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The Kingdom of Hawai i was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of O ahumarker, Mauimarker, Moloka imarker, Lāna imarker, Kaua imarker and Ni ihaumarker by the chiefdom of Hawai imarker (or the "Big Island") into one unified government. It lost its independence to an armed revolt led by American residents in 1893, and was annexed to the United States in 1898.

Formation

Through a series of bloody battles, led by a warrior chief later immortalized as Kamehameha the Great, the Kingdom of Hawai i was established with the help of such British sailors as John Young, Isaac Davis and Alexander Adams and western weapons. Although successful in attacking both O ahu and Mauimarker, he failed to secure a victory in Kaua imarker, his effort hampered by a storm. Eventually, Kaua i's chief swore allegiance to Kamehameha. The unification ended the feudal society of the Hawaiian islands transforming it into a "modern", independent constitutional monarchy crafted in the tradition of European monarchies.

Government

Iolani Palace, one of many royal palaces in Hawai i, was built by Kalākaua who shared Kamehameha V's vision of constructing a palace to rival the residences of European monarchs
Government in the Kingdom of Hawai i was transformed in phases, marked by the promulgation of the constitutions of 1840, 1852, 1864 and 1887. Each successive constitution reduced the power of the monarch in favor of an elected legislature increasingly dominated by the interests of those of American and European descent.

The head of state and head of government in the Kingdom of Hawai i was the monarch. He or she oversaw the Privy Council which was charged with administration. A royal cabinet, the Privy Council, consisted of ministers in charge of departments much like the British political system. These ministers also acted as the monarch's primary advisors.

The 1840 Constitution created a bicameral parliament in charge of legislation. The two houses of the Kingdom legislature were the House of Representatives (directly elected by popular vote) and the House of Nobles (appointed by the monarch with the advice of the Cabinet). The same constitution created a judiciary, charged with overseeing the courts and interpretation of laws. The Supreme Court was led by the Chief Justice, appointed by the monarch with the advice of the Cabinet.

The islands of Hawai i were divided into smaller administrative divisions: Kaua i, O ahu, Maui, and Hawai i. Kaua i region included Ni ihaumarker, while Maui region included Kaho olawemarker, Lāna i and Moloka i. Each region had a governor appointed by the monarch. See Governor of O ahu, Governor of Maui, Governor of Kaua i and Royal Governor of Hawai i

File:Kamehamehaportrait.jpg|Kamehameha I, (1795–1819)File:Kamehamehaii.jpg|Kamehameha II, Liholiho, (1819–1824)File:Kamehamehaiii.jpg|Kamehameha III, Kauikeaouli, (1825–1854)File:Kamehameha IV.jpg|Kamehameha IV, Alexander L. Liholiho, (1854–1863)File:Kamehamehav.jpg|Kamehameha V, Lot Kapuāiwa, (1863–1872)File:Williamcharleslunalilo.jpg|Lunalilo I, William C. Lunalilo (1873–1874)File:Kalakauapainting.jpg|Kalākaua I, David Kalākaua, (1874–1891)File:Liliuokalani.jpg|Lili uokalani, Lydia Kamaka eha Paki, (1891–1893)


File:Queen Kaahumanu.jpg|Queen Ka ahumanu, (1795–1832)File:kamamalu.jpg|Queen Victoria Kamamalu, (1819–1824)File:Kalama.jpg|Queen Kalama, (1837–1854)File:Queenemmaofhawaii.jpg|Queen Emma Na ea, (1855–1863)File:HRHKapiolani.jpg|Queen Esther Kapi olani, (1874–1891)File:johnowendominis.jpg|Prince Consort John Owen Dominis, (1891)


Military

Kamehameha the Great wearing western clothes under his royal feather cape


The Hawaiian army and navy developed from the village warriors of Konamarker under Kamehameha I, who unified Hawaii in 1810. The army and navy used both traditional canoes and uniforms like the gourd helmets and loincloths as well as western technology like artillery cannons, muskets, and European ships. European advisors were captured, treated well and became Hawaiian citizens. When Kamehameha died in 1819 he left his son Liholiho a large arsenal with tens of thousands of men and thousands of warships.This helped put down the revolt at Kuamo omarker later in 1819.

Hawaiian military officer, 1819


The Hawaiian military adopted a red uniform with white pants all the way up to the overthrow, when they were disbanded in 1893.


During the Kamehameha Dynasty the population in Hawaii was ravaged by epidemics following the arrival of outsiders. The military shrank with the population, so by the end of the Dynasty there was no Hawaiian navy and an army consisting of several hundred troops. After a French invasion that sacked Honolulumarker in 1849 Kamehameha III sought treaties with the United States and Britain to become a protectorate state. During the outbreak of the Crimean War, in Europe, Kamehameha III declared Hawaii a neutral state, similar to Switzerlandmarker, ending any hope of Hawaii to benefits through war. After Hawaii became a protectorate of the United States strong pressure was put on Kamehameha IV to make trade exclusively to the United States even annexing the Islands. To counterbalance this situation Kamehameha IV and Kamehameha V pushed for alliances with other foreign powers, especially Great Britain. Hawaii claimed uninhabited islands in the Pacific including the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Following the Kamehameha Dynasty the small army was disbanded under Lunalilo after a barracks revolt in September 1873 until his death leaving Hawaii solely protected by the United States who had wavering support of the monarchy. The small army was restored under King Kalakaua but failed to stop the 1887 Rebellion by the Missionary Party. In 1891 Queen Lili uokalani came to power. Following the elections 1892 with petitions and request from her administration to change the constitution of 1887. The US protectorate policy was that at least one US cruiser must be present in Hawaii at all times. So, on January 17, 1893, Lili uokalani, believing the US military would intervene if she changed the constitution, waited for the to leave port. Once it was known that Lili uokalani was revising the constitution, the Boston was recalled and assisted the Missionary Party in her overthrow. (This controversial action was settled in 1993 in the Apology Resolution, when the US Congress admitted and apologized for wrongdoing.) Following the overthrow and the establishment of the Provisional Government of Hawaii the Kingdom’s military was disarmed and disbanded.

Kamehameha Dynasty

From 1810 to 1893, the Kingdom of Hawai i was ruled by two major dynastic families: the Kamehameha Dynasty and the Kalākaua Dynasty. Five members of the Kamehameha family led the government as king. Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), were direct sons of Kamehameha the Great. For a period between Liholiho and Kauikeaouli's reigns, the primary wife of Kamehameha the Great, Queen Ka ahumanu, ruled as Queen Regent and Kuhina Nui, or Prime Minister.

Dynastic rule by the Kamehameha family ended in 1872 with the death of Lot (Kamehameha V). Upon his deathbed, he summoned Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to declare his intentions of making her heir to the throne. She was the last direct Kamehameha family member surviving. She refused the crown because she believed she should help her people, not rule over them. Lot died before naming an alternative heir.

The French Incident (1839)

Artémise
In 1839 Captain Laplace of the French frigate Artémise sailed to Hawaii under orders to:

Destroy the malevolent impression which you find established to the detriment of the French name; to rectify the erroneous opinion which has been created as to the power of France; and to make it well understood that it would be to the advantage of the chiefs of those islands of the Ocean to conduct themselves in such a manner as not to incur the wrath of France. You will exact, if necessary with all the force that is yours to use, complete reparation for the wrongs which have been committed, and you will not quit those places until you have left in all minds a solid and lasting impression.


Under the rule of Queen Ka ahumanu, the notorious newly-converted Protestant widow of Kamehameha the Great, Catholicism was illegal in Hawaii and chiefs loyal to her forcibly deported French priests on to the Artemise. Native Hawaiian Catholic converts were imprisoned and Protestant ministers ordered them to be tortured. The prejudice against the French Catholics missionaries remained the same under the reign of her successor, the Kuhina Nui Ka ahumanu II.

Under the threat of war, King Kamehameha III signed the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839 and paid the $20,000 in compensation for the deportation of the priests and the incarceration and torture of converts, agreeing to Laplace's demands. The kingdom proclaimed:

That the Catholic worship be declared free, throughout all the dominions subject to the king of the Sandwich Islands; the members of this religious faith shall enjoy in them the privileges granted to Protestants.


The Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu returned unpersecuted and Kamehameha III donated land for them to build a church as reparation.

The Paulet Affair (1843)

The most serious incident occurred on February 10, 1843. Lord George Paulet of the Royal Navy warship HMS Carysfort entered Honolulu Harbor and captured the Honolulu fort, effectively gaining control of the town. Paulet demanded that King Kamehameha III abdicate and that the Hawaiian Islands be ceded to the British Crown. Under the guns of the frigate, Kamehameha stepped down, but lodged a formal protest with both the British government and Paulet's superior, Admiral Richard Thomas. Thomas repudiated Paulet's actions, and on July 31, 1843, restored the Hawaiian government. In his restoration speech, Kamehameha declared that "Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono" (The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness), the motto of the future State of Hawai i.

On Monday, February 13, 1843, Lord George Paulet, of HMS Carysfort, attempted to annex the islands for alleged insults and malpractices against British subjects. Kamehameha III surrendered to Paulet on February 25, writing:

Where are you, chiefs, people, and commons from my ancestors, and people from foreign lands?'


Hear ye! I make known to you that I am in perplexity by reason of difficulties into which I have been brought without cause, therefore I have given away the life of our land. Hear ye! but my rule over you, my people, and your privileges will continue, for I have hope that the life of the land will be restored when my conduct is justified.


Done at Honolulu, Oahu, this 25th day of February, 1843.


Kamehameha III.


Kekauluohi.


Dr. Gerrit P. Judd, a missionary who had become the Minister of Finance for the Kingdom of Hawaii, secretly arranged for General J.F.B. Marshall to be the King's envoy to the United States, France and Britain, to protest Paulet's actions. Marshall was able to secretly convey the Kingdom's complaint to the Vice Consul of Britain in Tepec, posing as a commercial agent of Ladd & Co., a company with friendly relations with the Kingdom.

Marshall's complaint was forwarded to Rear Admiral Thomas, Paulet's commanding officer, who arrived at Honolulu harbor on July 26, 1843 on H.B.M.S. Dublin from Valparaisomarker, Chile. Admiral Thomas apologized to Kamehameha III for Paulet's actions, and restored Hawaiian sovereignty on July 31, 1843.

The French Invasion (1849)

Honolulu Fort, 1853


In August 1849, French admiral Louis Tromelin arrived in Honolulu Harbor with the La Poursuivante and Gassendi. De Tromelin made ten demands to King Kamehameha III on August 22, mainly demanding that full religious rights be given to Catholics, (a decade earlier, during the so-called 'French Incident' the ban on Catholicism had been lifted, but Catholics still enjoyed only partial religious rights). On August 25 the demands had not been met. After a second warning was made to the civilians, French troops overwhelmed the skeleton force and captured Honolulu Fort, spiked the coastal guns and destroyed all other weapons they found (mainly muskets and ammunition). They raided government buildings and general property in Honolulu, causing $100,000 in damages. After the raids the invasion force withdrew to the fort. De Tromelin eventually recalled his men and left Hawaii on September 5.

Foreign relations

Faced with the quintessential problem of foreign encroachment of Hawaiian territory, King Kamehameha III deemed it prudent and necessary to dispatch a Hawaiian delegation to the United States and then to Europe with the power to settle alleged difficulties with nations, negotiate treaties and to ultimately secure the recognition of Hawaiian Independence by the major powers of the world. In accordance with this view, Timoteo Ha'alilio, William Richards and Sir George Simpson were commissioned as joint Ministers Plenipotentiary on April 8, 1842. Sir George Simpson, shortly thereafter, left for England, via Alaska and Siberia, while Mr. Ha'alilio and Mr. Richards departed for the United States, via Mexico, on July 8, 1842. The Hawaiian delegation, while in the United States of America, secured the assurance of U.S. President John Tyler on December 19, 1842 of its recognition of Hawaiian independence, and then proceeded to meet Sir George Simpson in Europe and secure formal recognition by the United Kingdom and France. On March 17, 1843, King Louis-Philippe of France recognizes Hawaiian independence at the urging of King Leopold I of Belgium, and on April 1, 1843, Lord Aberdeen on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that, "Her Majesty's Government was willing and had determined to recognize the independence of the Sandwich Islands under their present sovereign."

Anglo-Franco Proclamation

On November 28, 1843, at the Court of London, the British and French Governments entered into a formal agreement of the recognition of Hawaiian independence. Called the Anglo-Franco Proclamation, a joint declaration by France and Britain, signed by His Majesty King Louis-Phillipe of the French and Her Britannic Majesty Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, assured the Hawaiian delegation that:

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands) of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage, reciprocally, to consider the Sandwich Islands as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed.


The undersigned, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs, and the Ambassador Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French, at the Court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare, in consequence, that their said Majesties take reciprocally that engagement.



In witness whereof the undersigned have signed the present declaration, and have affixed thereto the seal of their arms.



Done in duplicate at London, the 28th day of November, in the year of our Lord, 1843.

" 'ABERDEEN. [L.S.]

" 'ST. AULAIRE. [L.S.],

Hawai i was thus the first non-European indigenous state to be admitted into the Family of Nations, while the Ottoman Empire was the first non-Christian nation to be admitted following the Crimean War. This solemn engagement on the part of these two powers was the final act by which the Kingdom of Hawaii was admitted within the pale of civilized nations." The United States notably declined to join with France and the United Kingdom in this statement. Even though President John Tyler had recognized Hawaiian Independence, it was not until 1849 that the United States formally recognized Hawaii as a fellow nation.

November 28 was thereafter established as an official national holiday to celebrate the recognition of Hawai'i's independence. As a result of this recognition, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into treaties with the major nations of the world and had established over ninety legations and consulates in multiple seaports and cities.

Elected monarchy

The refusal of Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to take the crown and throne as Queen of Hawai i forced the legislature of the Kingdom to declare an election to fill the royal vacancy. From 1872 to 1873, several distant relatives of the Kamehameha line were nominated. In a ceremonial popular vote and a unanimous legislative vote, William C. Lunalilo (1873–1874) became Hawai i's first of two elected monarchs.

Kalākaua Dynasty

Coat of Arms of the Hawaiian kingdom, ʻIolani palace, Honolulu, Hawaiʻi
Like his predecessor, Lunalilo failed to name an heir to the throne. He died unexpectedly after less than a year as King of Hawaii. Once again, the legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii declared an election to fill the royal vacancy. Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, was nominated along with David Kalākaua. The 1874 election was a nasty political campaign in which both candidates resorted to mudslinging and innuendo. David Kalākaua became the second elected King of Hawaii but without the same ceremonial popular vote Lunalilo had. The choice of the legislature was controversial, and U.S. and British troops were called upon to suppress rioting.

Hoping to avoid uncertainty in the monarchy's future, Kalākaua proclaimed several heirs to the throne and defined a royal line of succession. His sister Lili'uokalani would succeed the throne upon Kalākaua's death, with Princess Victoria Kai'ulani to follow. If she could not produce an heir by birth, Prince David Lamea Kawananakoa then Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaole would rule after her.

Constitution of 1887

King David Kalākaua


In 1887, a constitution was drafted by Lorrin A. Thurston, Minister of Interior under King David Kalākaua. The constitution was proclaimed by the king after a meeting of 3,000 residents including an armed militia demanded he sign it or be deposed. The document created a constitutional monarchy like the United Kingdom's, stripping the King of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and establishing cabinet government. It has since become widely known as the "Bayonet Constitution", a nickname coined by its opponents because of the threat of force used to gain Kalākaua's cooperation.

The 1887 constitution empowered the citizenry to elect members of the [House of Nobles (who had previously been appointed by the King). It increased the value of property a citizen must own to be eligible to vote above what the previous Constitution of 1864 had required. One result was to deny voting rights to poor native Hawaiians and Europeans who previously could vote. It guaranteed a voting monopoly to wealthy native Hawaiians and Europeans by denying voting rights to Asians who comprised a large proportion of the population (a few Japanese and some Chinese had previously become naturalized as subject of the Kingdom and now lost voting rights they had previously enjoyed.) Americans and other Europeans in Hawai i were also given full voting rights without the need for Hawaiian citizenship. The Bayonet Constitution continued allowing the monarch to appoint cabinet ministers, but stripped him of the power to dismiss them without approval from the Legislature.

Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom

Queen Lili uokalani


Upon his election in 1874, King Kalākaua selected Queen Lili uokalani as his successor. During her brother's reign the monarchy was left impotent by the 1887 Constitution. Under the pretext of royal corruption, including an opium license bribery scandal, David Kalākaua was forced to sign the constitution stripping the monarchy of much of its power in favor of an administration controlled by the Legislature. Some claim this constitution was the opening salvo to the end of the Kingdom of Hawai i.

Lili uokalani's Constitution

In 1891, Kalākaua died and his sister Lili uokalani assumed the throne. She came to power during an economic crisis precipitated in part by the McKinley Tariff. By rescinding the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, the new tariff eliminated the previous advantage Hawaiian sugar exporters enjoyed in trade to U.S. markets; the result was a crippling of the Hawaiian sugar industry. Many Hawaiian businesses and citizens were feeling the pressures of the loss of revenue, so Lili uokalani proposed a lottery and opium licensing to bring in additional revenue for the government. Her ministers and closest friends tried to dissuade her from pursuing the bills, and controversial proposals were used against her in the looming constitutional crisis.

Lili uokalani's wanted to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the 1887 Constitution. The queen launched a campaign resulting in a petition from some Hawaiian subjects to proclaim a new Constitution. When she informed her cabinet of her plans, they supported her but two of them betrayed her.

Many citizens and residents who in 1887 had forced Kalākaua to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" became alarmed when three of her recently appointed cabinet members informed them that the queen was planning to unilaterally proclaim her new Constitution. The cabinet ministers were reported to have feared for their safety after upsetting the queen by not supporting her plans.

The overthrow

In 1893, local businessmen and politicians, composed primarily of American and European residents, overthrew the queen, her cabinet and her marshal, and took over the government of the Kingdom of Hawai i.

Historians suggest that businessmen were in favor of overthrow and annexation to the U.S. in order to benefit from more favorable trade conditions with its main export market. The McKinley Tariff of 1891 eliminated the previously highly favorable trade terms for Hawaii's sugar exports, a main component of the economy. The significance of this economic downturn as a motivation for the overthrow has been questioned by other scholars. The proximate cause of the overthrow, however, was in response to Lili uokalani's attempt to promulgate a new constitution. Immediately upon ascending the throne, Lili uokalani received petitions from 2/3 of her subjects and the major Native Hawaiian political party in parliament, Hui Kalai'aina, asking her to proclaim a new constitution. Believing her actions were supported by both her cabinet and her Native Hawaiian subjects, Lili uokalani drafted a new constitution that would restore the monarchy's authority and strip American and European residents of the suffrage they had obtained in 1887 from Kalakaua.

In response to Lili uokalani's move, a group of European and American residents formed a "Committee of Safety" on January 14, 1893 in opposition to the Queen and her plans. After a mass meeting of supporters, the Committee committed itself to the removal of the Queen, and seeking annexation to the United States.

United States Government Minister John L. Stevens summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines from the and two companies of U.S. sailors to land on the Kingdom and take up positions at the U.S. Legation, Consulate, and Arion Hall on the afternoon of January 16, 1893. This deployment was at the request of the Committee of Safety, which claimed an "imminent threat to American lives and property". Stevens was accused of ordering the landing himself on his own authority, and inappropriately using his discretion. Historian William Russ concluded that "the injunction to prevent fighting of any kind made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself".

On July 17, 1893, Sanford B. Dole and his committee declared itself the Provisional Government "to rule until annexation by the United States". On July 4, 1894 the Republic of Hawai imarker was proclaimed. Dole was president of both governments.Later, when a weapons cache was found on the palace grounds after an attempted counter-rebellion in 1895, Queen Lili uokalani was arrested, tried by a military tribunal of the Republic, convicted of treason, and placed under permanent house arrest in her own home.

President Cleveland considered the overthrow to have been an illegal act of war; he refused to consider annexation of the islands and initially worked to restore the queen to her throne. It was not until a change in administrations that the Republic of Hawai i succeeded in its goal when in 1898, Congress approved a joint resolution of annexation creating the U.S. Territory of Hawai i. This followed the precedent of Texasmarker which was also annexed by a joint resolution of Congress. Dole was appointed to be the first governor of the Territory of Hawai i.

The overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai i and the subsequent annexation of Hawai i has recently been cited as the first major instance of American imperialism.

Royal estates

Early in its history, the Kingdom of Hawai i was governed from several locations including coastal towns on the islands of Hawai i and Maui (Lāhaināmarker). It wasn't until the reign of Kamehameha III that a capital was established in Honolulu on the Island of O ahu.

On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai i over Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation.


By the time Kamehameha V was king, he saw the need to build a royal palace fitting of the Kingdom of Hawai i's new found prosperity and standing with the royals of other nations. He commissioned the building of the palace at Ali iōlani Hale. He died before it was completed. Today, the palace houses the Supreme Court of the State of Hawai imarker.

David Kalākaua shared the dream of Kamehameha V to build a palace, and eagerly desired the trappings of European royalty. He commissioned the construction of Iolani Palace. In later years, the palace would become his sister's makeshift prison under guard by the forces of the Republic of Hawaii, the site of the official raising of the U.S. flag during annexation, and then territorial governor's and legislature's offices. It is now a museum.

Palaces and Royal Grounds



Notable Hawaiians

Kawaiaha o Church is known as the Westminster Abbey of Hawai i, the site of coronations, royal christenings and funerals.
It sits on Punchbowl Street near Iolani Palace and Ali iōlani Hale.
King William C.
Lunalilo's mausoleum is in its courtyard.


Kamehameha Dynasty



Kalākaua Dynasty



Civil leaders



Religious leaders



See also



References

  1. http://www.hawaiiankingdom.org/hawn-territory.shtml
  2. The US Navy and Hawaii-A Historical Summary
  3. The Morgan Report, p500-503
  4. La Ku'ko'a: Events Leading to Independence Day, November 28, 1843
  5. Hawaiian Kingdom - International Treaties
  6. Hawaiian Independence Day
  7. The Morgan Report, p503-517
  8. 503-517 - TheMorganReport
  9. Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen, Appendix A "The three ministers left Mr. Parker to try to dissuade me from my purpose; and in the meantime they all (Peterson, Cornwell, and Colburn) went to the government building to inform Thurston and his part of the stand I took."
  10. Morgan Report, p804-805 "Every one knows how quickly Colburn and Peterson, when they could escape from the palace, called for help from Thurston and others, and how afraid Colburn was to go back to the palace."
  11. U.S. Navy History site
  12. Kinzer, Stephen. (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq.
  13. Stevens, Sylvester K. (1968) American Expansion in Hawaii, 1842-1898. New York: Russell & Russell. (p. 228)
  14. Dougherty, Michael. (1992). To Steal a Kingdom: Probing Hawaiian History. (p. 167-168)
  15. La Croix, Sumner and Christopher Grandy. (March 1997). "The Political Instability of Reciprocal Trade and the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom" in The Journal of Economic History 57:161-189.
  16. Wiegle, The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 16, No. 1. (Feb., 1947), p.47 Sugar and the Hawaiian Revolution
  17. The Morgan Report, p817
  18. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq by Stephen Kinzer, 2006


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