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 (German, literally means "children's garden") is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling. Children are taught to develop basic skills through creative play and social interaction. In most countries kindergarten is part of the preschool system of early childhood education. Children usually attend kindergarten any time between the ages of two and seven years, depending on the local custom. In parts of the United States, Canada and Australia (New South Walesmarker, Tasmaniamarker and the Australian Capital Territorymarker) kindergarten is the word used to describe the first year of compulsory education. In British English, nursery or playgroup is the usual term for preschool education, and kindergarten is rarely used, except in the context of special approaches to education, such as Steiner-Waldorf education (the educational philosophy of which was founded by Rudolf Steiner).


Children attend kindergarten to learn to communicate, play, and interact with others appropriately. A teacher provides various materials and activities to motivate these children to learn the language and vocabulary of reading, mathematics, science, and computers, as well as that of music, art, and social behaviors. For children who previously have spent most of their time at home, kindergarten may serve the purpose of helping them adjust to being apart from their parents without anxiety. They are usually exposed to their first idea of friendship while they play and interact with other children on a regular basis. Kindergarten may also allow mothers, fathers, or other caregivers to go back to part-time or full-time employment.


Friedrich Fröbel opened the first kindergarten in 1840.

Friedrich Fröbel opened the first kindergarten on June 28, 1840 to mark the four hundredth anniversary of Gutenberg's invention of movable type. Fröbel created the name and the term Kindergarten for the Play and Activity Institute, which he had founded in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburgmarker, in the small, former principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringiamarker, Germanymarker. The first kindergarten in the United Statesmarker was founded in Watertown, Wisconsinmarker by Margarethe Schurz (wife of activist/statesman Carl Schurz) in 1856. It was based on Fröbelite principles that she had learned about in Europe. Schurz’s older sister, Bertha Meyer Ronge, had opened "Infant Gardens" in Londonmarker (1851), Manchestermarker (1859), and Leedsmarker (1860). Margarethe Schurz initially taught five children in her home (including her own daughter, Agatha) in Watertown, Wisconsinmarker. Her success drove her to offer her education to other children as well. While Schurz's first kindergarten was German-language, she also advocated the establishment of English-language kindergartens. She is credited with converting Elizabeth Peabody to the Fröbel philosophy at a meeting in Bostonmarker in 1859. Later that year, Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in America in Boston, following Schurz's model. The first free kindergarten in America was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist who settled in College Point, NYmarker, where he established the Poppenhusen Institute, still in existence today. The first publicly financed kindergarten in the United States was established in St. Louismarker in 1873 by Susan Blow.


In Afghanistanmarker, the equivalent term to kindergarten is کودکستان, pronounced as kudakistan (kudak – means child and stan – means land) and is not part of the actual school system. Children between the age of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens which are often run by government. According to law, every government office must have kindergarten area within it.

Early childhood education In Afghanistan

Early childhood development (ECD) programs address the needs and development of young children from birth to 6 years of age, their families, and their communities. They are multidimensional and designed to support children’s health, nutritional, cognitive, social, and emotional abilities, enabling them to survive and thrive in later years. Reflecting cultural values, they must be deeply rooted within families and communities, blending what are known about environments that enhance optimal child development with an understanding of traditional child-rearing practices that support and/or curtail a child’s development. The goal of the ECD strategy is to help families ensure that their children reach school age, not only healthy and well nourished, but intellectually curious, socially confident, and equipped with a solid foundation for lifelong learning. Develop and implement programs to provide better start in lives to younger age children before their schools (kindergarten) as well as to support school-age children who are out of school and missed their schooling by providing them Non-formal Education and vocational training.


ECD programs have a relatively short history in Afghanistan. They were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, reaching a high of more than 270 by 1990, with 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children. These facilities were an urban phenomenon, mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, they provided nursery care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare.The vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, and most of those who were never fully accepted it because it diminished the central role of the family and inculcated children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control. At present, no programs of any size exist, facilities have been destroyed, and trained personnel are lacking. In 2007, there are about 260 Kindergarten offering early year’s stimulation to over 25000 children.

It is estimated that 2.5 million Afghan children are less than 6 years of age. A range of both biological and environmental risk factors act synergistically to exert a powerful negative influence on the growth and development of the Afghan child. A mix of religious and tribal customs and beliefs permeates Afghan society, with kinship substituting for government in most areas. Communities are traditionally closely knit with a strong emphasis on the extended family. Roles are clearly defined and central to the social order. Decades of war, massive displacement, and changing power structures caused the collapse of community-support networks and the erosion of the extended family—one of the most basic traditional coping mechanisms. Large numbers of women are widowed and have had to assume unaccustomed and nontraditional roles as family breadwinners.One quarter of all children die before the age of 5 as a result of birth trauma, neonatal tetanus diarrhea, pneumonia, and vaccine-preventable diseases. Iron-deficiency anemia is widespread, affecting half to two thirds of children under 5 years of age. Large numbers of children are chronically malnourished; 45–59% show high levels of stunting. Malnutrition half of all girls marry before the age of 18, and many soon after adolescence. Confronted with these interlocking threats to development, children arrive at school unable to take advantage of learning opportunities. It is not surprising that dropout rates are high. Figures from 1999 show that one in four children dropped out of school in grade 2 and almost one in two in grades 3 and 4. In addition to the child’s physical and health status, other factors contributing to high dropout rates are family issues and competing priorities for the child’s time, irregular teacher attendance, subject irrelevance, and poor quality of teaching.

At present, no policies deal with early childhood and no institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to provide such services. In the past, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs was accountable for kindergartens, nurseries, and crèches, while orphanages fell within the purview of MOE. At present, the Ministries of Education, Labor and Social Affairs, and Women’s Affairs have expressed an interest in overseeing the early childhood sector. As the Government continues to define and restructure ministerial responsibilities, the strengths and limitations of various options, including an inter-ministerial coordination agency, should be carefully considered. While formal structures do not exist, it is not clear whether any informal childcare arrangements exist at the community level other than those provided by family members. As women enter the work force, it is likely that a market for private preschool services will emerge in urban areas.

Crosscutting issues

In addition to linkages with heath and nutrition, the early childhood sector addresses several crosscutting issues, including gender and children with disabilities. The roots of discrimination against girls, the stereotyping of male and female models of behavior, and the acceptance of male domination and violence against women are formed very early within the family. These values are reinforced in the school, community, and institutions that support children and their families. Since gender-equity issues in education begin in early childhood, the strategy suggested is one of informal community-based programs that support the capacity of families and communities to provide a fair start to girls as well as boys, and help parents better perceive the capabilities of the girl-child, thus leading to a longer period of schooling and increasing the probability that girls will enter and remain in primary school.The term “children with disabilities” subsumes a wide range of atypical disorders, from short-term behavior problems to long-term physical, mental, and emotional disabilities. In view of this, there is an urgent need to provide attention to children with these disabilities. The integrated holistic approach to normal child development provides a unique opportunity to identify these children early in life and to provide them with early intervention services. The recommended strategy is to equip paraprofessionals and families with the skills needed for the early identification of disabilities and intervention with infants and young children.

Australia and New Zealand

In each state of Australia, kindergarten (or 'kindy' for short) means something slightly different. In New South Walesmarker and the Australian Capital Territorymarker, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoriamarker, kindergarten is a form of preschool and may be referred to interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria the phrase for the first year of primary school is called preparatory (or 'Prep' for short), as it is also called in Tasmaniamarker and Queenslandmarker. In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the precursor to preschool and primary education. The first year of primary school education in Western Australiamarker, South Australiamarker or the Northern Territorymarker is referred to respectively as pre-primary, reception or transition. See also Education in Australia.

In New Zealandmarker, kindergarten refers to the 2 years preceding primary school, from age 3 to 5.


In Bulgariamarker, the term detska gradina (деτска градина) refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. It is followed by pre-school class, which is attended for a year before primary school.


In Ontariomarker there are two grades of kindergarten: junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten (referred to as JK and SK). Junior kindergarten begins for children in the calendar year in which they turn four years old. Both kindergarten grades are typically run on a half-day or every-other-day schedule though full day Monday to Friday kindergarten is being introduced. In Ontario, both the senior and junior kindergarten programs, also called the "Early Years", are optional programs. Mandatory schooling begins in grade one.

Within the province of Quebecmarker, junior kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not mandatory), is attended by 4 years olds, and senior kindergarten is called maternelle, mandatory by the age of 5, this class is integrated into primary schools. Within the French school system in the province of Ontariomarker, junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten are called maternelle and senior kindergarten is sometimes called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word Kindergarten.

In Western Canada and in Newfoundland and Labradormarker, there is only one year of kindergarten. After that year, the child begins grade one.

The province of Nova Scotiamarker refers to Kindergarten as Grade Primary.


In the equivalent term to kindergarten is 幼儿园 (Hanyu pinyin:yòu'éryuán). The children start attending kindergarten at the age of 2 until they are at least 6 years old


Two-thirds of established day-care institutions in Denmarkmarker are municipal day-care centres while the other third are privately owned and are run by associations, parents, or businesses in agreement with local authorities. In terms of both finances and subject-matter, municipal and private institutions function according to the same principles.

Denmark is credited with pioneering (although not inventing) forest kindergartens, in which children spend most of every day outside in a natural environment.


In Francemarker, pre-school is known as école maternelle (French for "nursery school"). State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the country, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under three may not be granted a place). The ages are divided into Grande section (GS: 5 year olds), Moyenne section (MS: 4 year olds), Petite section (PS: 3 year olds) and Toute petite section (TPS: 2 year olds). It is not compulsory, yet almost 100% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the French department


A German Kindergarten class.

The German preschool is known as a Kindergarten (plural Kindergärten) or Kita (short for Kindertagesstätte), meaning ‘children's daycare center’. Children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend Kindergärten, which are not part of the school system. They are often run by city or town administrations, churches, or registered societies, many of which follow a certain educational approach as represented, e.g., by Montessori or Reggio Emilia. Forest kindergartens are well established. Attending a Kindergarten is neither mandatory nor free of charge, but can be partly or wholly funded, depending on the local authority and the income of the parents.

Kindergärten can be open from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. or longer and may also house a Kinderkrippe, meaning crèche, for children between the ages of nine months and two years, and possibly an afternoon Hort (often associated with a primary school) for school-age children aged 6 to 10 who spend the time after their lessons there. Alongside nurseries, there are day-care nurses (called Tagesmutter, plural Tagesmütter) working independently from any pre-school institution in individual homes and looking after only three to five children typically up to three years of age. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities.

The term Vorschule, meaning ‘pre-school’, is used both for educational efforts in Kindergärten and for a mandatory class that is usually connected to a primary school. Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kongmarker, kindergartens provide three-year courses. Children aged eight months to two years attend the first year of pre-school in form of playgroup or pre-nursery class. Names of the years vary depending on the pre-school. After finishing the third year of study, children attend Primary 1 of primary schools.

Many pre-schools are named "Anglo-Chinese Kindergarten" or "English Kindergarten", emphasising their focus on English-language education. Some pre-schools are part of schools that offer primary, secondary and even matriculation courses.


In Indiamarker, pre-school is divided into three stages -Playgroup, Junior kindergarten (Jr. KG) and Senior kindergarten (Sr. KG). Typically, a Playgroup consists of children of age group from one and half to two and half years. Jr. KG class would comprise children three and half to four and half years of age, and the Sr. KG class would comprise children four and half to five and half years of age.

The kindergarten is a place where young children learn as they play with materials and cope up to live with other children and teachers. It is also a place where adults can learn; they observe children and participate with them. It can serve as a laboratory for the study of human relations.

The value of Kindergarten as a laboratory for studying about people will depend, in part, on the opportunities children may have there for play and for relationships with others.

The main objectives of kindergarten school are:

  • To develop a good physique, adequate muscular co-ordination and basic motor skill in the child.
  • To develop good health habits and to build up basic skills necessary for personal adjustments such as dressing themselves, toilet and eating habits.
  • To develop emotional maturity by guiding the child to express, understand, accept and control his feelings and emotions.
  • To develop good desirable social attitudes, manners and to encourage healthy group participation.
  • To encourage aesthetic appreciation (art, music, beauty, etc.)
  • To stimulate the child’s beginning of intellectual curiosities concerning his immediate environment.
  • To encourage the child’s independence and creativity by providing him with sufficient opportunities.

“The school is an opportunity for progress of the student. Each one is having the freedom to develop freely.”

In most cases the pre-school is run as a private school. Younger children may also be put into a special toddler/nursery group at the age of 2. It is run as part of the kindergarten.

After finishing Senior kindergarten, a child enters Class 1 or Standard 1 of primary school. Often kindergarten is an integral part of regular schools, though sometimes they are independent units and are often part of a larger chain.


In Israelmarker, a fully developed kindergarten (or Gan) system has been developed to cope with the extremely high percentage of working women in society. There are 2 streams, private commercial and state funded. Attendance in kindergarten is compulsory from the age of 5 years. Private kindergartens are supervised by the Ministry of Education and cater for children from 3 months to 5 years. State kindergartens are run by qualified kindergarten teachers who undergo a 4 year training. They cater for children from 3 to 6 years in three age groups; ages 3–4 (Trom Trom Hova), 4-5 (Trom Hova), 5-6 (Hova). At the conclusion of the Hova year (5-6) the child will either begin primary school or will repeat the Hova year, if not deemed psychologically and cognitively ready for primary school.


Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping mothers & fathers of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools.

Kindergartens (yochien 幼稚園), predominantly staffed by young female junior college graduates, are supervised by the Ministry of Education, but are not part of the official education system. The 58 percent of kindergartens that are private accounted for 77 percent of all children enrolled. In addition to kindergartens there exists a well-developed system of government-supervised day-care centers (hoikuen 保育園), supervised by the Ministry of Labor. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, preschools are predominately concerned with providing care for infants and toddlers. Same as kindergartens there are public or privately run preschools. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll well over 90 percent of all preschool-age children prior to their entrance into the formal system at first grade. The Ministry of Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human relationships, health, environment, words (language), and expression. Starting from March 2008 the new revision of curriculum guidelines for kindergartens as well as for preschools came into effect.

South Korea

In South Koreamarker, children normally attend kindergarten between the ages of five and seven (Korean children's ages are calculated differently from Western children's ages: when they are born they are one year old, rather than one day old. Also, every January 1, everyone ages one year regardless of when their birthday is: they do not age on their birthday). The school year begins in March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens are graded on a three-tier basis. They are called "Yuchi won" ( ).

Korean kindergartens are private schools. Costs per month vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten.

Kindergarten programs in South Korea attempt to incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergarteners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the teacher is to overcome weak points in each child's knowledge or skills.

Because the education system in Korea is very competitive, kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic nowadays. Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of homework. These very young children may also attend other specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or violin, taekwondo, ballet, soccer or mathematics.

In North Koreamarker, children attend kindergarten between the ages of four and five. Kindergartens are divided among the upper (party) class and lower (worker) class, where upper-class kindergartens are completely educational, and lower class have little education.


In Kuwaitmarker, Kuwaiti children may go to free kindergartens for two years (K1 and K2) between the ages of four and six.


In Malawimarker, kindergarten is known as "obuko" in Ciyawo-speaking regions and is generally available to children of ages four and five. Many English kindergartens also operate throughout the country.


In Mexicomarker, kindergarten is called "kindergarden" or "kínder", with the last year sometimes referred to as "preprimaria" (primaria is the name given to grades 1 through 6, so the name literally means "prior to elementary school"). It consists of three years of pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school. Previous nursery is optional, and may be offered in either private schools or public schools.

At private schools, kinders usually consist of three grades, and a fourth one may be added for nursery. While the first grade is a playgroup, the other two are of classroom education.

The kindergarten system in Mexico was developed by professor Rosaura Zapata (1876-1963), who received the country's highest honor for that contribution.

In 2002, the Congress of the Union approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling, which already made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and state ministries of education.[31097][31098]


In Moroccomarker, pre-school is known as école maternelle, Kuttab or Ar-Rawd. State-run, free maternelle schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not be granted a place). It is not compulsory, yet almost 80% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Moroccan department of education.


In The Netherlandsmarker, the equivalent term to kindergarten is kleuterschool. From the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century the term Fröbelschool was also common, after Friedrich Fröbel. However this term gradually faded in use as the verb Fröbelen gained a slight derogatory meaning in everyday language. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children (aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere school). After 1985, both forms were integrated into one, called basisonderwijs (Dutch for primary education). The country also offers both private and subsidized daycares, which are non compulsory, but nevertheless very popular.


In Perumarker, the term nido refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of age. It is followed by primary school classes, which last for four years. Some families choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. In 1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8 years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum for ladies. Her studies and concern for children led her to spread through conferences and numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from Montessori and participation of parents in this educational task.


In Romaniamarker, grădiniţă, which means "little garden" is the favored form of education for preschool (under-6 or under-7) children. The children are divided in a "big group" (grupa mare) and a "little group" (grupa mica) according to age. In the last few years, private kindergartens have become popular, supplementing the state preschool education system.


In the Russian Federationmarker Детский сад (literal translation of a children's park or garden) is an Education Institution for children usually 3 to 7 years of age. It is a Детское дошкольное учреждение (child preschool institution).


Kindergartens in Singaporemarker provide up to three years of pre-school programs for children aged between three and six. The three-year program, known as nursery, kindergarten 1 (K1) and kindergarten 2 (K2) prepares children for their first year in primary school education. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1 and N2.

United Kingdom

The term kindergarten is rarely used in Britainmarker to describe pre-school education; pre-schools are usually known as nursery schools or playgroups. However, the word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such as forest kindergartens, and is sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries which provide full-day child care for working parents.

In the UK children have the option of attending nursery between the ages of three and five years, before compulsory education begins. Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. The details vary slightly between Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Some nurseries are attached to state infant or primary schools, but many are provided by the private sector. The government provides funding so that all children from the age of three until they start compulsory school, can receive five sessions per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or private nurseries. Working parents can also spend £55 per week free of income taxes, which is typically enough to pay for one or two days per week.

The Scottish Government defines its requirements of nursery schools in the Early Years Framework and the Curriculum for Excellence. Each school interprets these with more or less independence (depending on their management structure), but must satisfy the Care Commission in order to retain their licence to operate. The curriculum aims to develop:
  • Successful Learners
  • Confident Individuals
  • Responsible Citizens
  • Effective Contributors

Nursery forms part of the Foundation Stage of education. In the 1980s Englandmarker and Walesmarker officially adopted the Northern Irishmarker system whereby children start school either in the term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy of the Local Education Authority. In Scotland, schooling becomes compulsory between the ages of 4½ and 5½ years, depending on their birthday (school starts in August for children who were 4 by the end of the preceding February). The first year of compulsory schooling is known as Reception in England, Dosbarth Derbyn in Welsh and Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

United States

In the United Statesmarker kindergartens are usually part of the K-12 educational system. Children usually attend kindergarten around age 5 or 6. Kindergarten is considered the first year of formal education, although the child may have gone to preschool. While kindergarten was viewed as a separate part of the elementary program, it is now fully integrated into the school system and is a full participant in schooling.

There are many positive learning and social/behavioral benefits for children in kindergarten programs. At the same time, it is widely felt that what children are doing during the kindergarten day is more important than the length of the school day.

"High/Scope Learning" is a style of learning that is used in many kindergartens in the United States. This learning style is very interactive and requires a great deal of the children and the teacher. It employs a "plan, do, review" approach which enables children to take responsibility for their learning. First the children "plan" their activities. The teacher provides choices of activities for the children which are age-appropriate and initiate learning, whether through problem solving, reading, language, mathematics, manipulatives, etc. This planning takes place, usually, when the children walk in the classroom. Then they "do" their activity. Some of these activities include such things as a water table, building blocks, a creative dance area, "dress up" area, a reading area, and a drawing table. The majority of the children's time is spent in this "do" activity. The last part of this approach is the review part. This is where the children and the teacher go over what they have done that day. This can be done in a large group, especially if there is a theme for the day that is used in all activities, or individually. The children discuss what they did and how they liked it and what they learned from it. This high/scope learning has grown in popularity and is accepted largely because it allows for the children to be responsible for their own learning.

In some states, it is not required for children to attend kindergarten. Mandatory age of enrollment varies by state but is usually age 5 or 6. In most states a child may begin kindergarten in the fall term only if age 5 by a state-set date, usually in the summer.

See also


  1. Kindergarten definition from Microsoft Encarta CD edition, 2004.
  2. Ontario's school system, accessed March 5, 2008
  3. Childcare regulations of the Scottish Government
  4. Tax Free Childcare Regulations, UK government HMRC
  5. Early Years Framework, Scottish Government, January 2009
  6. [1] accessed December 23, 2008

Further reading

The following reading list relates specifically to kindergarten in North America where it is the first year of formal schooling and not part of the pre-school system as it is in the rest of the world:

  • Cryan, J. R., Sheehan, R., Wiechel, J., & Bandy-Hedden, I. G.(1992). "Success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: More positive behavior and increased achievement in the years after." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(2),187-203. EJ 450 525.
  • Elicker, J., & Mathur, S.(1997). "What do they do all day? Comprehensive evaluation of a full-day kindergarten." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(4), 459-480. EJ 563 073.
  • Fusaro, J. A.(1997). "The effect of full-day kindergarten on student achievement: A meta-analysis." Child Study Journal, 27(4), 269-277. EJ 561 697.
  • Gullo, D. F.(1990). "The changing family context: Implications for the development of all-day kindergarten." Young Children, 45(4), 35-39. EJ 409 110.
  • Housden, T., & Kam, R.(1992). "Full-day kindergarten: A summary of the research." Carmichael, CA: San Juan Unified School District. ED 345 868.
  • Karweit, N.(1992). "The kindergarten experience." Educational Leadership, 49(6), 82-86. EJ 441 182.
  • Koopmans, M.(1991). "A study of longitudal effects of all-day kindergarten attendance on achievement." Newark, NJ: Newark Board of Education. ED 336 494..
  • Morrow, L. M., Strickland, D. S., & Woo, D. G.(1998). "Literacy instruction in half- and whole-day kindergarten." Newark, DE: International Reading Association. ED 436 756.
  • Olsen, D., & Zigler, E.(1989). "An assessment of the all-day kindergarten movement." Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4(2), 167-186. EJ 394 085.
  • Puleo, V. T.(1988). "A review and critique of research on full-day kindergarten." Elementary School Journal, 88(4), 427-439. EJ 367 934.
  • Towers, J. M.(1991). "Attitudes toward the all-day, everyday kindergarten." Children Today, 20(1), 25-28. EJ 431 720.
  • West, J., Denton, K., & Germino-Hausken, E.(2000). "America's Kindergartners." Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics.[31099]
  • McGill-Franzen, A.(2006). "Kindergarten literacy: Matching assessment and instruction in kindergarten." New York: Scholastic.
  • WestEd(2005). "Full-Day Kindergarten: Expanding Learning Opportunities." San Francisco: WestEd.

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