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The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( ), commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the largest of the Italian states before unification. It lasted until 1861, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy. The kingdom had its capital in Naplesmarker and was commonly referred to in English as the Kingdom of Naples.

The kingdom extended over the southern part of mainland Italy and the island of Sicily. It united two older kingdoms of the Mediterraneanmarker which had shared some common history; the Kingdom of Naples, consisting of the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, and the Kingdom of Sicily, consisting of the island of Sicily.

Background

Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the reunification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples (called the kingdom of peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442. The two had been separated since the Sicilian Vespers of 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept Sicily, and his bastard son Ferdinand, who became King of Naples.

In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II, conquered Naples and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne. The title "King of Sicily and of the Two Coasts of the Strait" was then borne by the Kings of Spain until the War of the Spanish Succession. At the end of the war, the Treaty of Utrecht granted Sicily to the Duke of Savoy, until the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 left Naples to the Emperor Charles VI. In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged between them Sicily and Sardinia, thus reuniting Naples and Sicily.

In 1734 Charles Duke of Parma, son of Philip V of Spain conquered the Sicilian crowns from the Austrians and became Charles the VII & V resigning Parma to his younger brother Philip. In 1754 he became King Carlos III of Spain and resigned Sicily and Naples to his younger son Ferdinand. He was Ferdinand III of Sicily and IV of Naples, and later crowned Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. This Kingdom of the Two Sicilies remained under this Bourbon line (Bourbon Duo-Sicilie) continually until 1860, apart from an interruption under Napoleon.

In January 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic captured Naples and declared the Parthenopaean Republic, and King Ferdinand fled from Naples to Sicily until June of that year. In 1806 Bonaparte, now Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples. In Edict of Bayonne of 1808, Napoleon removed Joseph to Spain and appointed his brother in law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies, though this meant control only of the mainland portion of the kingdom. Throughout this Napoleonic interruption, King Ferdinand remained in Sicily, with Palermomarker as his capital.

King Ferdinand I was definitively restored by the Congress of Vienna of 1815. He established a concordat with the Papal Statesmarker, which previously had feudal rights on the land.

There were some rebellions on the island of Sicily against the Bourbon king Ferdinand II but the demise of the kingdom was brought about by the Expedition of the Thousand in 1861. The invasion by the Savoy kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was led by Garibaldi. The last towns to resist Garibaldi's expedition were Messinamarker (which capitulated on 13 March 1861) and Civitella del Trontomarker (which capitulated on 20 March 1861). The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was dissolved and annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy.

The fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi’s invasion is recounted in the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa and its film adaptation.

Origins of the two kingdoms

The monarchy over the areas which would later become known as the Two Sicilies, existing as one single kingdom including peninsula and insular, in fact goes back to the time of the Middle Ages. The Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as the Maltese Islandsmarker. The capital of this kingdom was Palermomarker — on the actual island of Sicily. The state existed in that form from 1130 until 1285. In the reign of the Capetian House of Anjou king Charles I,the kingdom was split by the War of the Sicilian Vespers.Charles, who was ultimately of Frenchmarker origin, lost Sicily proper to the House of Barcelona, who were ultimately Aragonese and Catalan, with support from the natives.Charles remained king over the peninsular part of the realm, thereafter informally known as the Kingdom of Naples; officially he never gave up the "Kingdom of Sicily" name, and thus there were two kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily".

Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

Aragonese Empire, fullest extent
It wasn't until the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, that the two kings of "Sicily" recognized each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in an official context, though the populace still called it Sicily. Eventually by 1442 the Angevin line of Kings of Naples was coming to an end. Alfonso V of Aragon who was the King of Sicily in terms of the island itself via direct rule from the Crown of Aragon, conquered Naples and became king of both.

Alfonso V described the geographical area in Latin as Utriusque Siciliæ, which is along the lines of "Both Sicilies", this is the title he used. After the death of Alfonso, both remained under direct rule from the Crown of Aragon, but Naples had a different Aragonese king to the island of Sicily from 1458 until 1501. For a brief period Naples was controlled by a different power than Sicily, in the form of French king Louis XII of France who took the mainland kingdom and held it for around three years. After the Battle of Garigliano led by last Aragonese king Ferdinand II of Aragon however, the two areas were once again under control of the same power and the exact same king.

From 1516 when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor became the first King of Spain, both Naples and Sicily were under direct Spanish rule. It was during this era that Charles V granted the islands of Maltamarker and Gozomarker, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily for four centuries, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta).The period of direct Spanish rule under the same line of kings lasted until 1713, when Spain and both Sicilies passed to Philip, duke of Anjou, who founded the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon.Briefly interrupted by an eight year spell of Savoy rule of Sicily, the two kingdoms fell under the same king after the Treaty of The Hague, as Austrian king Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor was named ruler.

History

Uniting of the Crowns

The kingdoms were conquered from the Austrians by a young Spanish prince during the War of the Polish Succession who would then become Charles VII of Naples. The two kingdoms were then recongised as both independent and under Charles' rule as a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons by the Treaty of Vienna. After Charles' brother, Fernando VI of Spain died childless, Charles inherited the Spanish Crown in 1759, reigning as Charles III of Spain. His son Ferdinand then became king of the two kingdoms so as to maintain them as separate realms (as required by the treaties restoring junior Spanish dynasts to the southern Italian kingdoms). Ferdinand was highly popular with the lazzaroni class. Ferdinand's reign was highly eventful. For a brief period the Parthenopaean Republic was instated in Naples by French Revolution supporters; however, a counter-revolutionary army of lazzaroni retook Naplesmarker in order to restore royal power.
However only eight years later, Napoleon conquered the peninsula part of the kingdom during the War of the Third Coalition and instated his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king.Ferdinand fled to his other kingdom, on the island of Sicily itself; here the alliance he had previously made with George III of the United Kingdom and Tory Prime Minister the Earl of Liverpool saved him.The British protected Ferdinand and the island of Sicily from Napoleonic conquest with a powerful Royal Navy fleet presence.

Meanwhile, back on the mainland Joachim Murat, had become the second Bonapartist king. In the Edict of Bayonne he was named as "King of the Two Sicilies", though de facto he never actually held the island of Sicily where Ferdinand was, and is usually referred to as just a King of Naples.Murat actually switched sides for a while, abandoning La Grande Armée after the disastrous Battle of Leipzigmarker in an attempt to save his Neapolitan throne. However, as the Congress of Vienna progressed, tensions arose as there was strong pressure to restore Ferdinand to the Neapolitan kingdom as well as keeping his Sicilian one.Murat returned to Napoleon and together they declared war on Austriamarker, leading to the Neapolitan War in March 1815. Ferdinand and his allies Austria, Britain and Tuscany were victorious, restoring him to his Neapolitan throne. To avoid further French attempts, it was agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Ferdinand would reunite his kingdom.

Invasion by Sardinia

Between 1816 and 1848, the island of Sicily experienced no less than three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months.

Apart from having occurred at an interesting point in European history (see Revolutions of 1848), there is a clear link between this revolution and the more well known historical event that was to occur 11 years hence (the Risorgimento).

Geography

Provinces

On the Italian Peninsula there were twelve provinces of the Two Sicilies. The capital city of Naples was within the Terra di Lavoro. The island of Sicily itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermomarker (the "second city" of the kingdom), viewed as different and at a more prestigious standing than just a standard, much smaller Peninsula province.



Monarchy

Kings of the Two Sicilies

 

Joachim I
1808–1815



 

Ferdinand I
1816–1825





 

Francis I
1825–1830







 

Ferdinand II
1830–1859







 

Francis II
1859–1861







In 1860–61 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.

House of Bourbon Two Sicilies in exile

Some Sovereigns continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the exiled Court, including the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hanover, the Queen of Spain, the Emperor of Russia, and the Papacy.

Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present



Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900:
…Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey.


The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and Spain's Pragmatic Decree, however, required a renunciation only in very limited circumstances: the actual union of the Crown of the Two Sicilies in the person of the King of Spain or his heir apparent, which had not happened in 1900 nor did it occur subsequently. Furthermore, this act was signed subsequent to the agreement by marriage contract between the Count of Caserta (the father of Prince Carlo, then head of the Royal House in exile), and the Queen Regent of Spain, which specifically excluded the need for a dynastic renunciation to the non-existent throne. Prince Carlo was created an Infante of Spain, a title held by several other princes of the Two Sicilies in the past, but with his wife's death and the birth of a Prince of Asturias (and three other sons) to the King and Queen of Spain, the possibility of him becoming king consort and his son becoming both King of Spain and pretender to the Two Sicilies, receded. All the descendants of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies by his wife, Infanta Isabel, already enjoyed a right to the Spanish throne by virtue of the royal constitutions of 1837, 1845 and 1876.

Calabria line

Prince Carlo's son, Infante Don Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha from 1901–44, and in the Libro d'Oro of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Prince Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza). The descent in the senior line is as follows:



The latter's immediate heir is Pedro, Duke of Noto, married to D. Sofia de Landaluce y Melgarejo (a descendant through her mother of the Dukes of San Fernando de Quiroga).

Castro line

Most of the rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pius, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:



They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George.

Current lines of succession



Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Image:Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg|First Two Sicilies' flag (1811-1815) returning Hauteville's coat of arms colors.Image:Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1738).svg|1815-1848; 1849-1860 flagImage:Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1848).svg|1848-49 flagImage:Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1860).svg|1860-61 flag




Orders of knighthood



See also



References

External links

Cultural



Neo-Bourbon

  • Associazione culturale neoborbonica, a southern Italian "neo-Bourbonist" site making a case for a positive view of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Mostly in Italian.
  • Edoardo Spagnuolo, including many historical documents about the rebellions against invasion in 1860, with particular interest in the region of Irpinia.


Royal house




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