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Keresan ( ), also Keres ( ), is a group of seven related languages spoken by Keres Pueblo peoples in New Mexicomarker, U.S.A.marker. Each is mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. There is significant diversity between the Western and Eastern groups.

Family division

Southwestern peoples




Genetic relationships

Keres is a language isolate. Edward Sapir grouped it together with a Hokan-Siouan stock. Morris Swadesh suggested a connection with Wichita. Joseph Greenberg grouped Keres with Siouan, Yuchi, Caddoan, and Iroquoian families into a super-stock called Keresiouan. All of these proposals have failed to gain mainstream acceptance.

Historical phonology

The chart below contains the reconstructed consonants of the proto-Keresan (or pre-Keresan) as reconstructed by Miller & Davis (1963) based on a comparison of Acoma, Santa Ana, and Santa Domingo.

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"


The consonant * only surfaces as an alternate form of underlying * or * .

Morphophonemic alternations:

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"


Syllable:

C(C)V


Notes

  1. The consonants are in a version of the Americanist phonetic alphabet. The unaspirated series is IPA , respectively; the aspirated series is IPA ; and in the glottalized series, Americanist is IPA .


External links



Bibliography

  • Boas, Franz. (1923). A Keresan text. International Journal of American Linguistics, 2 (3/4), 171-180.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Davis, Irvine. (1963). Bibliography of Keresan linguistic sources. International Journal of American Linguistics, 29 (3), 289-293.
  • Davis, Irvine. (1964). The language of Santa Ana Pueblo. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 191); Anthropological papers (No. 69). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
  • Davis, Irvine. (1966). [Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller]. American Anthropologist, 68 (3), 810-811.
  • Davis, Irvine. (1968). [Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller]. Language, 44 (1), 185-189.
  • Davis, Irvine. (1974). Keresan-Caddoan comparisons. International Journal of American Linguistics, 40 (3), 265-267.
  • Hawley, Florence. (1950). Keresan patterns of kinship and social organization. American Anthropologist, 52 (4), 499-512.
  • Kroskrity, Paul V. (1983). On male and female speech in the Pueblo Southwest. International Journal of American Linguistics, 49, 88-91.
  • Maring, Joel. (1975). Speech variation in Acoma Keresan. In D. Kinkade, K. L. Hale, & O. Werner (Eds.), Linguistics and anthropology in honor of C. F. Voegelin (pp. 473–485). Lisse: Peter de Ridder.
  • Mickey, Barbara H. (1947). Acoma kinship terms. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12 (2), 249-256.
  • Miller, Wick R. (1959). Spanish loanwords in Acoma: I. International Journal of American Linguistics, 25 (3), 147-153.
  • Miller, Wick R. (1959). Some notes on Acoma kinship terminology. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 15 (2), 179-184.
  • Miller, Wick R. (1960). Spanish loanwords in Acoma: II. International Journal of American Linguistics, 26 (1), 41-49.
  • Miller, Wick R. (1965). Acoma grammar and texts. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 40). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Miller, Wick R.; & Davis, Irvine. (1963). Proto-Keresan phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 29 (4), 310-330.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Sims, Christine P.; & Valiquette, Hilaire. (1990). More on male and female speech in (Acoma and Laguna) Keresan. International Journal of American Linguistics, 56 (1), 162-166.
  • Spencer, Robert F. (1946). The phonemes of Keresan. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (4), 229-236.
  • Spencer, Robert F. (1947). Spanish loanwords in Keresan. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 3 (2), 130-146.
  • Walker, Willard. (1967). [Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller]. International Journal of American Linguistics, 33 (3), 254-257.
  • White, Leslie A. (1928). Summary report of field work at Acoma. American Anthropologist, 30 (4), 559-568.


Labial
Dental
Palatal
Retroflex
Dental/Palatal
Velar
Plosive
unaspirated
aspirated
glottalized
Fricative
plain
glottalized
Sonorant
plain
glottalized
plain, nasal
glottalized, nasal
Basic form
Aspirated
Glottalized
Fronted

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