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Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) ( , Tajik Χоноти Бухоро) was a significant feudal state in Central Asia from the early-16th century to the late–18th century. It arose following the conquest of Samarkandmarker (1500, 1505) and Bukharamarker (1506) by Muhammad Shaybani, when Bukharamarker became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire. The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, Abdullah Khan II (r. 1577–1598).

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Ashtarkhanids). In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran. After his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the descendents of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq. In 1785, his descendent, Shah Murad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukharamarker.

Shaybanid Dynasty

The Shaybanid dynasty ruled the Khanate from 1506 to 1598. Under their rule, Bukharamarker became a center of arts and literature and educational reforms were introduced.

New books on history and geography were written in this period, such as Haft iqlīm--Seven Climates--by Amin Ahmad Razi, a native of Iranmarker. Bukhara of the sixteenth century attracted skilled craftsman of calligraphy and miniature-paintings, such as Sultan Ah Maskhadi, Makhmud ibn Iskhak ash-Shakhibi|Mahmud ibn Eshaq Shakibi, the theoretician in calligraphy and dervish Mahmud Buklian, Molana Mahmud Muzahheb, and Jelaleddin Yusuf. Among the famous poets and theologians who worked in Bukhara in that era were Mushfiki, Nizami Muamaya, and Mohammad Amin Zahed. Molana Abd-al Hakim was the most famous of the many physicians who practised in the Bukharan khanate in the sixteenth century.

Abd al-Aziz Khan (1533-1550) established a library "having no equal" the world over. The prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there from 1540. The gifted calligrapher Mir Abid Khusaini produced masterpieces of Nastaliq and Reihani script. He was a brilliant miniature-painter and master of encrustation, and was the librarian (kitabdar) of Bukhara's library.

The Shaybanids instituted a number of measures to improve the khanate's system of public education. Each neighborhood -- mahalla unit of local self-government—of Bukhara had a hedge school, while prosperous families provided home education to their children. Children started elementary education at the age of six. After two years they could be taken to madrasah. The course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps of seven years each. Hence, the whole course of education in madrasah lasted twenty-one years. The pupils studied theology, arithmetic, jurisprudence, logic, music, and poetry. This educational system had a positive influence upon the development and wide circulation of the Persian and Uzbek languages, and also on the development of literature, science, art, and skills.

Janid Dynasty

The Janid Dynasty (or Astrakhanids) ruled the khanate from 1599 until 1740.

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