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The Kelowna Accord is a series of agreements between the Government of Canada, First Ministers of the Provinces, Territorial Leaders, and the leaders of five national aboriginal organizations in Canada. The Accord sought to improve the education, employment, and living conditions for Aboriginal peoples through governmental funding and other programs.

The agreement resulted from 18 months of roundtable consultations cumulating at the First Ministers' Meeting in Kelowna, British Columbiamarker in November 2005 and was described in a paper released at the end of the meeting entitled First Ministers and National Aboriginal Leaders Strengthening Relationships and Closing the Gap and a separate press release, issued by the Prime Minister's Office at the close of the Kelowna meetings.

The term "Kelowna Accord" was never used at the First Ministers' Meeting. The term seems to have first been used in a Toronto Star article dated December 4, 2005.

The accord was seen as a step forward by Aboriginal leaders, as it involved process of cooperation and consultation that brought all parties to the table.

The press release issued by the Office of the Prime Minister on the November 25, 2005 outlined $5 billion in spending over 10 years, but did not set out the means for the fiscal distribution between federal departments, provincial and territorial governments and Aboriginal groups.

The Liberal minority government of Paul Martin fell, and the subsequent federal election resulted in a Conservative minority government headed by Stephen Harper. When presenting their first budget on May 2, 2006, the Conservatives indicated that they were committed to meeting the targets set out at the First Ministers' Meeting in Kelowna and the working paper therein produced, but that they did not agree with approach taken in the funding announcement set out in the former Prime Minister's press release. Rather, focused initiatives and targeted expenditures, coupled with systemic reform were laid out as the new government's direction.

In June 2006, former Prime Minister Paul Martin introduced a private member's bill, Bill C-292 An Act to Implement the Kelowna Accord calling on the government to follow through on the agreements made in the Kelowna Accord.

During testimony before the Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development it was disputed whether or not an accord had been formally signed and whether or not money had been budgeted for its implementation. Former Prime Minister Paul Martin and former Minister of Finance Ralph Goodale testified that the $5 billion dollars described in the press release were in fact booked in the Sources and Uses Table, an internal Department of Finance document.

On March 21, 2007 the bill was passed by Liberal, Bloc Québécois and New Democratic Party MPs, while the Conservatives voted against it. However, by section 54 of the Constitution Act, 1867, a private member's bill cannot contain expenditure of public funds.

Former Canadian Assembly of First Nations Chief Phil Fontaine has argued repeatedly for the implementation of the Kelowna Accord.

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