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The kinkajou (Potos flavus), also known as the honey bear (a name it shares with the Sun Bear), is a rainforest mammal of the family Procyonidae related to the olingo, ringtail, cacomistle, raccoon, and coati. It is the only member of the genus Potos. Kinkajous may be mistaken for ferrets or monkeys, but are not related. Native to Central America and South America, this arboreal mammal is not an endangered species, though it is seldom seen by people because of its strict nocturnal habits. However, they are hunted for the illegal pet trade, for their fur (to make wallets and horse saddles) and for their meat.

Size and appearance

An average adult kinkajou weighs 2–3 kg (4–7 lb). Average adult body length is 40–60 cm; in addition to body length, average tail length is 40-55 cm. The kinkajou's woolly fur consists of an outer coat of gold (or brownish-gray) overlapping a gray undercoat.It also has short legs with sharp claws.

Diet

Although the kinkajou is classified in the order Carnivora and has sharp teeth, its omnivorous diet consists mainly of fruit. Kinkajous particularly enjoy figs. Studies have shown that 90% of their diet consists of (primarily ripe) fruit; they may play an important role in seed dispersal. Leaves and flowers make up much of the other 10% of their diet. They sometimes eat insects, particularly ants. It has been suggested, without direct evidence, that they may occasionally eat bird eggs and small vertebrates. Their frugivorous habits are actually convergent with those of (diurnal) spider monkeys.

The kinkajou's slender five-inch extrudable tongue helps the animal to obtain fruit and to lick nectar from flowers, so that it sometimes acts as a pollinator. (Nectar is also sometimes obtained by eating entire flowers.) Although captive specimens will avidly eat honey (hence the name "Honey Bear"), honey has not yet been observed in the diet of wild kinkajous.

Phylogeny

Olingos are similar to kinkajous in morphology and habits. However, genetic studies have shown that the kinkajous were an early offshoot of the ancestral procyonid line and are not closely related to any of the other extant procyonids. The similarities between kinkajous and olingos are thus an example of parallel evolution; the closest relatives of the olingos are actually the coatis. The kinkajou is distinguished from the olingo by its prehensile tail, its foreshortened muzzle, its extrudable tongue, and its lack of anal scent glands. The only other carnivoran with a prehensile tail is the binturong of Southeast Asia.

Kinkajous evolved in Central America and invaded the formerly isolated continent of South America several million years ago, as part of the Great American Interchange, when formation of the Isthmus of Panama made it possible to do so.

Behavior

Like raccoons, kinkajous' remarkable manipulatory abilities rival those of primates. The kinkajou has a short-haired, fully prehensile tail (like some New World monkeys), which it uses as a "fifth hand" in climbing. It does not use its tail for grasping food. Scent glands near the mouth, on the throat, and on the belly allow kinkajous to mark their territory and their travel routes. Kinkajous sleep in family units and groom one another. While they are usually solitary when foraging, they occasionally forage in small groups, and sometimes associate with olingos.

A nocturnal animal, the kinkajou's peak activity is usually between about 7:00 PM and midnight, and again an hour before dawn. During daylight hours, kinkajous sleep in tree hollows or in shaded tangles of leaves, avoiding direct sunlight.

Kinkajous breed throughout the year, giving birth to one or occasionally two small babies after a gestation period of 112 to 118 days.

As pets

Kinkajous are sometimes kept as pets. They are playful, generally quiet and docile, and have no noticeable odor. However, they can occasionally be aggressive. Kinkajous dislike being awake during the day, and dislike noise and sudden movements. An agitated kinkajou may emit a scream and attack, usually clawing its victim and sometimes biting deeply.

In El Salvadormarker, Guatemalamarker and Hondurasmarker pet kinkajous are commonly called micoleón, meaning "lion monkey".

They live an average of about 23 years in captivity, with a maximum recorded life span of 41 years.

Subspecies

There are seven subspecies of kinkajou:

  • Potos flavus flavus
  • Potos flavus chapadensis
  • Potos flavus chiriquensis
  • Potos flavus megalotus
  • Potos flavus meridensis
  • Potos flavus modestus
  • Potos flavus nocturnus




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