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Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic and teacher. He wrote more than twenty novels, three collections of poetry, short stories, radio and television scripts, and books of social and literary criticism. According to his biographer, Zachary Leader, Amis was 'the finest British comic novelist of the second half of the twentieth century'. He is the father of the English novelist Martin Amis.

Biography

Kingsley Amis was born in Claphammarker, south London, the son of William Robert Amis, a mustard manufacturer's clerk. He was educated at the City of London Schoolmarker, and in April 1941 was admitted to St. John's College, Oxfordmarker, where he read English. It was there that he met Philip Larkinmarker, with whom he formed the most important friendship of his life. After only a year, he was called up for Army service in July 1942. After serving in the Royal Corps of Signals in the Second World War, Amis returned to Oxford in October 1945 to complete his degree. Although he worked hard and got a first in English in 1947, he had by then decided to give much of his time to writing. In 1946, he became a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain.

In 1946 he met Hilary Bardwell, and they married in 1948. He became a lecturer in English at the University of Wales Swanseamarker (1949–61). Amis achieved popular success with his first novel Lucky Jim, which was considered to have 'caught the temper' of Britain in the 1950s and ushered in a new style of fiction. By 1972, in addition to impressive sales in Britain, one and a quarter million paperback copies had been sold in the United States, and it was eventually translated into twenty languages, including Czech, Hebrew, Korean, and Serbo-Croat. The novel won the Somerset Maugham Award for fiction and Amis was associated with the writers labelled the Angry Young Men. Lucky Jim was the first British campus novel, setting a precedent for later generations of writers such as Malcolm Bradbury, David Lodge, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson. As a poet, Amis was associated with The Movement.

During 1958-59 he made the first of two visits to the United States, where he was Visiting Fellow in Creative Writing at Princeton Universitymarker and a visiting lecturer in other northeastern universities. On returning to Britain, he felt in a rut, and he began looking for another post; after thirteen years at Swansea, Amis became a fellow of Peterhousemarker at Cambridgemarker (1961–63). He regretted the move within a year, finding Cambridge an academic and social disappointment and resigned in 1963, intent on moving to Majorca; he went no further than London.

In 1963, Hilary discovered Kingsley's love affair with novelist Elizabeth Jane Howard. Hilary and Kingsley separated in August; he went to live with Jane. He divorced Hilary in 1965, and then married Jane the same year; Jane and Kingsley divorced in 1983. In his last years, Amis shared a house with his first wife Hilary and her third husband, Alastair Boyd, 7th Baron Kilmarnock. Hilary and Kingsley Amis had three children, among them novelist Martin Amis, who wrote the memoir Experience about the life and decline of his father.

Kingsley Amis was knighted in 1990. In August 1995 he fell, suffering a suspected stroke. After apparently recovering, he worsened, was re-admitted to hospital, and died on 22 October 1995 at St Pancras Hospitalmarker, London. He was cremated; his ashes are at Golders Green Crematoriummarker.

Literary work

Amis is chiefly known as a comedic novelist of mid- to late-20th century British life, but his literary work extended into many genres — poetry, essays and criticism, short stories, food and drink writing, anthologies and a number of novels in genres such as science fiction and mystery. His career initially developed in a pattern which was the inverse of that followed by his close friend Philip Larkinmarker. Before becoming known as a poet, Larkin had published two novels; Amis, on the other hand, originally wished to be a poet, and turned to writing novels only after publishing several volumes of verse. He continued throughout his career to write poetry which is known for its typically straightforward and accessible style, which yet often, e. g. in “Bookshop Idyll” or “Against Romanticism”, masks a nuance of thought, just as it does in his novels.

Amis’s first novel, Lucky Jim (1954), is perhaps his most famous. Taking its germ from Amis's observation of the common room at the University of Leicestermarker, where his friend Larkin held a post, the novel satirizes the high-brow academic set of a redbrick university, seen through the eyes of its protagonist, Jim Dixon, as he tries to make his way as a young lecturer of history. The novel was perceived by many as part of the Angry Young Men movement of the 1950s which reacted against the stultifications of conventional British life, though Amis never encouraged this interpretation. Amis’s other novels of the 1950s and early 1960s similarly depict situations from contemporary British life, often drawn from Amis’s own experiences. That Uncertain Feeling (1955) centres on a young provincial librarian (again perhaps with reference to Larkin, librarian at Hull) and his temptation towards adultery; I Like It Here (1958) presents Amis’s contemptuous view of “abroad” and followed upon his own travels on the Continent with a young family; Take a Girl Like You (1960), perhaps Amis’s second best-known novel, steps away from the immediately autobiographical, but remains grounded in the concerns of sex and love in ordinary modern life, tracing the courtship and ultimate seduction of the heroine Jenny Bunn by a young schoolmaster, Patrick Standish.

With The Anti-Death League (1966), Amis begins to show some of the experimentation — with content, if not with style — which would mark much of his work in the 1960s and 70s. Amis’s departure from the strict realism of his early comedic novels is not so abrupt as might first appear. He had avidly read science fiction since a boy, and had developed that interest into the Christian Gauss Lectures of 1958, while visiting Princeton Universitymarker. The lectures were published in that year as New Maps of Hell: a Survey of Science Fiction, a serious but light-handed treatment of what the genre had to say about man and society. Amis was particularly enthusiastic about the dystopian works of Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth, and in New Maps of Hell coined the term "comic inferno" to describe a type of humorous dystopia, particularly as exemplified in the works of Robert Sheckley. Amis further displayed his devotion to the genre in editing, with the Sovietologist Robert Conquest, the science fiction anthology series Spectrum I–V, which drew heavily upon 1950s numbers of the magazine Astounding Science Fiction.

Though not explicitly science fiction, The Anti-Death League takes liberties with reality not found in Amis’s earlier novels, and introduces a speculative bent into his fiction, one which would continue to develop in other of his genre novels, such as The Green Man (1969) (mystery/horror) and The Alteration (1976) (alternate history). Much of this speculation was about the improbable existence of any benevolent deity involved in human affairs. In The Anti-Death League, The Green Man, The Alteration and elsewhere, including poems such as “The Huge Artifice: an interim assessment” and “New Approach Needed,” Amis showed frustration with a God who could lace the world with such cruelty and injustice, and championed the preservation of ordinary human happiness — in family, in friendships, in physical pleasure — against the demands of any cosmological scheme. The matter of Amis’s religious views is perhaps ultimately summed up in his response, reported in his Memoirs, to the Russian poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko’s question, in his broken English: “You atheist?” Amis replied, “It’s more that I hate Him.”

During this time, Amis had not turned completely away from the comedic realism of Lucky Jim and Take a Girl Like You. I Want It Now (1968) and Girl, 20 (1971) both depict the “swinging” atmosphere of London in the late '60s, in which Amis certainly participated, though neither book is strictly autobiographical. Girl, 20, for instance, is framed in the world of classical (and pop) music, of which Amis was not a part — the book’s relatively impressive command of musical terminology and opinion shows both Amis’s amateur devotion to music and the almost journalistic capacity of his intelligence to take hold of a subject which interested him. That intelligence is similarly on display in, for instance, the presentation of ecclesiastical matters in The Alteration, when Amis was neither a Roman Catholic nor, for that matter, a devotee of any Church.

Throughout the 1950s, '60s and '70s, Amis was regularly producing essays and criticism, principally for journalistic publication. Some of these pieces were collected in 1968’s What Became of Jane Austen? and Other Essays, in which Amis’s wit and literary and social opinions were on display ranging over books such as Colin Wilson’s The Outsider (panned), Iris Murdoch’s debut novel Under the Net (praised), or William Empson’s Milton’s God (inclined to agree with). Amis’s opinions on books and people tended to appear (and often, be) conservative, and yet, as the title essay of the collection shows, he was not merely reverent of “the classics” and of traditional morals, but was more disposed to exercise his own rather independent judgment in all things.

Amis became associated with Ian Fleming's James Bond novels, which he greatly admired, in the late 1960s, when he began composing critical works connected with the fictional spy, either under a pseudonym or uncredited. In 1965, he wrote the popular The James Bond Dossier under his own name. That same year, he wrote The Book of Bond, or, Every Man His Own 007, a tongue-in-cheek how-to manual about being a sophisticated spy, under the pseudonym "Lt Col. William ('Bill') Tanner", Tanner being M's Chief of Staff in many of Fleming's Bond novels. In 1968 the owners of the James Bond franchise attempted to continue the series by hiring different novelists, all of whom were to publish under the pseudonym "Robert Markham". In the event, Amis's Colonel Sun was the only Bond novel to be published under that name.

With the possible exception of The Old Devils, a Booker Prize winner, Amis's literary style and tone changed significantly after 1970; several critics accused him of being old fashioned and misogynistic, while others said his output lacked the humanity, wit and compassion of earlier efforts.

This period also saw Amis the anthologist, a role in which his wide knowledge of all kinds of English poetry was on display. The New Oxford Book of Light Verse (1978), which he edited, was a revision of the original volume done by W. H. Auden. Amis took the anthology in a markedly new direction; where Auden had interpreted light verse to include “low” verse of working-class or lower-class origin, regardless of subject matter, Amis defined light verse as essentially light in tone, though not necessarily simple in composition. The Amis Anthology (1988), a personal selection of his favourite poems, grew out of his work for a London newspaper, in which he selected a poem daily and presented it with a brief introduction.

Personal life and political views

As a young man at Oxford, Amis briefly joined the Communist Party. He later described this stage of his political life as "the callow Marxist phase that seemed almost compulsory in Oxford". Amis remained nominally on the Left for some time after the war, declaring in the 1950s that he would always vote for the Labour Party. But he eventually moved further right, a development he discussed in the essay "Why Lucky Jim Turned Right" (1967); his conservativism and anti-communism can be seen in such later works of his as the dystopian novel Russian Hide and Seek (1980).

Amis was by his own admission and as revealed by his biographers a serial adulterer for much of his life. Not surprisingly, this was one of the main contributory factors in the breakdown of his first marriage. A famous photograph of a sleeping Amis on a Yugoslav beach shows the slogan (written by wife Hilly) on his back "1 Fat Englishman - I fuck anything".

In one of his memoirs, Amis wrote: "Now and then I become conscious of having the reputation of being one of the great drinkers, if not one of the great drunks, of our time". He suggests that this is due to a naive tendency on the part of his readers to apply the behaviour of his characters to himself. This was disingenuous; the fact was that he enjoyed drink, and spent a good deal of his time in pubs. Hilary Rubinstein, who commissioned Lucky Jim, commented: "I doubted whether Jim Dixon would have gone to the pub and drunk ten pints of beer ... I didn't know Kingsley very well, you see." Clive James comments: "All on his own, he had the weekly drinks bill of a whole table at the Garrick Club even before he was elected. After he was, he would get so tight there that he could barely make it to the taxi." Amis was, however, adamant in his belief that inspiration did not come from a bottle: "Whatever part drink may play in the writer's life, it must play none in his or her work." That this was certainly the case is attested to by Amis's highly disciplined approach to writing. For 'many years', Amis imposed a rigorous daily schedule upon himself in which writing and drinking were strictly segregated. Mornings were devoted to writing with a minimum daily output of 500 words. The drinking would only begin around lunchtime when this output had been achieved. Amis's prodigious output would not have been possible without this kind of self discipline. Nevertheless, according to Clive James, Amis reached a turning point when his drinking ceased to be social, and became a way of dulling his remorse and regret at his behaviour toward Hilly. "Amis had turned against himself deliberately ... it seems fair to guess that the troubled grandee came to disapprove of his own conduct." His friend Christopher Hitchens said: "The booze got to him in the end, and robbed him of his wit and charm as well as of his health."

Family

Amis' first marriage, of fifteen years, was to Hilary Bardwell, daughter of a shoe millionaire, by whom he had two sons and one daughter; they are:

  1. Philip Amis, a graphics designer, who is divorced and remarried.
  2. Martin Amis, a novelist; twice married, first in 1984 (divorced) to Antonia Phillips, a widowed Bostonian philosophy teacher, with two sons Louis and Jacob, and then to Isabel Fonseca with two daughters.

    He also has an illegitimate daughter named Delilah.
  3. Sally Amis, who died in 2000.<<></<>ref>
Kingsley Amis was married a second time, to the novelist Elizabeth Jane Howard, with whom he had no children.At the end of his second marriage, he went to live with his ex-wife Hilary and her third husband, in a deal brokered by their two sons Philip and Martin, so that he could be cared for until his death.<<></<>ref>

Partial bibliography

1947 Bright November
1953 A Frame of Mind
1954 Poems: Fantasy Portraits.
1954 Lucky Jim
1955 That Uncertain Feeling
1956 A Case of Samples: Poems 1946-1956.
1957 Socialism and the Intellectuals. A Fabian Society pamphlet
1958 I Like it Here
1960 Take A Girl Like You
1960 New Maps of Hell: a Survey of Science Fiction
1960 Hemingway in Space (short story), Punch December 1960
1962 My Enemy's Enemy
1962 The Evans County
1963 One Fat Englishman
1965 The Egyptologists (with Robert Conquest).
1965 The James Bond Dossier
1965 The Book of Bond, or Every Man His Own 007 (pseud. Lt.-Col William Tanner)
1966 The Anti-Death League
1968 Colonel Sun: a James Bond Adventure (pseud. Robert Markham)
1968 I Want It Now
1968 A Look Round the Estate: Poems, 1957-1967
1969 The Green Man
1970 What Became of Jane Austen?, and Other Questions
1971 Girl, 20


1972 On Drink
1973 The Riverside Villas Murder
1974 Ending Up
1974 Rudyard Kipling and his World
1975 The Crime Of The Century
1976 The Alteration
1978 Jake's Thing
1978 The New Oxford Book of Light Verse (ed.)
1979 Collected Poems 1944-78
1980 Russian Hide-and-Seek
1980 Collected Short Stories
1983 Every Day Drinking
1984 How's Your Glass?
1984 Stanley and the Women
1986 The Old Devils
1988 Difficulties With Girls
1990 The Folks That Live on the Hill
1990 The Amis Collection
1991 Memoirs
1991 Mr Barrett's Secret and Other Stories
1991 We Are All Guilty
1992 The Russian Girl
1994 You Can't Do Both
1995 The Biographer's Moustache
1997 The King's English: A Guide to Modern Usage
2001 The Letters of Kingsley Amis, Edited by Zachary Leader
2008 Everyday Drinking: The Distilled Kingsley Amis, Introduction by Christopher Hitchens


Poets in The Amis Anthology: A Personal Choice of English Verse (1988)

Richard Aldington - Kenneth Allott - Matthew Arnold - Kenneth Ashley - W. H. Auden - William Barnes - Oliver Bayley - Hilaire Belloc - John Betjeman - Laurence Binyon - William Blake - Edmund Blunden - Rupert Brooke - Robert Browning - Robert Burns - Thomas Campbell - Thomas Campion - G. K. Chesterton - Hartley Coleridge - Robert Conquest - W. J. Cory - John Davidson - Donald Davie - C. Day Lewis - Walter De la Mare - Ernest Dowson - Michael Drayton - Lawrence Durrell - Jean Elliot - George Farewell - James Elroy Flecker - Thomas Ford - Roy Fuller - Robert Graves - Thomas Gray - Fulke Greville - Heath - Reginald Heber - Felicia Dorothea Hemans - W. E. Henley - George Herbert - Ralph Hodgson - Thomas Hood - Teresa Hooley - Gerard Manley Hopkins - A. E. Housman - Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey - T. E. Hulme - Leigh Hunt - Elizabeth Jennings - Samuel Johnson - John Keats - Henry King - Charles Kingsley - Rudyard Kipling - Philip Larkinmarker - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - John Lydgate - H. F. Lyte - Louis MacNeice - Andrew Marvell - John Masefield - Alice Meynell - Harold Monro - William Morris - Edwin Muir - Henry Newbolt - Alfred Noyes - Wilfred Owen - Thomas Love Peacock - George Peele - Alexander Pope - Frederic Prokosch - Walter Ralegh - John Crowe Ransom - Christina Rossetti - Siegfried Sassoon - John Skelton - Robert Southey - Edmund Spenser - Sir John Squire - Robert Louis Stevenson - Sir John Suckling - Algernon Charles Swinburne - George Szirtes - Alfred, Lord Tennyson - Dylan Thomas - Edward Thomas - R. S. Thomas - Francis Thompson - Anthony Thwaite - Chidiock Tichborne - Aurelian Townsend - W. J. Turner - Oscar Wilde - John Wilmot, Lord Rochester - Roger Woddis - Charles Wolfe - William Wordsworth - William Butler Yeats - Andrew Young

References

Further reading

  • Lucky Him: The Life of Kingsley Amis, Richard Bradford, Peter Owen, 2001. ISBN 0 7206 1117 2
  • Kingsley Amis: Memoirs, Kingsley Amis, Penguin, 1992.
  • The Letters of Kingsley Amis, edited by Zachary Leader, HarperCollins, 2000. ISBN 0 00 257095 5
  • Kingsley Amis, a Biography, Eric Jacobs, Hodder & Stoughton, 1995. ISBN 0 340 59072 6
  • The Life of Kingsley Amis, Zachary Leader, Jonathan Cape, 2006. ISBN 0224062271
  • The Anti-Egotist: Kingsley Amis, Man of Letters, Paul Fussell, Oxford UP, 1994.
  • "Kingsley Amis's Troublesome Fun", Michael Dirda. The Chronicle of Higher Education 22 June 2007. B9-B11.
  • AMIS & SON - Two literary generations by Neil Powell, Pan Macmillan, 2008.
  • No, Not Bloomsbury, Malcolm Bradbury, Arena, 1989. ISBN 0 09 9544105
  • Success Stories: Literature and the Media in England, 1950 - 1959, Harry Ritchie, Faber & Faber, 1988. ISBN 0 571 14764 X


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