Love and loyalty we offer
A wish of happiness we utter
May Allah bless with greatnessAnd his glory increase
Kelantan and Patani
Historically, Kelantan had a strong relationship with the Pattani Kingdom
. Pattani and Kelantan are
geopolitically divided but culturally united. Kelantanese and
Southern Thais cross the border frequently to visit their relatives
and transport goods for small business.
- Khadizan bin Abdullah, & Abdul Razak Yaacob. (1974).
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