The Full Wiki

Kyrgyzstan: Map

  
  
  
  
  

Wikipedia article:

Map showing all locations mentioned on Wikipedia article:



Kyrgyzstan ( ; ; , ; ), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a country in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, it is bordered by Kazakhstanmarker to the north, Uzbekistanmarker to the west, Tajikistanmarker to the southwest and Chinamarker to the east.

The ethnonym "Kyrgyz", after which the country is named, is thought to originally mean either "forty girls" or "forty tribes", presumably referring to the epic hero Manas who, as legend has it, unified forty tribes against the Khitans. The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan symbolizes the forty tribes of Manas.

History

Early history

The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A.D. Then Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shanmarker range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years.

In the twelfth century, however, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altaymarker Range and Sayan Mountainsmarker as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz were conquered by Genghis Khan’s son Jöchi in 1207.

Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the early Kyrgyz as red-haired with white skin and blue eyes, features that were interpreted as suggestive of Slavic origins. Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples that now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak closely related languages.[25773]

Russian influence

In the early nineteenth century, the southern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan came under the control of the Khanate of Kokandmarker. The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirgizia", was formally incorporated into the Russian Empiremarker in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamirsmarker and Afghanistanmarker.

In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to Chinamarker. Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighbouring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government after oppression.

Soviet era

Displays in the former Lenin Museum (now part of the National Museum) celebrated Kyrgyzstan's membership in the Soviet Union
Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR (the term Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). On December 5, 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republicmarker was established as a full republic of the Soviet Unionmarker.

During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development also was notable. Many aspects of the Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Stalin, and, therefore, tensions with the all-Union authorities were constant.

The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function.

In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in the Osh Oblastmarker, where Uzbeks form a majority of the population. Violent confrontations ensued, and a state of emergency and curfew were introduced. Order was not restored until August 1990.

The early 1990s brought considerable change to Kyrgyzstan. By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the liberal President of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the Presidency in October 1990. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians.

In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its prerevolutionary name of Bishkekmarker. Despite these aesthetic moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a "renewed federation."

On August 19, 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscowmarker, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on August 31, 1991.

Independence

In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community. Finally, on December 21, 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of Independent States. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the UN and the OSCE.

The "Tulip Revolution," after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced President Akayev's resignation on April 4, 2005. Opposition leaders formed a coalition, and a new government was formed under President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov. The nation's capital was also looted during the protests.

Political stability appears to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime are jockeying for power. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures.

Current concerns in Kyrgyzstan include privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of Western influence, inter-ethnic relations and terrorism.

Politics

The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic republic. The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is unicameral. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, a Constitutional Court, local courts and a Chief Prosecutor.

In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksymarker, five people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. President Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities.

The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat unicameral legislature were held on February 27 and March 13, 2005, but were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a bloodless coup on March 24, after which Akayev fled the country and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev (see: Tulip Revolution).

Interim government leaders are developing a new governing structure for the country and working to resolve outstanding constitutional issues. On July 10, 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the presidential election in a landslide, with 88.9% of the vote, and was inaugurated on 14 August. However, initial public support for the new administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems that have plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union, along with the murders of several members of parliament. Large-scale protests against president Bakiyev took place in Bishkek in April and November 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to parliament.

While it cannot really be described as an exodus, more and more ethnic white Russians want to leave Kyrgyzstan for Russia. The surge in the numbers of those seeking the necessary permits can be explained by the March events and the continuously shaky situation in Kyrgyzstan, both economically and politically. The Russians are increasingly pessimistic and concerned about an increasing lawlessness in Bishkek (where almost 50% of the country’s Russian population lives. Interfax reported on 8 February 2006 that if the current trend persists, more than half of Kyrgyzstan’s Russian population will have left within the next ten years. Besides the uncertain outlook for the future, there are signs of growing nationalism and even xenophobia in a country that was always known for one of the most tolerant populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States [25774].

In December, 2008 the state-owned broadcaster UTRK announced that it would require prior submission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty programmes, which UTRK are required to retransmit according to a 2005 agreement. UTRK had stopped retransmitting RFE/RL programming on October 2008, a week after it failed to broadcast an RFE/RL programme called 'Inconvenient Questions' which covered the October elections, claiming to have lost the missing material. President Bakiyev had criticised this programme in September 2008, while UTRK told RFE/RL that its programming was too negative. Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Kyrgyzstan 111th equal out of 173 countries on its Press Freedom Index, strongly criticised the decision.

On 3 February 2009, President Kurmanbek Bakiyev announced the imminent closure of the Manas Air Basemarker, the only US military base remaining in Central Asia. The closure was approved by Parliament on 19 February 2009 by 78–1 for the government-backed bill. However, after much behind-the-scenes negotiation between Kyrgyz, Russian and American diplomats, the decision was reversed in June of 2009. The Americans were allowed to remain under a new contract, whereby rent would increase from $17.4 million to $60 million annually.

Kyrgyzstan is among the twenty countries in the world with the highest perceived level of corruption: the 2008 Corruption Perception Index for Kyrgyzstan is 1.8 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 10 (least corrupt).

Provinces and districts

Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces (sing. oblast (область), pl. oblasttar (областтар)) administered by appointed governors. The capital, Bishkekmarker, and the second large city Oshmarker are administratively independent cities (shaar) with a status equal to a province.

Provinces of Kyrgyzstan
The provinces, and independent cities, are as follows:
  1. Bishkek marker
  2. Batkenmarker
  3. Chuimarker
  4. Jalal-Abadmarker
  5. Narynmarker
  6. Osh marker
  7. Talasmarker
  8. Issyk-Kulmarker
  9. Osh marker


Each province comprises a number of districts (raions), administered by government-appointed officials (akim). Rural communities (ayıl ökmötü), consisting of up to 20 small settlements, have their own elected mayors and councils.

Geography

Map of Kyrgyzstan


Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstanmarker, Chinamarker, Tajikistanmarker and Uzbekistanmarker. The mountainous region of the Tian Shanmarker covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerlandmarker of Central Asia", as a result), with the remainder made up of valleys and basins.

Lake Issyk-Kulmarker in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicacamarker. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusumarker, at 7,439 m (24,400 feet), is the highest point and is considered by geologists (though not mountaineers) to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m (23,000 feet) in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity.

The climate varies regionally. The south-western Fergana Valleymarker is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 40°C (104°F.) The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period.

Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare earth metal. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.

Bishkekmarker in the north is the capital and largest city, with approximately 900,000 inhabitants (as of 2005). The second city is the ancient town of Oshmarker, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. The principal river is the Kara Daryamarker, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Narynmarker.

The confluence forms the Syr Daryamarker, which originally flowed into the Aral Seamarker. At this time it no longer reaches the sea, as its water is withdrawn upstream to irrigate cotton fields in Tajikistanmarker, Uzbekistanmarker, and southern Kazakhstanmarker. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.

Enclaves and exclaves

There is one exclave, the tiny village of Barak, Kyrgyzstan (population 627), in the Ferganamarker valley. The village is surrounded by Uzbek territory. It is located on the road from Oshmarker (Kyrgyzstan) to Khodjaabad (Uzbekistan) about 4 km north-west from the Kyrgyz–Uzbek border in the direction of Andijanmarker. Barak is administratively part of Kara-Suu District in Kyrgyzstan's Osh Provincemarker.

There are four Uzbek enclave within Kyrgyzstan. Two of them are the towns of Sokh (area 125 sq. mi/325 km² and a population of 42,800 in 1993, although some estimates go as high as 70,000; 99% are Tajiks, the remainder Uzbeks) and Shakhimardanmarker (also known as Shahimardan, Shohimardon, or Shah-i-Mardan, area 35 sq. mi/90 km² and a population of 5,100 in 1993; 91% are Uzbeks, the remainder Kyrgyz); the other two are the tiny territories of Chong-Kara (roughly 3 km long by 1 km wide or 2 mi by 0.6 mi) and Jangy-ayyl (a dot of land barely 2 or 3 km across). Chong-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the Uzbek border and the Sokh enclave. Jangy-ayyl is about 40 miles east of Batkenmarker, in a northward projection of the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border near Khalmionmarker.

There also are two enclaves belonging to Tajikistanmarker: Vorukhmarker (exclave area between 95 and 130 km² [37–50 sq. mi], population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz, distributed among 17 villages), located 45 kilometres (28 mi) south of Isfaramarker on the right bank of the Karafshin river, and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagachmarker.

Economy

Despite the backing of major Western lenders, including the International Monetary Fundmarker (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, Kyrgyzstan has had economic difficulties following independence. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trading bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the republic's transition to a free market economy.

The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies and introduced a value-added tax. Overall, the government appears committed to the transition to a market economy. Through economic stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 20, 1998.

The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armeniamarker, Azerbaijanmarker and Tajikistanmarker, as factories and state farms collapsed with the disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union. While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing adequate fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net.

Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan (see agriculture in Kyrgyzstan). By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002 agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about half of employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major commodities. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables and fruit. As the prices of imported agrichemicals and petroleum are so high, much farming is being done by hand and by horse, as it was generations ago. Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment.

Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium, antimony and other valuable metals. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy.

On a local level, the economy is primarily kiosk in nature. A large amount of local commerce occurs at bazaars and small village kiosks. Commodities such as petrol (gas) are often sold road-side in gallon jugs. A significant amount of trade is unregulated. There is also a scarcity of common everyday consumer items in remote villages. Thus a large number of homes are quite self-sufficient with respect to food production. There is a distinct differentiation between urban and rural economies.

The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woolen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germanymarker, Russiamarker, Chinamarker, Kazakhstanmarker and Uzbekistanmarker.

Demographics

Age distribution pyramid (2005)


Kyrgyzstan's population is estimated at 5.2 million in 2007. Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over the age of 65. The country is rural: only about one-third of Kyrgyzstan's population live in urban areas. The average population density is 69 people per square mile (29 people per km²).

The nation's largest ethnic group are the Kyrgyz, a Turkic people, who comprise 69% of the population (2007 estimate). Other ethnic groups include Russians (9.0%) concentrated in the north and Uzbeks (14.5%) living in the south. Small but noticeable minorities include Tatars (1.9%), Uyghurs (1.1%), Tajiks (1.1%), Kazakhs (0.7%) and Ukrainians (0.5%) and other smaller ethnic minorities (1.7%).

Kyrgyzstan has undergone a pronounced change in its ethnic composition since independence. The percentage of ethnic Kyrgyz increased from around 50% in 1979 to nearly 70% in 2007, while the percentage of European ethnic groups (Russians, Ukrainians and Germans) as well as Tatars dropped from 35% to about 10%.

The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in round tents called yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance) as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or jailoo) in the summer.

Languages

Kyrgyzstan is one of the two former Soviet republics in Central Asia to retain Russian as an official language (Kazakhstanmarker is the other). It added the Kyrgyz language to become an officially bilingual country in September 1991. This sent a clear signal to the ethnic Russians that they were welcome in the new independent state, in an effort to avoid a brain drain. Kyrgyz is a member of the Turkic group of languages and was written in the Arabic alphabet until the twentieth century. Latin script was introduced and adopted in 1928, and was subsequently replaced by Cyrillic script in 1941.

Generally, people understand and speak Russian all over the country, except for some remote mountain areas. Russian is the mother tongue of the majority of Bishkek dwellers, and most business and political affairs are carried out in this language. Until recently, Kyrgyz remained a language spoken at home and was rarely used during meetings or other events. However, most parliamentary meetings today are conducted in Kyrgyz, with simultaneous interpretation available for those not speaking Kyrgyz.

Culture

Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.




Traditions

Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride kidnapping.

It is debatable whether bride kidnapping is actually traditional. Some of the confusion may stem from the fact that arranged marriages were traditional, and one of the ways to escape an arranged marriage was to arrange a consensual "kidnapping."

Religion

The Population of Kyrgyzstan is 75% Muslim, 20% Russian Orthodox and 5% other.

During Soviet times, state atheism was encouraged. Today, however, Kyrgyzstan is a secular state, although Islam has exerted a growing influence in politics. For instance, there have been various attempts to decriminalize polygamy, and to arrange for officials to travel on hajj (the pilgrimage to Meccamarker) under a tax-free arrangement. Kyrgyzstan is an overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim nation and adheres to the Hanafi school of thought.

While Islam in Kyrgyzstan is more of a cultural background than a devout daily practice for many, public figures have expressed support for restoring religious values. For example, human rights ombudsman Tursunbay Bakir-Ulu noted, "In this era of independence, it is not surprising that there has been a return to spiritual roots not only in Kyrgyzstan, but also in other post-communist republics. It would be immoral to develop a market-based society without an ethical dimension."

Additionally, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of Askar Akayev, the former President of Kyrgyzstan, stated during a July 2007 interview that Islam is increasingly taking root across the nation. She emphasized that many mosques have been built and that the Kyrgyz are increasingly devoting themselves to Islam, which she noted was "not a bad thing in itself. It keeps our society more moral, cleaner."

In a traditional Islamic cemetery
The other faiths practiced in Kyrgyzstan include Russian Orthodox and Ukrainian Orthodox versions of Christianity, practiced primarily by Russians and Ukrainians respectively. A small minority of ethnic Germans are also Christian, mostly Lutheran and Anabaptist as well as a Roman Catholic community of approximately 600.[25775]

A few Animistic traditions survive as do influences from Buddhism such as the tying of prayer flags onto sacred trees, though some view this practice rooted within Sufi Islam.There are also a small number of Bukharian Jews living in Kyrgyzstan, but during the collapse of the Soviet Unionmarker most fled to other countries, mainly the United Statesmarker and Israelmarker.

On November 6, 2008, the Kyrgyzstan parliament unanimously passed a law making it much harder for minority religious organizations to be recognized. It was signed by President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on January 12, 2009. The new law ups the minimum number of members required from 10 to 200 and also outlaws "aggressive action aimed at proselytism – converting people from one faith to another." Additionally, it bans religious activity in schools and all activity by unregistered organizations.

Flag

The 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the flag represents 40 warriors of the mythical hero Manas. The lines inside the sun represent the crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz architecture. The red portion of the flag represents peace and openness of Kyrgyzstan.

Education



Educational institutions in Kyrgyzstan include:



Horse riding

The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse riding in Kyrgyz culture.

Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is Ulak Tartysh, a team game resembling a cross between polo and rugby in which two teams of riders wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of a goat, which they attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal line, or into the opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on the ground.

Other popular games on horseback include:
  • At Chabysh – a long-distance horse race, sometimes over a distance of more than 50 km
  • Jumby Atmai – a large bar of precious metal (the "jumby") is tied to a pole by a thread and contestants attempt to break the thread by shooting at it, while at a gallop
  • Kyz Kuumai – a man chases a girl in order to win a kiss from her, while she gallops away; if he is not successful she may in turn chase him and attempt to beat him with her "kamchi" (horsewhip)
  • Oodarysh – two contestants wrestle on horseback, each attempting to be the first to throw the other from his horse
  • Tyin Enmei – picking up a coin from the ground at full gallop


Tourism

For those interested in trekking and camping, every oblast offers different attractions and challenges. Some of the most popular locations for camping are southern Osh, the area between Naryn City and the Torugart pass, and the mountains and glaciers surrounding Karakol in Issyk-Kul. Local guides and porters can be hired from many different tour companies in Bishkek and in the oblast capitals.

Skiing is still in its infancy as a tourism industry, but there is one fairly cheap and well-equipped base about a half-hour from Bishkek. In the Karakol Valley National Park, outside Karakol, there is also a ski base with three T-bars and rental equipment available of good quality.

Transport

Bishkek West Bus Terminal


Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of 3,000 metre (9,000 ft) altitude and more, and are subject to frequent mud slides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions.

Additional problems are due to the fact that many roads and railway lines built during the Sovietmarker period are today intersected by international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities to cross where they are not completely closed. Horses are still a much-used transport option, especially in more rural areas; Kyrgyzstan's road infrastructure is not extensive, so horses are able to reach locations that motor vehicles cannot, and they do not require expensive, imported fuel.

Airports

At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today.

Banned airline status

This country appears on the E.U. list of prohibited countries with regard to the certification of airlines. This means that no airline which is registered with Kyrgyzstan may operate services of any kind within the European Union community. This is due to safety standards which fail to meet E.U. regulations.

Railways

The Chui valley in the north and the Ferghana valleymarker in the south were endpoints of the Soviet Unionmarker's rail system in Central Asia. Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about 370 km (1,520 mm broad gauge) in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centers as Tashkentmarker, Almatymarker and the cities of Russia.

There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchymarker in the north and/or from Oshmarker in the south into the People's Republic of Chinamarker, but the cost of construction would be enormous.

Rail links with adjacent countries



Highways

With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkekmarker to Oshmarker has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major population centers of the country—the Chui Valley in the north and the Fergana Valleymarker in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the People's Republic of Chinamarker.

total: 30,300 km (including 140 km of expressways)
paved: 22,600 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 7,700 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)


Waterways

Water transport exists only on Lake Issyk Kulmarker, and has drastically shrunk since the end of the Soviet Union.

Ports and harbours

Balykchymarker (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye), on Lake Issyk Kul.

See also

Further reading

  • Historical Dictionary of Kyrgyzstan by Rafis Abazov
  • Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia's Island of Democracy? by John Anderson
  • Kyrgyzstan: The Growth and Influence of Islam in the Nations of Asia and Central Asia by Daniel E. Harmon
  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew
  • Odyssey Guide: Kyrgyz Republic by Ceri Fairclough, Rowan Stewart and Susie Weldon
  • Kyrgyzstan: Traditions of Nomads by V. Kadyrov, Rarity Ltd., Bishkek, 2005. ISBN 9-967-424-42-7


References

  1. Forty tribes and the 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan, SRAS–The School of Russian and Asian Studies
  2. V.V. Bartold, The Kyrgyz: A Historical Essay, Frunze, 1927. Reprinted in V.V. Bartold, Collected Works, Volume II, Part 1, Izd. Vostochnoi Literatury, Moscow, 1963, p. 480
  3. Mirfatyh Zakiev, Origins of the Turks and Tatars, Part Two, Third Chapter, sections 109–100, 2002. Retrieved on 15 May 2009
  4. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&docid=494b629e1e&skip=0&query=radio%20liberty%20kyrgyzstan
  5. Proposal to close the Manas Air Base
  6. Kyrgyz Parliament Approves U.S. base closure, 19 February 2009
  7. In Reversal, Kyrgyzstan Won’t Close a U.S. Base
  8. 2008 Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International. Retrieved on 14 March 2009
  9. The exclave of Barak, Kyrgyzstan in Uzbekistan. Retrieved on 2 May 2009
  10. Map showing the location of the Kyrgyz exclave Barak. Retrieved on 2 May 2009
  11. Ethnic composition of the population in Kyrgyzstan 1999-2007.
  12. Population census for Kyrgyzstan, 1999
  13. Kyrgyz Style - Production - Souvenirs
  14. Human Rights Watch Report "Reconciled to Violence: State Failure to Stop Domestic Abuse and Abduction of Women in Kyrgyzstan" published September 2006, Vol. 18, No.9.
  15. the World Factbook
  16. ISN Security Watch - Islam exerts growing influence on Kyrgyz politics
  17. Kyrgyzstan - Quick facts, statistics and cultural notes
  18. EurasiaNet Civil Society - Kyrgyzstan: Time to Ponder a Federal System - Ex-President's Daughter
  19. Religion in Kyrgyzstan
  20. Shaikh Muhammad Bin Jamil Zeno, Muhammad Bin Jamil Zeno – 2006, pg. 264
  21. Kyrgyzstan's Religious Law
  22. Human Rights Activists Condemn New Religion Law
  23. International University of Kyrgyzstan
  24. International Ataturk-Alatoo University
  25. Kyrgyz National University
  26. Arabaev Kyrgyz State University
  27. Kyrgyz Russian Slavonic University
  28. Kyrgyz-Turkish MANAS University
  29. Osh State University
  30. List of banned E.U. air carriers


External links

Government


General information


News media


Other



Embed code:






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message