(German, literally means "children's garden") is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling. Children are taught to develop basic skills through creative play and social interaction. In most countries kindergarten is part of the preschool system of early childhood education. Children usually attend kindergarten any time between the ages of two and seven years, depending on the local custom. In parts of the United States, Canada and Australia (New South Wales, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory) kindergarten is the word used to describe the first year of compulsory education. In British English, nursery or playgroup is the usual term for preschool education, and kindergarten is rarely used, except in the context of special approaches to education, such as Steiner-Waldorf education (the educational philosophy of which was founded by Rudolf Steiner).
Children attend kindergarten to learn to communicate, play, and
interact with others appropriately. A teacher provides various
materials and activities to motivate these children to learn the
, as well as that of music
, and social behaviors
. For children who previously have spent
most of their time at home, kindergarten may serve the purpose of
helping them adjust to being apart from their parents without
anxiety. They are usually exposed to their first idea of friendship
while they play and interact with
other children on a regular basis. Kindergarten may also allow
mothers, fathers, or other caregivers to go back to part-time or
Friedrich Fröbel opened the first
kindergarten in 1840.
first kindergarten on June 28, 1840 to mark the four hundredth
anniversary of Gutenberg
invention of movable type. Fröbel created the name and the term
Kindergarten for the Play and Activity Institute,
which he had founded in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg, in the small, former principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, Germany.
kindergarten in the United
States was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin by Margarethe
Schurz (wife of activist/statesman Carl
Schurz) in 1856.
It was based on Fröbelite principles
that she had
learned about in Europe. Schurz’s older sister, Bertha Meyer Ronge, had opened "Infant Gardens" in London (1851),
Manchester (1859), and Leeds
(1860). Margarethe Schurz initially taught five
children in her home (including her own daughter, Agatha) in
Her success drove her to offer her
education to other children as well. While Schurz's first
kindergarten was German-language, she also advocated the
establishment of English-language kindergartens. She is credited with
converting Elizabeth Peabody to
the Fröbel philosophy at a
meeting in Boston in
Later that year, Peabody founded the first
English-language kindergarten in America in Boston, following
Schurz's model. The first free kindergarten in America was
founded in 1870 by Conrad
Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist who settled in College Point,
NY, where he established the Poppenhusen Institute, still in
existence today. The first publicly financed kindergarten in
the United States was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan
Afghanistan, the equivalent term to kindergarten is کودکستان,
pronounced as kudakistan (kudak – means child and
stan – means land) and is not part of the actual school
Children between the age of 3 and 6 attend
kindergartens which are often run by government. According to law,
every government office must have kindergarten area within
Early childhood education In Afghanistan
(ECD) programs address the needs and development of
young children from birth to 6 years of age, their families, and
their communities. They are multidimensional and designed to
support children’s health, nutritional, cognitive, social, and
emotional abilities, enabling them to survive and thrive in later
years. Reflecting cultural values, they must be deeply rooted
within families and communities, blending what are known about
environments that enhance optimal child development with an
understanding of traditional child-rearing practices that support
and/or curtail a child’s development. The goal of the ECD strategy
is to help families ensure that their children reach school age,
not only healthy and well nourished, but intellectually curious,
socially confident, and equipped with a solid foundation for
lifelong learning. Develop and implement programs to provide better
start in lives to younger age children before their schools
(kindergarten) as well as to support school-age children who are
out of school and missed their schooling by providing them
Non-formal Education and vocational training.
ECD programs have a relatively short history in Afghanistan. They
were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the
establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan. The
number of preschools grew steadily during the 1980s, reaching a
high of more than 270 by 1990, with 2,300 teachers caring for more
than 21,000 children. These facilities were an urban phenomenon,
mostly in Kabul, and were attached to schools, government offices,
or factories. Based on the Soviet model, they provided nursery
care, preschool, and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6
years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and
Social Welfare.The vast majority of Afghan families were never
exposed to this system, and most of those who were never fully
accepted it because it diminished the central role of the family
and inculcated children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil
war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens
dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving
2,110 children survived, and the Taliban restrictions on female
employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under
their control. At present, no programs of any size exist,
facilities have been destroyed, and trained personnel are lacking.
In 2007, there are about 260 Kindergarten offering early year’s
stimulation to over 25000 children.
It is estimated that 2.5 million Afghan children are less than 6
years of age. A range of both biological and environmental risk
factors act synergistically to exert a powerful negative influence
on the growth and development of the Afghan child. A mix of
religious and tribal customs and beliefs permeates Afghan society,
with kinship substituting for government in most areas. Communities
are traditionally closely knit with a strong emphasis on the
extended family. Roles are clearly defined and central to the
social order. Decades of war, massive displacement, and changing
power structures caused the collapse of community-support networks
and the erosion of the extended family—one of the most basic
traditional coping mechanisms. Large numbers of women are widowed
and have had to assume unaccustomed and nontraditional roles as
family breadwinners.One quarter of all children die before the age
of 5 as a result of birth trauma, neonatal tetanus diarrhea,
pneumonia, and vaccine-preventable diseases. Iron-deficiency anemia
is widespread, affecting half to two thirds of children under 5
years of age. Large numbers of children are chronically
malnourished; 45–59% show high levels of stunting. Malnutrition
half of all girls marry before the age of 18, and many soon after
adolescence. Confronted with these interlocking threats to
development, children arrive at school unable to take advantage of
learning opportunities. It is not surprising that dropout rates are
high. Figures from 1999 show that one in four children dropped out
of school in grade 2 and almost one in two in grades 3 and 4. In
addition to the child’s physical and health status, other factors
contributing to high dropout rates are family issues and competing
priorities for the child’s time, irregular teacher attendance,
subject irrelevance, and poor quality of teaching.
At present, no policies deal with early childhood and no
institutions have either the responsibility or the capacity to
provide such services. In the past, the Ministry of Labor and
Social Affairs was accountable for kindergartens, nurseries, and
crèches, while orphanages fell within the purview of MOE. At
present, the Ministries of Education, Labor and Social Affairs, and
Women’s Affairs have expressed an interest in overseeing the early
childhood sector. As the Government continues to define and
restructure ministerial responsibilities, the strengths and
limitations of various options, including an inter-ministerial
coordination agency, should be carefully considered. While formal
structures do not exist, it is not clear whether any informal
childcare arrangements exist at the community level other than
those provided by family members. As women enter the work force, it
is likely that a market for private preschool services will emerge
in urban areas.
In addition to linkages with heath and nutrition, the early
childhood sector addresses several crosscutting issues, including
gender and children with disabilities. The roots of discrimination
against girls, the stereotyping of male and female models of
behavior, and the acceptance of male domination and violence
against women are formed very early within the family. These values
are reinforced in the school, community, and institutions that
support children and their families. Since gender-equity issues in
education begin in early childhood, the strategy suggested is one
of informal community-based programs that support the capacity of
families and communities to provide a fair start to girls as well
as boys, and help parents better perceive the capabilities of the
girl-child, thus leading to a longer period of schooling and
increasing the probability that girls will enter and remain in
primary school.The term “children with disabilities” subsumes a
wide range of atypical disorders, from short-term behavior problems
to long-term physical, mental, and emotional disabilities. In view
of this, there is an urgent need to provide attention to children
with these disabilities. The integrated holistic approach to normal
child development provides a unique opportunity to identify these
children early in life and to provide them with early intervention
services. The recommended strategy is to equip paraprofessionals
and families with the skills needed for the early identification of
disabilities and intervention with infants and young
Australia and New Zealand
In each state of Australia
(or 'kindy' for short) means something
slightly different. In New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, it is the first year of primary school. In Victoria, kindergarten is a form of
preschool and may be referred to
interchangeably as preschool or kindergarten. In Victoria the
phrase for the first year of primary school is called
preparatory (or 'Prep' for short), as it is also called in
Tasmania and Queensland.
In Queensland, kindergarten is usually an
institution for children around the age of 4 and thus it is the
precursor to preschool and primary education. The first year of
primary school education in Western Australia, South
Australia or the
Territory is referred to respectively as
pre-primary, reception or
See also Education in Australia
Zealand, kindergarten refers to the 2 years preceding
primary school, from age 3 to 5.
Bulgaria, the term detska gradina (деτска градина)
refers to the schooling children attend from 3 to 6 years of
It is followed by pre-school class, which is attended
for a year before primary school.
Ontario there are two grades of kindergarten: junior
kindergarten and senior kindergarten (referred to as JK and
Junior kindergarten begins for children in the calendar
year in which they turn four years old. Both kindergarten grades
are typically run on a half-day or every-other-day schedule though
full day Monday to Friday kindergarten is being introduced. In
Ontario, both the senior and junior kindergarten programs, also
called the "Early Years", are optional programs. Mandatory
schooling begins in grade one
the province of Quebec, junior
kindergarten is called prématernelle (which is not
mandatory), is attended by 4 years olds, and senior kindergarten is
called maternelle, mandatory by the age of 5, this class
is integrated into primary schools. Within the French
school system in the province of Ontario, junior kindergarten and senior kindergarten are
called maternelle and senior kindergarten is sometimes
called jardin d'enfants, which is a calque of the German word
Western Canada and in Newfoundland
and Labrador, there is only one year of kindergarten.
After that year, the child begins grade one.
province of Nova
Scotia refers to Kindergarten as Grade
In the equivalent term to kindergarten is 幼儿园 (Hanyu
). The children start attending
kindergarten at the age of 2 until they are at least 6 years
Two-thirds of established day-care
institutions in Denmark are municipal day-care centres while the other
third are privately owned and are run by associations, parents, or
businesses in agreement with local authorities.
In terms of
both finances and subject-matter, municipal and private
institutions function according to the same principles.
Denmark is credited with pioneering (although not inventing)
, in which
children spend most of every day outside in a natural
is known as école maternelle (French for "nursery school").
schools are available throughout the country,
welcoming children aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places,
children under three may not be granted a place). The ages are
divided into Grande section
(GS: 5 year olds), Moyenne
(MS: 4 year olds), Petite section
(PS: 3 year
olds) and Toute petite section
(TPS: 2 year olds). It is
not compulsory, yet almost 100% of children aged 3 to 5 attend. It
is regulated by the French department
A German Kindergarten class.
The German preschool is known as a Kindergarten
) or Kita
‘children's daycare center’.
Children between the ages of 3 and 6
attend Kindergärten, which are not part of the school
are often run by city or town administrations, churches, or
registered societies, many of which follow a certain educational
approach as represented, e.g., by Montessori or Reggio
kindergartens are well established.
Attending a Kindergarten is
neither mandatory nor free of charge, but can be partly or wholly
funded, depending on the local authority and the income of the
can be open from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. or longer
and may also house a Kinderkrippe
, meaning crèche, for
children between the ages of nine months and two years, and
possibly an afternoon Hort
(often associated with a
primary school) for school-age children aged 6 to 10 who spend the
time after their lessons there. Alongside nurseries, there are
day-care nurses (called Tagesmutter
) working independently from any pre-school
institution in individual homes and looking after only three to
five children typically up to three years of age. These nurses are
supported and supervised by local authorities.
The term Vorschule
, meaning ‘pre-school’, is used both for
educational efforts in Kindergärten
and for a mandatory
class that is usually connected to a primary school. Both systems
are handled differently in each German
. The Schulkindergarten
is a type of
Kong, kindergartens provide three-year courses.
Children aged eight months to two years attend the first year of
pre-school in form of playgroup or pre-nursery class. Names of the
years vary depending on the pre-school. After finishing the third
year of study, children attend Primary 1 of primary schools.
Many pre-schools are named "Anglo-Chinese Kindergarten" or "English
Kindergarten", emphasising their focus on English-language
education. Some pre-schools are part of schools that offer primary,
secondary and even matriculation courses.
India, pre-school is divided into three stages
-Playgroup, Junior kindergarten (Jr. KG) and Senior kindergarten
Typically, a Playgroup consists of children of age
group from one and half to two and half years. Jr. KG class would
comprise children three and half to four and half years of age, and
the Sr. KG class would comprise children four and half to five and
half years of age.
The kindergarten is a place where young children learn as they play
with materials and cope up to live with other children and
teachers. It is also a place where adults can learn; they observe
children and participate with them. It can serve as a laboratory
for the study of human relations.
The value of Kindergarten as a laboratory for studying about people
will depend, in part, on the opportunities children may have there
for play and for relationships with others.
The main objectives of kindergarten school are:
- To develop a good physique, adequate muscular co-ordination and
basic motor skill in the child.
- To develop good health habits and to build up basic skills
necessary for personal adjustments such as dressing themselves,
toilet and eating habits.
- To develop emotional maturity by guiding the child to express,
understand, accept and control his feelings and emotions.
- To develop good desirable social attitudes, manners and to
encourage healthy group participation.
- To encourage aesthetic appreciation (art, music, beauty,
- To stimulate the child’s beginning of intellectual curiosities
concerning his immediate environment.
- To encourage the child’s independence and creativity by
providing him with sufficient opportunities.
“The school is an opportunity for progress of the student. Each one
is having the freedom to develop freely.”
In most cases the pre-school is run as a private school. Younger
children may also be put into a special toddler/nursery group at
the age of 2. It is run as part of the kindergarten.
After finishing Senior kindergarten, a child enters Class 1 or
Standard 1 of primary school
Often kindergarten is an integral part of regular schools, though
sometimes they are independent units and are often part of a larger
Israel, a fully
developed kindergarten (or Gan) system has been developed to cope
with the extremely high percentage of working women in
There are 2 streams, private commercial and state
funded. Attendance in kindergarten is compulsory from the age of 5
years. Private kindergartens are supervised by the Ministry of
Education and cater for children from 3 months to 5 years. State
kindergartens are run by qualified kindergarten teachers who
undergo a 4 year training. They cater for children from 3 to 6
years in three age groups; ages 3–4 (Trom Trom Hova), 4-5 (Trom
Hova), 5-6 (Hova). At the conclusion of the Hova year (5-6) the
child will either begin primary school or will repeat the Hova
year, if not deemed psychologically and cognitively ready for
Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous
books and television shows aimed at helping mothers & fathers
of preschool children to educate their children and to parent more
effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching
manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although
verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are
strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their
children in preschools.
Kindergartens (yochien 幼稚園), predominantly staffed by young female
junior college graduates, are supervised by the Ministry of
Education, but are not part of the official education system. The
58 percent of kindergartens that are private accounted for 77
percent of all children enrolled. In addition to kindergartens
there exists a well-developed system of government-supervised
day-care centers (hoikuen 保育園), supervised by the Ministry of
Labor. Whereas kindergartens follow educational aims, preschools
are predominately concerned with providing care for infants and
toddlers. Same as kindergartens there are public or privately run
preschools. Together, these two kinds of institutions enroll well
over 90 percent of all preschool-age children prior to their
entrance into the formal system at first grade. The Ministry of
Education's 1990 Course of Study for Preschools, which applies to
both kinds of institutions, covers such areas as human
relationships, health, environment, words (language), and
expression. Starting from March 2008 the new revision of curriculum
guidelines for kindergartens as well as for preschools came into
Korea, children normally attend kindergarten between the
ages of five and seven (Korean children's ages are calculated
differently from Western children's ages: when they are born they
are one year old, rather than one day old.
January 1, everyone ages one year regardless of when their birthday
is: they do not age on their birthday). The school year begins in
March. It is followed by primary school. Normally the kindergartens
are graded on a three-tier basis. They are called "Yuchi won" (
Korean kindergartens are private schools. Costs per month vary.
Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens
to give them a head start
in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in
Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with
some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all
middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten.
Kindergarten programs in South Korea attempt to incorporate much
academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean
kindergarteners learn to read, write (often in English as well as
Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes are conducted in a
traditional classroom setting, with the children focused on the
teacher and one lesson or activity at a time. The goal of the
teacher is to overcome weak points in each child's knowledge or
Because the education system in Korea is very competitive,
kindergartens are becoming more intensely academic nowadays.
Children are pushed to read and write at a very young age. They
also become accustomed to regular and considerable amounts of
homework. These very young children may also attend other
specialized afternoon schools, taking lessons in art, piano or
Korea, children attend kindergarten between the ages of
four and five.
Kindergartens are divided among the upper
(party) class and lower (worker) class, where upper-class
kindergartens are completely educational, and lower class have
children may go to free kindergartens for two years (K1 and K2)
between the ages of four and six.
kindergarten is known as "obuko" in Ciyawo-speaking regions and is
generally available to children of ages four and five.
English kindergartens also operate throughout the country.
kindergarten is called "kindergarden" or "kínder", with the last
year sometimes referred to as "preprimaria" (primaria is
the name given to grades 1 through 6, so the name literally means
"prior to elementary school").
It consists of three years of
pre-school education, which are mandatory before elementary school
. Previous nursery is
optional, and may be offered in either private schools
or public schools
At private schools, kinders usually consist of three grades, and a
fourth one may be added for nursery. While the first grade is a
, the other two are of
The kindergarten system in Mexico was developed by professor
received the country's highest honor for that contribution.
In 2002, the Congress of the
approved the Law of Obligatory Pre-schooling
which already made pre-school education for three to six-year-olds
obligatory, and placed it under the auspices of the federal and
state ministries of education.
Morocco, pre-school is known as école maternelle,
Kuttab or Ar-Rawd.
State-run, free maternelle
schools are available throughout the kingdom, welcoming children
aged from 2 to 5 (although in many places, children under 3 may not
be granted a place). It is not compulsory, yet almost 80% of
children aged 3 to 5 attend. It is regulated by the Moroccan
department of education.
Netherlands, the equivalent term to kindergarten is
From the mid-19th century to the
mid-20th century the term Fröbelschool
was also common,
after Friedrich Fröbel
However this term gradually faded in use as the verb
gained a slight derogatory meaning in everyday
language. Until 1985, it used to be a separate non-compulsory form
of education (for children aged 4–6 years), after which children
(aged 6–12 years) attended the primary school (lagere
). After 1985, both forms were integrated into one,
(Dutch for primary education). The
country also offers both private and subsidized daycares, which are
non compulsory, but nevertheless very popular.
Peru, the term nido refers to the schooling
children attend from 3 to 6 years of age.
It is followed by
primary school classes, which last for four years. Some families
choose to send their children to primary school at the age of 6. In
1902 the teacher Elvira Garcia and Garcia co-founder of the Society
cited above, organized the first kindergarten for children 2 to 8
years old, Fanning annex to the Lyceum for ladies. Her studies and
concern for children led her to spread through conferences and
numerous documents, the importance of protecting children early and
to respond to the formation of a personality based on justice and
understanding, as well as the use of methods Fröbel and from
Montessori and participation of parents in this educational
Romania, grădiniţă, which means "little garden" is
the favored form of education for preschool (under-6 or under-7)
The children are divided in a "big group"
) and a "little group" (grupa mica
according to age. In the last few years, private kindergartens have
become popular, supplementing the state preschool education
Federation Детский сад (literal translation of a
children's park or garden) is an Education Institution for children
usually 3 to 7 years of age.
It is a Детское дошкольное
(child preschool institution).
Kindergartens in Singapore provide up to three years of pre-school programs
for children aged between three and six.
program, known as nursery
, kindergarten 1 (K1)
and kindergarten 2 (K2)
prepares children for their first
year in primary school
. Some kindergartens further divide nursery into N1
kindergarten is rarely used in Britain to describe pre-school education; pre-schools are
usually known as nursery schools or
word "kindergarten" is used for more specialist organisations such
as forest kindergartens
, and is
sometimes used in the naming of private nurseries which provide
full-day child care for working parents.
In the UK children have the option of attending nursery between the
ages of three and five years, before compulsory education begins.
Before that, less structured childcare is available privately. The
details vary slightly between Scotland, England, Wales and Northern
Some nurseries are attached to state infant
, but many are provided by the private sector. The
government provides funding so that all children from the age of
three until they start compulsory school, can receive five sessions
per week of two and a half hours each, either in state-run or
private nurseries. Working parents can also spend £55 per week free
of income taxes, which is typically enough to pay for one or two
days per week.
The Scottish Government defines its requirements of nursery schools
in the Early Years Framework and the Curriculum for Excellence
. Each school
interprets these with more or less independence (depending on their
management structure), but must satisfy the Care Commission
in order to retain their licence to operate. The curriculum aims to
- Successful Learners
- Confident Individuals
- Responsible Citizens
- Effective Contributors
Nursery forms part of the Foundation
of education. In the 1980s England and Wales officially
adopted the Northern
Irish system whereby children start school either in the
term or year in which they will become five depending on the policy
of the Local Education
In Scotland, schooling becomes compulsory
between the ages of 4½ and 5½ years, depending on their birthday
(school starts in August for children who were 4 by the end of the
preceding February). The first year of compulsory schooling is
known as Reception
Primary One in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
States kindergartens are usually part of the K-12 educational system.
Children usually attend
kindergarten around age 5 or 6. Kindergarten is considered the
first year of formal education, although the child may have gone to
preschool. While kindergarten was viewed as a separate part of the
elementary program, it is now fully integrated into the school
system and is a full participant in schooling.
There are many positive learning and social/behavioral benefits for
children in kindergarten programs. At the same time, it is widely
felt that what children are doing during the kindergarten day is
more important than the length of the school day.
Learning" is a style of
learning that is used in many kindergartens in the United States.
This learning style is very interactive and requires a great deal
of the children and the teacher. It employs a "plan, do, review"
approach which enables children to take responsibility for their
learning. First the children "plan" their activities. The teacher
provides choices of activities for the children which are
age-appropriate and initiate learning, whether through problem
solving, reading, language, mathematics, manipulatives, etc. This
planning takes place, usually, when the children walk in the
classroom. Then they "do" their activity. Some of these activities
include such things as a water table, building blocks, a creative
dance area, "dress up" area, a reading area, and a drawing table.
The majority of the children's time is spent in this "do" activity.
The last part of this approach is the review part. This is where
the children and the teacher go over what they have done that day.
This can be done in a large group, especially if there is a theme
for the day that is used in all activities, or individually. The
children discuss what they did and how they liked it and what they
learned from it. This high/scope learning has grown in popularity
and is accepted largely because it allows for the children to be
responsible for their own learning.
In some states, it is not required for children to attend
kindergarten. Mandatory age of enrollment varies by state but is
usually age 5 or 6. In most states a child may begin kindergarten
in the fall term only if age 5 by a state-set date, usually in the
- Kindergarten definition from Microsoft Encarta CD edition,
- Ontario's school system, accessed March 5,
- Childcare regulations of the Scottish
Free Childcare Regulations, UK government HMRC
- Early Years Framework, Scottish Government,
-  accessed December 23, 2008
The following reading list relates specifically to kindergarten in
North America where it is the first year of formal schooling and
not part of the pre-school system as it is in the rest of the
- Cryan, J. R., Sheehan, R., Wiechel, J., & Bandy-Hedden, I.
G.(1992). "Success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: More positive
behavior and increased achievement in the years after." Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(2),187-203. EJ 450 525.
- Elicker, J., & Mathur, S.(1997). "What do they do all day?
Comprehensive evaluation of a full-day kindergarten." Early
Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(4), 459-480. EJ 563 073.
- Fusaro, J. A.(1997). "The effect of full-day kindergarten on
student achievement: A meta-analysis." Child Study Journal, 27(4),
269-277. EJ 561 697.
- Gullo, D. F.(1990). "The changing family context: Implications
for the development of all-day kindergarten." Young Children,
45(4), 35-39. EJ 409 110.
- Housden, T., & Kam, R.(1992). "Full-day kindergarten: A
summary of the research." Carmichael, CA: San Juan Unified School
District. ED 345 868.
- Karweit, N.(1992). "The kindergarten experience." Educational
Leadership, 49(6), 82-86. EJ 441 182.
- Koopmans, M.(1991). "A study of longitudal effects of all-day
kindergarten attendance on achievement." Newark, NJ: Newark Board
of Education. ED 336 494..
- Morrow, L. M., Strickland, D. S., & Woo, D. G.(1998).
"Literacy instruction in half- and whole-day kindergarten." Newark,
DE: International Reading Association. ED 436 756.
- Olsen, D., & Zigler, E.(1989). "An assessment of the
all-day kindergarten movement." Early Childhood Research Quarterly,
4(2), 167-186. EJ 394 085.
- Puleo, V. T.(1988). "A review and critique of research on
full-day kindergarten." Elementary School Journal, 88(4), 427-439.
EJ 367 934.
- Towers, J. M.(1991). "Attitudes toward the all-day, everyday
kindergarten." Children Today, 20(1), 25-28. EJ 431 720.
- West, J., Denton, K., & Germino-Hausken, E.(2000).
"America's Kindergartners." Washington, DC: National Center for
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