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Khara-Khoto ( "black city"; Hēichéng "black city" or 黑水城 Hēishuǐchéng, "black water city") is a medieval Tangut city in the Ejin khoshuu of Alxa Leaguemarker, in western Inner Mongolia, near the former Gashun Lakemarker. It has been identified as the city of Etzina, which appears in The Travels of Marco Polo.

History

The city was founded in 1032 and became a thriving center of Tangut Empire trade in the 11th century. There are remains of -high ramparts and -thick outer walls. The outer walls ran for some east-west by north-south .

The walled fortress was first taken by Genghis Khan in 1226, but—contrary to a widely-circulated misunderstanding—the city continued to flourish under Mongol overlordship. During Kublai Khan's time, the city was expanded, reaching a size three times bigger than during the Tangut Empire. Togoontemur Khan concentrated his preparation for reconquest of China at Khara-Khoto. The city was located on the crossroads connecting Karakorummarker, Xanadumarker and Kumulmarker.

In The Travels of Marco Polo, Marco Polo describes a visit to a city called Etzina or Edzina, which has been identified with Khara-Khoto.

According to a legend by the local Torghut population, in 1372 a Mongol military general named Khara Bator ( ) was surrounded with his troops by the armies of China's Ming dynastymarker. Diverting the Ejin River, the city's water source that flowed just outside the fortress, the Chinesemarker denied Khara-Khoto water for its gardens and wells. As time passed and Khara Bator realised his fate, he murdered his family and then himself. After his suicide, Khara Bator's soldiers waited within the fortress until the Ming finally attacked and killed the remaining inhabitants. Another version of the legend holds that Khara Bator made a breach in the northwestern corner of the city wall and escaped through it. The remains of the city has a breach through which a rider can pass.

After the defeat, and additionally possibly for real water shortage, the city was abandoned and left in ruins.

Exploration

The site was first discovered by Tsogt Badmajapov who conducted primary research .

Russian explorers Grigory Potanin and Vladimir Obruchev heard rumours that somewhere downstream Ejin River an ancient city was waiting. This knowledge gave impetus to Institute of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburgmarker, to launch a new Mongol-Sichuan expedition under command of Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov.

During the 1907-1909 expedition to Central Asia, in 1908, Kozlov made the historical discovery of Khara-Khoto. With a dinner and gift of a grammophone to a local Torghut lord Dashi Beile, Kozlov obtained a permission to dig in the site, arriving in May 1, 1908 to Khara-Khoto ruins. Over 2,000 books, scrolls and manuscripts in the Tangut language were uncovered. Kozlov initially sent ten chests of manuscripts and Buddhist objects to St. Petersburgmarker, returning again in May 1909 for more objects. The books and xylographs were found in June, while excavating a stupa outside city walls some westward.

Sir Aurel Stein excavated Khara-Khoto during his third Central Asian expedition in 1917, surveying Khara-Khoto for eight days. The findings from this research was incorporated in chapter 13 of Stein's first volume of Innermost Asia.

Langdon Warner visited Khara-Khoto in 1925.

Folke Bergman first travelled to Khara-Khoto in 1927, returning in 1929 and staying for a year and a half in the area. He made maps of Khara-Khoto and Ejin River area, surveyed watchtowers and fortresses, finding a large number of xylographs. Bergman noted that Kozlov's and Stein's visits were cursory and some of their published documentation was partially incorrect.

Sven Hedin and Xu Bingchang led Sino-Swedish Expedition on archaeological excavations of the site between 1927–31. After Hedin, John DeFrancis visited in 1935.

Further Chinese excavations between 1983 and 1984 by Li Yiyou, Inner Mongolian Institute of Archaeology, have produced some 3,000 more manuscripts. In addition to books, these excavations unearthed building materials, daily items, production instruments and religious art.

A historian from Inner Mongolia Chimeddorji is studying Yuanmarker period scriptures written in Phagspa and Mongolian script found in the ruins of Khara-Khoto .

Findings

Kozlov's findings, some 3,500 paintings and other objects, are in Hermitage Museummarker, St. Petersburg, while the books and xylographs are at Institute of Oriental Studies. These fortunately survived the Siege of Leningrad and some of them were even lost until their rediscovery in 1991, forming the basis for research of Tangut language, written in Tangut script in subsequent years. Among Kozlov's findings was a Chinese-Tangut glossary titled Fanhan Heshi Zhangzhongzhu (番汉合时掌中珠), compiled in 1190.

In addition to written artifacts, batik-dyed silk fragments have also been found. A small mud wall painting fragment confirms use of cobalt as a pigment in the form of smalt.

Footnotes

Further reading



External links




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