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Kosta Apostolov Solev ( ) primarily known as Kočo Racin ( ) (22 December 1908, Velesmarker - 13 June 1943, Lopušnik) was a Macedonian revolutionary and poet who is considered a founder of modern Macedonian literature. His poem collection "White Dawns" (Zagrebmarker, 1939) is one of the most important masterpieces in the Macedonian modern literature. Racin took time in prose too and wrote some significant works and it's themes were the history, philosophy and the literature critique.

Biography

Early life

Kočo (Kosta Solev) Racin was born in the year of 1908 in Veles. He was born in a very poor family. His father Apostol was a potter who earned money just to give food to his family and he couldn't economically support Racin in his education. Racin finished just one year in the local gymnasium and at the age of thirteen, so he worked in his father's pottery workshop.

Campaigner in the Communist movement

In 1924 he took part in KPJ and for short time he flaunt's his self as one of the most hopeful young curls in the Communist party of Yugoslavia in Macedonia. In 1926 Racin became member of the local commission of KPJ in Veles, and in November 1928 he participates in the fourth congress of KPJ in Dresdenmarker as only delegate from Macedonia. After returning in Yugoslavia he is arrested, but three months later he is left on freedom as result of not having evidence. In April 1929 he went in the army service in Požarevacmarker.

In 1929 the party organization in Macedonia falls. However in 1932 the process for reuniting the party starts and in the summer 1933 was made Local commission of KPJ in Macedonia in which participate: Nikola Orovčanec, Živoin Ćurcić and Racin. From November the same year LM starts to issue the month newspaper "Iskra" (Spark), which editor is Racin. Just two numbers of the newspaper are produced. In the beginning of January, 1934 was made a break and 15 leading Macedonian communists together with Racin are arrested. Racin was fated to 4 years prison in Sremska Mitrovicamarker, but in December, 1935 after bringing the law for amnesty he is liberated. The time in the prison for he was the time of the university and the national education. His time in the jail and the association with Moša Pijade, Rodoljub Čolaković and Ognjen Prica he finds out how important is to write in your mother tongue (for Racin the Macedonian). Later he participates in the translating of the "Communist manifesto" in Macedonian.

The surname Racin comes from the name of his loved one Raca.

Ascent & fall: "White Dawns" and expelling from the party

After he went out of jail, Racin intensively starts writing poems and songs. In 1939 he publishes his poem collection titled "White Dawns" (in ), but also Racin wrote and publish some articles and works with themes from the history, philosophy and the literature critique. All of this makes him the most famous Macedonian thinker and philosopher on the lands of Yugoslavia at that times. However the glory and authority that he cares at that time will break up in 1940 with a disorder between him and the leadership of KPJ in Macedonia. Because of the visit that Racin made to Aleksandar Cvetković (than leader of Vardar Banovina) and one critique speech about the work of the KPJ commission from Macedonia, Racin is expelled from the party and to the members of it is enjoin to boycott him. The boycott last until 1942 when the relationships between Racin and the party in Macedonia are going on better.

After the capitulation of Yugoslavia, for some period he works in Sofiamarker, where he lives with his fellow citizen and same thinker Kole Nedelkovski, but after his death Racin is returning in Skopjemarker. In Skopje he is arrested by the Bulgarian police and internee in the village of Kornica, Nevrokopmarker.

Joining NOB and death

In 1943 Racin succeed to get back in Skopje and in the spring he goes to the Partisans, in the detachment "Korab". He becomes an editor of the Partisan newspaper "Ilindenski pat" and prepares two collections with Macedonian folklore songs.

Racin's life finishes in tragic way. One night when he was getting back from the Partisan printing house on the mountain Lopušnik, Kičevomarker, he was deadly shot from the guardian that kept the entrance of the printing house. There are two theories about his death. According to the first, it was an accident: Racin was born with dullness of hearing so he may didn't hear the guardian call for staying and identification. According to the second version Racin was killed. By the opinion of the contemporaries Strahil Gigov politically isolated Racin and he organized his murder.

Works

Starting in 1928 Kočo Racin wrote songs, stories, literary-historical articles, pieces for several magazines, literary critiques, and essays. In his essay The development of our new literature, he argued that the most correct and plausible way to develop modern literature in Macedonia is to build it from the inexhaustible riches of Macedonian folklore, combined with progressive social views. His most notable work was the small collection White Dawns (Beli mugri), which was published in Zagrebmarker in 1939. Racin's interests lay in the plight of field and farm workers and wage earners.

Poetry

The book cover of "Beli Mugri"
Racin starts with writing in 1928. From February till July he hallows love verses to his loved one Rahilka Firfova on 31 cards and in a poem collection titled "Anthology of the pain" ( ). The 31 cards today are kept in the archive of Macedonia. The songs mainly are written in Serbo-Croatian, except 6 that are in Bulgarian. The same year in the Zagrebmarker review "Kritika" is published his first song "Hungry sons" ( ). From May till October, 1930 in a Saraevomarker review he publishes four songs. In 1932 in Skopje Racin together with the students of the philosophical university from Skopje Jovan Gjorgjević and Aleksandar Aksić publishes poem collection in Serbian under the title "1932". In this collection is the song "Firework" (Ватромет) one of Racin's strongest songs. The next published song is "To one worker" ( ) which is his first song in Macedonian. It was published in the Zagreb review called "Književnik" in 1936. In 1938 was published the poem "The death of the Asturian miner" (Смрт астуриског рудара) in honor of Gančo Hadzipanzov - a miner from Veles who was killed in the Spanish Civil War. His greatest success is made with the publishing of the poem collection "White Dawns" in 1939. The poem collection was printed in 4.000 copies and i sold over all Yugoslavia and Pirin Macedoniamarker with great success. The poem collection "Macedonian folklore-freedom songs"(Македонски народно-ослободителни песни) is published in 1943, but here Racin is an editor and not an author.

Prose

Racin's first text is his prose confession "Result" (Резултат), published in 1928 in the Zagreb review "Kritika". In 1932 he participates in the open competition "Literatura" from Zagreb and is awarded for his story "In the quarry" (У каменолому) which later is published in "Kritika". In 1933 the same review publishes fragments from his novel "Opium" (in Macedonian translated as "Poppy" (Афион)). With the writing of this roman Racin started around 1931, but the manuscript was lost during the brake and his arresting. Other Racin's novels are: "The tobacco pickers" (Тутуноберачите) (1937), "Noon" (Пладне) (1937), "One Life" (Еден живот) (1937), "Golden craft" (Златен занает) (1939), and the novels "Father" (Татко) (1939) and "The happiness is big", who were posthumously published.

History

From the history themes Racin was interested in the Bogomilism and wrote three works adept to it: "Dragovitian bogomils" (Драговитските богомили), "The bogomils" (Богомилите), "The country movement of the bogomils in the Medieval perion" (Селското движење на богомилите во Средниот век). From this three (during he was alive) published was just "The country movement..." in 1939 in the review "Folklore reader" (Народна читанка).The work "The bogomils" is written in Macedonian. Racin was the first Macedonian to study the Bogomil movement.

Philosophy

A monument of Racin in his hometown - Veles
Racin was especially interested in Hegel's theory. As the result of it he wrote and publish some articles: "Hegel" (Хегел) published in the Zagreb "Literatura" review and "The meaning of Hegel's philosophy" published in the Belgrademarker review "New culture" (Нова култура) in 1939.

Literature critique

From the sphere of the literature critique Racin wrote the following works and articles: "The development and the meaning of our new literature" (Развитокот и значењето на една нова наша книжевност) (1940), "Angjelko Krstić in front of the court of Ž. Plamenac" (Анѓелко Крстиќ пред судот на Ж. Пламенац) (1939) and "The Realism of A. Krstić (Реализмот на А. Крстиќ) (posthumously) "The stupids about the smile of Mona Lisa" (Блазираните глупости за насмевката на Мона Лиза) (1939) and "The art and the work class" (posthumously).

In honor of Racin

Starting from 1964, an annual Balkan literary festival is held in Racin's honor in his hometown, Veles. From 1992 the manifestation is on Balkan level.

In 1952 Trajče Popov recorded the film poem "White Dawns" on upon of the lyrics from his poem collection and in 2007 on the day of his assassination is promoted the movie "Elegy for you" (Елегија за тебе). The authors of this video are Vasil Zafirčev and Dančo Stefkov.

References

  1. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/koco-racin-dlb/
  2. http://www.diversity.org.mk/bb.asp?idBB=140&flag=1
  3. http://www.cs.earlham.edu/~dusko/InfoMak/literature/BeliMugri.html
  4. Вест, 21.4.2007: „Половина век борба на Виктор Аќимовиќ за вистината за Македонија“


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