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La Défense is a major business district for the city of Parismarker. With a population of 20,844 , it is centered in an oval freeway loop straddling the Hauts-de-Seinemarker département municipalities of Nanterre, Courbevoie and Puteaux. The district is at the westernmost extremity of Paris' 10 km long Historical Axis, which starts at the Louvremarker in Central Paris and continues along the Champs-Élyséesmarker, well beyond the Arc de Triomphemarker before culminating at La Défense.

Around its -high Grande Archemarker and esplanade ("le Parvis"), the district holds many of the Paris urban area's tallest high-rises. With its , its 72 glass-and-steel slick buildings including 14 high-rises above , its 150,000 daily workers and 3.5 million square metres (37.7 million sq ft) of office space, La Défense is Europe's largest purpose-built business district.

History

La Défense as seen from the Eiffel Tower.
La Défense is named after the iconic statue, La Défense de Paris, which was built in 1884 to commemorate the soldiers who had defended Paris during the Franco-Prussian War. The name of the area sometimes causes confusion with visitors, who occasionally assume it is some kind of military zone or establishment.

In September 1958, The Public Establishment for Installation of La Défense (EPAD) buildings (of which the Esso Towermarker was the very first) were built and began to slowly replace the city's factories, shanties, and even a few farms. The Center of New Industries and Technologiesmarker (CNIT) was built and first used in 1958. These "first generation" skyscrapers were all very similar in appearance, limited to a height of . In 1966, the Nobel Towermarker was the first office building built in the area. In 1970 the RERmarker line A railway was opened from La Défensemarker to Étoilemarker.

In the early 1970s, in response to great demand, a second generation of buildings began to appear, but the economic crisis in 1973 nearly halted all construction in the area. A third generation of towers began to appear in the early 1980s. The biggest commercial centre in Europe (at the time), the Quatre Temps, was created in 1981. In 1982, the EPAD launched the Tête Défense competition to find a monument to complete the Axe historique, which eventually led to the construction of Grande Archemarker at the west end of the quarter. During the same period, hotels were constructed, the CNIT was restructured, and in 1992 Line 1 of the Paris Métro was extended to La Défense, which made the area readily accessible to even more of the city.

On Bastille Day 1990, French electronic composer Jean Michel Jarre staged an ambitious concert at the site, using the Grande Arche and three of the area's towers as projection screens, and building a pyramidal stage above the road. The free concert, titled simply Paris la Defense attracted two million spectators, stretching all the way back to the Arc de Triomphemarker. This beat Jarre's own previous world record for the largest attendance for a musical concert.

After a stagnation in new development in the mid-1990s La Défense is once again expanding and is now the largest purpose-built business district in Europe.

Important corporations headquartered at La Défense include Cegetel, Société Générale, Total, Aventis, Areva and Arcelor. The tallest skyscraper belongs to Total, constructed in 1985. It is high, has 48 floors, and is the second highest inhabited building in the Paris area (the first being the Tour Montparnassemarker; the tallest building in Paris is the Eiffel Towermarker).

On 9th September 2008, La Défense celebrated its 50th birthday with a huge fireworks display.

A new era: "La Défense 2006-2015"

La Défense on the Northern circular boulevard.
In December 2005, Bernard Bled, CEO & Chairman of EPAD (La Defense Management & Development Office) announced an ambitious 9-year development plan called "La Defense 2006-2015".This important modernisation plan has to give a new dimension to the district and focuses on four main axes: regenerate outdated skyscrapers, allow new buildings, improve the balance between offices and residential housing and make the transport of local employees from their homes to La Défense easier.There are 3 aims: building 150 000 square metres (1 600 000 sq ft) of offices within demolition/rebuilding projects, building 300 000 square metres (3 200 000 sq ft) of offices within new projects and building 100 000 square metres ( 1 100 000 sq ft) of housing.The government confirmed in July 2006 this plan which has to be carried out around 2015. It is justified by the strong estate pressure, which plays in favour of building new skyscrapers near Paris. Those constructions have also the advantage to be more economical than little buildings. But it will have to overcome some difficulties: French economy faces a short-term slowdown; the government tries to balance tertiary sector employment in the whole region again, because La Défense today concentrates a major part of those jobs; and traffic is already saturated in the district, while it would need huge investments to extend transport infrastructures.It launched high profile international competitions and/or construction greenlight of several key tall sustainable development-style skyscrapers such as Tour Signal, Tour Phare, Hermitage Plaza and Tour Generalimarker. During said December 2005 Press Conference, EPAD released to the public an elaborate 3D animation film titled "La Défense 2015".

Area specifications

  • Divided into 12 sectors
  • of offices
  • 1,500 businesses (of which 14 from the national top 20 and 15 from the global top 50)
  • 150,000 employees
  • 20,000 residents
  • of shops (including the Quatre Temps Shopping Mall, the largest in Continental Europe)
  • 2,600 hotel rooms
  • of flagstone and sidewalk
  • of greenery
  • 60 modern art sculptures and monuments


La Défense tallest towers

Completed highrise buildings above 90 m (300 ft) (1967-2008)

Rank Name Built Use Height Levels Municipality
metres feet
1 Tour Totalmarker 1985 office 187 614 48 Courbevoie
2 Tour T1marker (GDF Suez) 2008 office 185 610 37 Courbevoie
3 Tour Arevamarker 1974 office 184 607 44 Courbevoie
4 Tour Granitemarker (Société Générale) 2008 office 183 603 37 Nanterre
5 Tour Ganmarker 1974 office 179 587 42 Courbevoie
6 Tour Alicantemarker (Société Générale) 1995 office 167 548 37 Nanterre
Tour Chassagnemarker (Société Générale) 1995 office 167 548 37 Nanterre
8 Tour EDFmarker 2001 office 165 541 41 Puteaux
9 Cœur Défensemarker 2001 office 161 528 40 Courbevoie
10 Tour Firstmarker ex AXA, ex Assur (refurbishment) 1974 office 159 522 39 Courbevoie
11 Tour Adriamarker (Technip) 2002 office 155 509 40 Courbevoie
Tour Égéemarker (Ernst&Young) 1999 office 155 509 40 Courbevoie
13 Tour Arianemarker 1975 office 152 499 36 Puteaux
14 Tour CBXmarker 2005 office 142 466 36 Courbevoie
15 Tour Défense 2000marker 1974 residential 136 446 46 Puteaux
16 Tour Europlazamarker 1995 office 135 443 31 Courbevoie
17 Tour Descartesmarker (IBM) 1988 office 130 427 40 Courbevoie
18 Tour Les Poissonsmarker 1970 mixed 128 420 42 Courbevoie
19 Tour Francemarker 1973 residential 126 413 40 Puteaux
20 Tour Franklinmarker 1972 office 120 394 33 Puteaux
21 Tour Sequoiamarker (Bull, Cegetel, SFR) 1990 office 119 390 33 Puteaux
Tour Winterthur 1973 office 119 390 33 Puteaux
23 Tour Micheletmarker (Total) 1985 office 117 384 34 Puteaux
Tour CB16 2003 office 90 295 27 Courbevoie
25 Tour Neptune 1972 office 113 371 28 Courbevoie
Préfecture des Hauts-de-Seinemarker 1974 office 113 371 25 Nanterre
27 Grande Archemarker 1989 monument, office 110 361 37 Puteaux
Tour Manhattan 1975 office 110 361 32 Courbevoie
Tour Aurore 1970 office 110 361 29 Courbevoie
30 Tour Eve 1975 mixed 109 358 30 Puteaux
Tour Initialemarker 1967 office 109 358 30 Puteaux
32 Tour Nuage 1, Tours Aillaudmarker 1976 residential 105 344 39 Nanterre
Tour Nuage 2, Tours Aillaudmarker 1976 residential 105 344 39 Nanterre
34 Tour Gambetta 1975 residential 104 341 37 Courbevoie
35 Tour Cèdre 1998 office 103 338 26 Courbevoie
36 Tour Opus12 1973 office 100 328 27 Puteaux
Tour Athéna 1984 office 100 328 25 Puteaux
38 Tour Europe 1969 office 99 325 28 Courbevoie
Tour AIG 1967 office 99 325 27 Courbevoie
40 Tour Prisma (Tour Kvaerner) 1998 office 97 318 25 Courbevoie
41 Tour Atlantique 1970 office 95 312 27 Puteaux
Tour Pascal 1983 office 95 312 27 Puteaux
43 Tour Pacific 1992 office 90 295 25 Puteaux


Upcoming highrise buildings (2010-2015)

Name Use Height Levels Municipality Status (2008) Estimated Year of Completion
meters feet
Hermitage Plaza II mix 323 1,060 93 Courbevoie proposed 2014
Hermitage Plaza I mix 323 1,060 91 Courbevoie proposed 2014
Tour Generalimarker office 307.7 1,043 50 Courbevoie approved 2013
Tour Signal office 301 988 71 Puteaux approved 2015
Tour Phare office 300 984 68 Puteaux approved 2015
tour First marker (ex AXA, ex Assur) office 240 787 55 Courbevoie refurbishment 2010
Tour Air² office 220 720 43 Courbevoie approved 2014
Tour Majunga office 180 591 42 Puteaux approved 2012
Tour D2 office 160 574 37 Courbevoie approved 2013
Tour Carpe Diem office 166 525 32 Courbevoie approved 2012
Tour AVA office 143 459 34 Courbevoie approved 2013
Hôtel Méridien La Défense hotel 87 285 23 Courbevoie under construction 2010


Canceled projects

  1. Tour Sans Fins (1989):


See also



References

  1. http://www.rfi.fr/francefr/articles/105/article_72229.asp


External links




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