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Kind of Blue is a studio album by Americanmarker jazz musician Miles Davis, released August 17, 1959 on Columbia Records in the United States. Recording sessions for the album took place at Columbia's 30th Street Studio in New York Citymarker on March 2 and April 22, 1959. Production was handled entirely by Teo Macero and Irving Townsend. The sessions featured Davis's ensemble sextet, which consisted of pianists Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly, drummer Jimmy Cobb, bassist Paul Chambers, and saxophonists John Coltrane and Julian "Cannonball" Adderley. After the inclusion of Bill Evans into his sextet, Davis followed up on the modal experimentations of Milestones (1958) and 1958 Miles (1958) by basing the album entirely on modality, in contrast to his earlier work with the hard bop style of jazz.

Though precise figures have been disputed, Kind of Blue has been cited by many music writers not only as Davis's best-selling album, but as the best-selling jazz record of all time. On October 7, 2008, it was certified quadruple platinum in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). It has been regarded by many critics as the greatest jazz album of all time and Davis's masterpiece, and it has been ranked at or near the top of several "best album" lists in disparate genres. The album's influence on music, including jazz, rock and classical music, has led music writers to acknowledge it as one of the most influential albums of all time. In 2002, it was one of fifty recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congressmarker to be added to the National Recording Registry. In 2003, the album was ranked number 12 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2008, a box set release of Kind of Blue was issued by Legacy Records in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary.



By late 1958, Davis employed one of the best and most profitable working bands pursuing the hard bop style. His personnel had become stable: alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, tenor saxophonist John Coltrane, pianist Bill Evans, long-serving bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Jimmy Cobb. His band played a mixture of pop standards and bebop originals by Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, and Tadd Dameron; as with all bebop-based jazz, Davis's groups improvised on the chord changes of a given song. Davis was one of many jazz musicians growing dissatisfied with bebop, and saw its increasingly complex chord changes as hindering creativity.

In 1953, the pianist George Russell published his Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization, which offered an alternative to the practice of improvisation based on chords and chord changes. Abandoning the traditional major and minor key relationships of Western music, Russell developed a new formulation using scales or a series of scales for improvisations; this approach led the way to "modal" in jazz. Influenced by Russell's ideas, Davis implemented his first modal composition with the title track of his studio album Milestones (1958) and his first sessions with Bill Evans, the '58 Sessions. Satisfied with the results, Davis prepared an entire album based on modality. Pianist Bill Evans, who had studied with Russell but recently departed from Davis's sextet to pursue his own career, was drafted back into the new recording project—the sessions that would engender Kind of Blue.


Kind of Blue was recorded in two sessions at Columbia Records' 30th Street Studio in New York Citymarker, on March 2 for the tracks "So What", "Freddie Freeloader", and "Blue in Green", composing side one of the original LP, and April 22 for the tracks "Flamenco Sketches", and "All Blues", making up side two. Production was handled by Teo Macero, who had produced Davis's previous two LP's, and Irving Townsend.

As was Miles Davis's penchant, he called for almost no rehearsal and the musicians had little idea what they were to record; as described in the original liner notes by pianist Bill Evans, Davis had only given the band sketches of scales and melody lines on which to improvise. Once the musicians were assembled, Davis gave brief instructions for each piece and then set to taping the sextet in studio. While the results were impressive with so little preparation, the persistent legend that the entire album was recorded in one pass is untrue. Only "Flamenco Sketches" yielded a complete take on the first try. That take, not the master, was issued in 1997 as a bonus alternate track. The five master takes issued, however, were the only other complete takes; an insert for the ending to "Freddie Freeloader" was recorded, but was not used for release or on the issues of Kind of Blue prior to the 1997 reissue. Pianist Wynton Kelly may not have been happy to see the man he replaced, Bill Evans, back in his old seat. Perhaps to assuage the pianist's feelings, and also to take advantage of Kelly's superior skills as both bluesman and accompanist, Davis had Kelly play instead of Evans on the album's most blues-oriented number, "Freddie Freeloader". The live album Miles Davis at Newport documents this band. However, the Newport Jazz Festival recording on July 3, 1958 reflects the band in its hard bop conception, the presence of a Bill Evans only six weeks into his brief tenure in the Davis band notwithstanding, rather than the modal approach of Kind of Blue.



Kind of Blue is based entirely on modality in contrast to Davis's earlier work with the hard bop style of jazz and its complex chord progression and improvisation. The entire album was composed as a series of modal sketches, in which each performer was given a set of scales that defined the parameters of their improvisation and style. This style was in contrast to more typical means of composing, such as providing musicians with a complete score or, as was more common for improvisational jazz, providing the musicians with a chord progression or series of harmonies.

Modal jazz of this type was not unique to this album. Davis himself had previously used the same method on his 1958 Milestones album, the '58 Sessions, and Porgy and Bess (1958), on which Davis used modal influences for collaborator Gil Evans's third stream compositions. Also, the original concept and method had been developed in 1953 by pianist and writer George Russell. Davis saw Russell's methods of composition as a means of getting away from the dense chord-laden compositions of his time, which Davis had labeled "thick". Modal composition, with its reliance on scales and modes, represented, as Davis called it, "a return to melody." In a 1958 interview with Nat Hentoff of The Jazz Review, Davis elaborated on this form of composition in contrast to the simple chord progression predominant in bebop, stating "No chords ... gives you a lot more freedom and space to hear things. When you go this way, you can go on forever. You don't have to worry about changes and you can do more with the [melody] line. It becomes a challenge to see how melodically innovative you can be. When you're based on chords, you know at the end of 32 bars that the chords have run out and there's nothing to do but repeat what you've just done--with variations. I think a movement in jazz is beginning away from the conventional string of chords... there will be fewer chords but infinite possibilities as to what to do with them."


Opening sequence of Davis's "So What"
As noted by Bill Evans in the LP liner notes, "Miles conceived these settings only hours before the recording dates." Evans continues with an introduction concerning the modes used in each composition on the album. "So What" consists of a mode based on two scales: sixteen measures of the first, followed by eight measures of the second, and then eight again of the first. "Freddie Freeloader" is a standard twelve bar blues form. "Blue in Green" consists of a ten-measure cycle following a short four-measure introduction. "All Blues" is a twelve bar blues form in 6/8 time. "Flamenco Sketches" consists of five scales, which are each played "as long as the soloist wishes until he has completed the series".

Liner notes list Davis as writer of all compositions, but many scholars and fans believe that Bill Evans wrote part or the whole of "Blue in Green" and "Flamenco Sketches". Bill Evans assumed co-credit with Davis for "Blue in Green" when recording it on his Portrait in Jazz album. The Davis estate acknowledged Evans' authorship in 2002. The practice of a band leader's appropriating authorship of a song written by a sideman occurred frequently in the jazz world, as legendary saxophonist Charlie Parker did so to Davis when Parker took a songwriting credit for the tune "Donna Lee", written by Davis while employed as a sideman in Charlie Parker's quintet in the late 1940s. The composition later became a popular jazz standard. Another example is the introduction to "So What", attributed to Gil Evans, which is closely based on the opening measures of French composer Claude Debussy's Voiles (1910), the second prelude from his first collection of preludes.

Reception and influence

Jazz scene

Kind of Blue was released August 17, 1959 on Columbia Records in the United States, in both mono and stereo format. Since, Kind of Blue has often been regarded as Davis's greatest work and his most acclaimed album, and has been cited as the best-selling jazz record released, despite later claims attributing the achievement to Davis's first official gold record Bitches Brew (1969).. Music writer Chris Morris cited Kind of Blue as "the distillation of Davis's art." Kind of Blue has also been recognized as one of the most influential albums in the history of jazz. One reviewer has called it a "defining moment of twentieth century music." Several of the songs from the album have become jazz standards. Kind of Blue is consistently ranked among the greatest albums of all time. Acclaimed Music - Kind of Blue (Rankings, rating, etc.. Retrieved on 2008-08-11. In a review of the album, Allmusic-senior editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine stated:

In 1958, however, the arrival of Ornette Coleman on the jazz scene via his fall residency at the Five Spot club, consolidated by the release of his The Shape of Jazz to Come LP the same year, muted the initial impact of Kind of Blue, a happenstance that irritated Davis to no end. Though Davis and Coleman both offered alternatives to the rigid rules of bebop, Davis would never reconcile himself to Coleman's free jazz innovations, although he would incorporate musicians amenable to Coleman's ideas with his great quintet of the mid-1960s, and offer his own version of "free" playing with his jazz fusion outfits in the 1970s. The influence of the album did build, and all of the sidemen from the album would achieve success on their own. Evans formed his influential jazz trio with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian; "Cannonball" Adderley would front his popular bands with his brother Nat; Kelly, Chambers, and Cobb would continue as a touring unit, recording under Kelly's name as well as in support of Coltrane and Wes Montgomery, among others; Coltrane would go on to become one of the most revered and innovative jazz musicians in history. Even more than Davis, Coltrane took the modal approach and ran with it during his career as a leader in the 1960s, leavening his music with Coleman's ideas as the decade progressed.

Impact on music

The album's influence has reached beyond jazz, as musicians of such genres as rock and classical have been influenced by it, while critics have acknowledged it as one of the most influential albums of all time. Many improvisatory rock musicians of the 1960s referred to Kind of Blue for inspiration, along with other Davis albums, as well as Coltrane's modal records My Favorite Things (1961) and A Love Supreme (1965). Guitarist Duane Allman of the Allman Brothers Band said his soloing on songs such as "In Memory of Elizabeth Reed" "comes from Miles and Coltrane, and particularly Kind of Blue. I've listened to that album so many times that for the past couple of years, I haven't hardly listened to anything else." Pink Floyd keyboardist Richard Wright has said that the chord progressions on the album influenced the structure of the introductory chords to the song "Breathe" on their landmark opus The Dark Side of the Moon (1973). In his book Kind of Blue: The Making of a Miles Davis Masterpiece, writer Ashley Kahn wrote "still acknowledged as the height of hip, four decades after it was recorded, Kind of Blue is the premier album of its era, jazz or otherwise. Its vapory piano introduction is universally recognized". Producer Quincy Jones, one of Davis' longtime friends, wrote: "That [Kind of Blue] will always be my music, man. I play Kind of Blue every day—it's my orange juice. It still sounds like it was made yesterday". Pianist Chick Corea, one of Miles' acolytes, was also struck by its majesty, later stating "It's one thing to just play a tune, or play a program of music, but it's another thing to practically create a new language of music, which is what Kind of Blue did."

One significant aspect of Kind of Blue is that the entire record, not just one track, was revolutionary. Gary Burton noted this occurrence, stating "It wasn’t just one tune that was a breakthrough, it was the whole record. When new jazz styles come along, the first few attempts to do it are usually kind of shaky. Early Charlie Parker records were like this. But with Kind of Blue [the sextet] all sound like they’re fully into it." Along with The Dave Brubeck Quartet's Time Out (1959) and Coltrane's Giant Steps (1959), Kind of Blue has often been recommended by music writers as an introductory jazz album, for similar reasons: the music on both records is very melodic, and the relaxed quality of the songs makes the improvisation easy for listeners to follow, without sacrificing artistry or experimentation. Upon the release of the 50th anniversary collector's edition of the album, a columnist for All About Jazz stated "Kind of Blue heralded the arrival of a revolutionary new American music, a post-bebop modal jazz structured around simple scales and melodic improvisation. Trumpeter/band leader/composer Miles Davis assembled a sextet of legendary players to create a sublime atmospheric masterpiece. Fifty years after its release, Kind of Blue continues to transport listeners to a realm all its own while inspiring musicians to create to new sounds—from acoustic jazz to post-modern ambient—in every genre imaginable."

Later in an interview, renowned hip hop artist and rapper Q-Tip reaffirmed the album's reputation and influence when discussing the significance of Kind of Blue, stating "It's like the Bible—you just have one in your house." Following its inclusion in the iTunes Store, a reviewer wrote of the musical importance of Kind of Blue, stating "The essence of great art is that its power is inexplicable, and in the jazz stratos there's never been anything like this 1959 session. It reigns to this day as the genre's greatest hit and the most coherent album length statement in modern jazz history ... Modern jazz starts here." Kind of Blue has been cited by many writers and music critics as the greatest jazz album of all time and ranks at or near the top of several "best album" lists in disparate genres. In 2002, Kind of Blue was one of 50 recordings chosen that year by the Library of Congressmarker to be added to the National Recording Registry. In selecting the album as number 12 on its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time, Rolling Stone magazine stated "This painterly masterpiece is one of the most important, influential and popular albums in jazz."

Track listing

Only six complete takes of the five tunes on the album exist, indicated by the song numbers.
Side one
Track Recorded Number Title Writer(s) Length
1. 3/2/59 CO 62291-4 "So What" Miles Davis 9:22
2. 3/2/59 CO 62290-4 "Freddie Freeloader" Davis 9:46
3. 3/2/59 CO 62292-5 "Blue in Green" Davis and Bill Evans 5:37

Side two
Track Recorded Number Title Writer(s) Length
1. 4/22/59 CO 62294-2 "All Blues" Davis 11:33
2. 4/22/59 CO 62293-6 "Flamenco Sketches" Davis and Evans 9:26

1997 Compact Disc reissue bonus track
Track Recorded Number Title Writers Length
1. 4/22/59 CO 62293-1 "Flamenco Sketches" (Alternate take) Davis and Evans 9:32

Collector's edition

Kind of Blue: 50th Anniversary Collector's Edition is a two-disc box set reissue of Miles Davis's studio album Kind of Blue, released September 30, 2008 on Columbia Records and distributed through Legacy Records. Contrary to the edition's title, the release precedes the album's fiftieth anniversary of either recording date or original issue date.

The collector's edition features the original Kind of Blue album in its entirety with the "Flamenco Sketches" alternate take, the rare "Freddie Freeloader" false start, and a selection of in-the-studio dialog from the Kind of Blue sessions on the first disc. The second disc features rare musical material from the classic sextet's recording sessions, including the May 26, 1958 session, which was previously available on The Complete Columbia Recordings: 1955-1961 and 1958 Miles. Also included on the second disc is the first authorized release of an extended live performance of "So What" from the 1960 Den Haag Concert.

The third disc, a DVD, features a documentary on the conception and recording of Kind of Blue. In addition, the DVD features the "Robert Herridge Theater: The Sound of Miles Davis" television program, which originally aired on April 2, 1959 and starred Miles Davis and John Coltrane. In the box-set packaging, a vinyl LP copy of Kind of Blue, a poster, and an LP-sized 60-page hardbound book are also included.

Disc one
  1. "So What" – 9:25
  2. "Freddie Freeloader" – 9:49
  3. "Blue in Green" – 5:37
  4. "All Blues" – 11:35
  5. "Flamenco Sketches" – 9:26
  6. "Flamenco Sketches" (alternate take) – 9:33
  7. "Freddie Freeloader" (studio sequence) – 0:53
  8. "Freddie Freeloader" (false start) – 1:27
  9. "Freddie Freeloader" (studio sequence 2) – 1:30
  10. "So What" (studio sequence) – 1:55
  11. "So What" (studio sequence 2) – 0:13
  12. "Blue in Green" (studio sequence) – 1:58
  13. "Flamenco Sketches" (studio sketches) – 0:45
  14. "Flamenco Sketches" (studio sketches 2) – 1:12
  15. "All Blues" (studio sketches) – 0:18

Disc two
  1. "On Green Dolphin Street" (Bronislaw Kaper, Ned Washington) – 9:50
  2. "Fran-Dance" (Davis) – 5:49
  3. "Stella by Starlight" (Victor Young, Washington) – 4:46
  4. "Love for Sale" (Cole Porter) – 11:49
  5. "Fran-Dance" (alternate take) – 5:53
  6. "So What" (live) – 17:29

Sales chart history

Billboard Music Charts (North America)
  • 1977: Jazz Albums – #37
  • 1987: Top Jazz Albums – #10
  • 2001: Top Internet Albums – #14

Country Certification Sales
Australia Platinum 70,000+
United Kingdom Gold 100,000+
United States 4× Platinum 4,000,000+




Release history

1986 Columbia Jazz Masterpieces compact disc reissue cover
Kind of Blue was originally released as a 12-inch vinyl record, in both stereo and mono. There have been several reissues of Kind of Blue, including additional printings throughout the vinyl era. On some editions, the label switched the order for the two tracks on side two, "All Blues" and "Flamenco Sketches". The record has been remastered many times during the compact disc era, including the 1986 Columbia Jazz Masterpieces reissue and, most notably, the 1992 remastering that corrected the speed for side one, which had been issued slightly off-pitch originally, and the 1997 that added the alternate take of "Flamenco Sketches". All releases after the 1997 include the alternate take and are speed-corrected. In 2005, a DualDisc release included the original album, a digital remastering in 5.1 Surround Sound and LPCM Stereo, and a 25-minute documentary Made in Heaven about the making and influence of Kind of Blue. "Kind Of Blue" has also been re-released on a rare 24 carat gold CD collectors version.

  • August 17, 1959–Columbia CS 8163, original stereo vinyl LP
  • August 17, 1959–Columbia CL 1355, original mono vinyl LP
  • 1974–Columbia PC 8163, stereo vinyl LP reissue
  • 1984–Columbia CK 8163, original compact disc issue
  • 1986–Columbia Jazz Masterpiece CK 40579, compact disc, digitally remastered from original master tapes
  • December 8, 1992–Columbia CK 64403, Mastersound Gold CD, super-bit mapping, corrected speed. Liner notes: First time original master used for side 1 of a CD issue Original had been misplaced since before 1984 (CK 8163).
  • 1997 - Double LP Gatefold edition from Classic Records included two side ones at original and corrected speed and a 45 rpm alternate take of Flamenco Sketches
  • March 25, 1997–Columbia CK 64935, compact disc, 20-bit remastering, adds alternate track, corrected speed
  • August 21, 2001–Columbia CS 64935, SACD, corrected speed
  • December 2001–Classic Records CS8163QP, Quiex SV-P 200 gram vinyl, corrected speed, original tracks
  • February 8, 2005–Columbia CN 90887, DualDisc, 20-bit remastered standard compact disc side, 5.1 AC3 Surround Sound, LPCM Stereo side, corrected speed
  • September 30, 2008–Columbia/Legacy CL 8869733552, box set, original album, previously unreleased material, bonus tracks, vinyl LP, DVD
  • January 20, 2009-Sony Legacy, two CDs from the 50th anniversary set (without DVD or vinyl).

The album was also released on many other formats many of which are only to be found second hand.
  • Two-track open reel tape (US only), Columbia GCB 60, by which Freddie Freeloader and Flamenco Sketches are omitted to keep cost down. This release was on the market less than a year and was discontinued some time after July 1961, after Sketches of Spain had been released as 4-Track only. Sonically most often better than the 4-Track counterpart that replaced it. The reports that the Two-Track version was the only one to be issued at correct speed for the tracks off the first album side are false. None issued at the correct speed.
  • Four-Track open reel tape (US only), Columbia CQ 379, as the complete 5 track album. This release replaced the Two-Track release and remained in the Columbia catalog for a few years. Some tracks are available on other reel tapes issued current at the time of or following the original release of the album, as by Various Artists. None issued at the correct speed.
  • Philips Compact Cassette. Both as the original album prior to the Jazz Masterpiece remaster, and as the 1987 Jazz Masterpiece remaster. Neither are at the correct speed.
  • MiniDisc, Columbia CM 40579 (US). Only as the master prior to 1997, but not as the Jazz Masterpiece remaster. This was unavailable by the end of the 1990s when production of prerecorded MiniDiscs had ceased. Sonically pleasing there is an analog warmth to many of the ATRAC encodings, but the format was never widely adopted by the consumer segment. It is rare over magnetic tapes and requires dedicated hardware to use. None issued at the correct speed.

The album was not released on the following formats:
  • 8-Track cartridge; though some of the tracks are available on 8-Track on the Greatest Hits album
  • 4-Track cartridge
  • Quadraphonic vinyl or tape

"Making of" albums

Several unofficial CD releases are known to contain the complete sessions with false starts and studio chatter, and all tracks (including the bonus track) in the order these were recorded during the two recording sessions.

  • An unofficial album entitled "The Making of Kind of Blue" features 73 minutes of the album's recording sessions.
  • Another unofficial album is entitled "Another Kind of Blue" features the same sessions.
A third, two-CD set, contains the complete sessions with false starts, studio chatter and all tracks as they were recorded at a total length of 78:40 minutes, released as:
  • "Miles Davis - The Making of Kind of Blue - 50th Anniversary Definitive Edition. It's Complete!".
The most recent release of this "Making of KoB" CD's is from February 2009, but holds only 73:51 minutes, so it's not that complete as the previous Japanese CD.However this one has to be mentioned too:
  • "Miles Davis Legendary Collection Series - Miles Davis-The Sessions of Blue."

The special box set with CD, DVD, LP, book, poster, etc. has only a selection of the studio chatter and false starts, and is released separately from the music, so there is no connection at all between the music and the studio chatter.So to analyse what was going on in the studio during the two recording sessions one of these Japanese releases is essential.These CD's also have "All Blues" without any fade out in its original length. On all other releases "All Blues" has a fade out, and according to the release this fade out is different in length.


  1. Kahn, pp. 86–87.
  2. Khan, Ashley. Kind of Blue: The Making of the Miles Davis Masterpiece. New York: Da Capo Press, 2000; p. 111.
  3. Blumenthal, Bob. Liner Notes, Miles Davis at Newport 1958; Columbia/Legacy CK85202, 2001, p. 4.
  4. Palmer (1997), pp. 4–7
  5. Kahn, p. 299a.
  6. Kahn, p. 299b.
  7. Miles Davis with Quincy Troupe, "Miles: The Autobiography," Simon and Schuster, 2001, pp. 103–104.
  8. Kahn, p. 178.
  9. Discogs - Kind of Blue search. Discogs. Retrieved on 2008-09-27.
  10. The All-TIME 100 Albums - Kind of Blue. Time Inc. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  11. The Dozens - Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  12. MILES BEYOND The Making of the Bitches Brew boxed set. Paul Tingen. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  13. Miles Electric: A Different Kind of Blue (DVD) - PopMatters. PopMatters. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  14. Miles Davis' Bitches Brew - ColumbiaJazz. Columbia. Retrieved on 2008-08-30.
  15. Kahn, p. 183.
  16. Jazz Extra - the biography of Miles Davis. Jazz Extra. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  17. Miles Davis: Kind of Blue - NPR. NPR. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  18. NPR's Jazz Profiles: Miles Davis Kind of Blue. NPR. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  19. pp. 182–183.
  20. Kahn, p. 19
  21. Kahn, p. 16.
  22. Kahn, p. 179.
  23. 1959: A Great Year in Jazz. All About Jazz. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  24. Jazz News: Miles Davis - Kind of Blue: 50th Anniversary Collectors Edition Coming in September. All About Jazz. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  25. Pitchfork: Kind of Blue 50th Anniversary Edition. Pitchfork Media. Retrieved on 2008-11-23.
  26. iTunes Store > Music > Jazz > Miles Davis > Kind of Blue. Apple Inc. Retrieved on 2008-11-16.
  27. The All-TIME 100 Albums. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  28. The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  29. Rateyourmusic's 'Top Albums of All-Time'. Rate Your Music. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  30. - Kind of Blue review notes. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  31. Library of Congress - Kind of Blue. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2008-08-19.
  32. The RS 500 Greatest Albums of All Time: 12) Kind of Blue. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  33. allmusic: Kind of Blue 50th Anniversary Collector's Edition. All Media Guide, LLC. Retrieved on 2008-11-23.
  34. RIAA database - Gold & Platinum search item Kind of Blue. Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved on 2008-10-17.
  35. - Search: Miles Davis - Kind Of Blue. Discogs. Retrieved on 2008-08-11.
  36. From Columbia tape catalogs at the time


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