Lagos ( or in English;
Yoruba: Èkó) is a port and most populous conurbation in Nigeria.
is currently the most populous city in Africa, and currently
estimated to be the second fastest growing city in Africa
(UN-HABITAT, 2008) and the 7th fastest in the world.
Although the 2006 National Census credited the metropolitan area
with a population figure of 7,937,932, the figure is highly
unscientific as it contradicts existing realistic vital social data
and incongruent with the population growth rate of Lagos. The
figure has been widely rejected within and outside Nigeria and has
been challenged in the Nigerian courts. The figure is completely at
variance with scientifically sound projections by the UN and other
reliable population agencies and groups worldwide. This is no
surprise as many such census by the Nigerian government have been
highly politicised and eventually cancelled. The more reliable
population figure of Lagos State is given by the Lagos State
Government as 17,553,924, based on well conducted enumeration for
social planning. Since the inhabitants of the metropolitan area of
Lagos constitute 88% of the population, the population of
metropolitan Lagos is about 15.5 million.
the capital of Nigeria, Lagos is a huge metropolis which originated
on islands separated by creeks, such
Island, that fringe the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon, protected from the Atlantic Ocean by long sand spits such as
Bar Beach which stretch up to 100 km east and west of the
mouth. From the beginning, Lagos has spread on the
mainland west of the lagoon and the conurbation, including Ikeja and Agege, now reaches
more than 40 km north-west of Lagos Island.
Lagos Outskirts like Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry and recently more
local councils have been created to bring the total numbers of
local government to 56. The city is the economic and financial
capital of Nigeria.
Lagos was a Yoruba
people initially called Oko. Lagos
derives its name from a Yoruba deity. The Yoruba still use the name
Eko when they speak of 'Lagos', a name which never existed in
Yoruba language. It is likely that the name 'Lagos' was given to
the town by the first Portuguese settlers who navigated from a
coastal town of the same name in Portugal. The present day Lagos
state has a higher percent of Awori, who migrated to the area from
Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a
number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. During
its early settlement, it also saw periods of rule by the Kingdom of Benin
Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472,
naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo; indeed the
present name is Portuguese for
"lakes". Another explanation is that Lagos was named
Portugal - a maritime
town which at the time was the main centre of the Portuguese
expeditions down the African coast and whose own name is derived
from the Latin word Lacobriga.
From 1404-1889 it served as a major centre of the slave trade
, ruled over by Yoruba kings called
the Oba of Lagos
. In 1841 Oba Akitoye
ascended to the throne of Lagos and tried to ban slave trading.
Lagos merchants, most notably Madam
, resisted the ban, deposed the king and installed her
brother Oba Kosoko.
While exiled, Oba Akitoye met with the British, who had banned
slave trading in 1807, and got their support to regain his throne.
In 1851 he was reinstalled as the Oba of Lagos.
Lagos was formally annexed as a British colony in 1861. This had
the dual effect of crushing the slave trade and establishing
British control over palm and other trades.
The remainder of modern-day Nigeria was seized in 1887, and when
the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was established in 1914,
Lagos was declared its capital. It continued to be the capital when Nigeria gained its
independence from Britain in 1960.
experienced rapid growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s as a result
of Nigeria's economic
boom prior to the Nigerian Civil
War otherwise called the Biafran
War.Lagos was the capital of Nigeria from 1914 up
to 1991; it was stripped of this title when the Federal Capital
Territory was established at the purpose-built city of
Abuja. However, most government functions
(especially the head of state) stayed in Lagos for a time since
Abuja was still under construction. On November 14, 1991,
the Office of the Presidency and other federal government
ministries were finally relocated to the new Capital city of
In 2002, an accidental detonation of military explosives
caused the death of more than 1100 people.
The Lagos Mainland
Victoria Island street scene at
Most of the population live on the mainland,so, most of the
industries are located on the mainland. Lagos is known for
its music and night life which used to be located in areas around
Yaba and Surulere but in recent years more night clubs have sprung on
the island making the island especially Victoria Island, the main
nightlife attraction, Mainland districts include Ebute-Meta, Surulere, Yaba (location of
of Lagos) and Ikeja, site of
Murtala Muhammed International
Airport and capital of Lagos State.
Greater Lagos includes:
Somolu, Oshodi, Isolo, Ikotun, Agege,Iju Ishaga, Egbeda, Ketu,
Bariga, Ipaja, and Ejigbo.
of Lagos lies in south-western Nigeria, on the Atlantic coast in the Gulf of Guinea, west of the Niger River
delta, located on longitude 3° 24' E and latitude 6° 27' N.
On this stretch of the high-rainfall West
coast, rivers flowing to the sea form swampy lagoons
like Lagos Lagoon behind long coastal sand spits or sand bars.
rivers, like Badagry Creek flow parallel to the coast for some distance
before finding an exit through the sand bars to the
sea.The two major urban islands of Lagos in
Lagos Lagoon are Lagos
Island and Victoria Island.
These islands are separated from the
mainland by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic
ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The islands are separated from
each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected to Lagos
Island by bridges. However the smaller sections of some creeks have
been sand filled and built over.
The Lagos Islands
Lagos Island contains the Lagos central business district
multistory buildings along the marina), many of the city's largest
wholesale marketplaces (such as the Balogun Market), the National
Museum, Lagos Central mosque, Glover Memorial Hall
Cathedral (CMS) and the Oba
Though formerly in derelict condition, the Tinubu Square on the
island is a site of historical importance; it was here that the
Amalgamation ceremony that unified the North and South protectorate
to form Nigeria took place in
Across the main channel of the lagoon from Lagos Island, a smaller
island called Iddo Island is situated close to the mainland, and
now is connected to the mainland like a peninsula. Three major bridges
join Lagos Island to the mainland: Eko Bridge and Carter Bridge
which start from Iddo Island, and the Third
Mainland Bridge which passes through densely populated mainland
suburbs through Lagos lagoon.
Lagos Court Residential Apartments In
Island is situated on the eastern half of Lagos Island and joined to each other by a landfill.
island is also connected to Victoria Island by a bridge carrying a main road over Five Cowrie creek.
housed the headquarters of the federal government of Nigeria and other
buildings owned by the government -including the federal
secretariat complex -which today is decrepet.
The island has
military and police barracks
top-security prison and the Federal High Court,Lagos.
Ikoyi also have a number of hotels, night clubs, a recreational
park and one of Africa's largest golf
Originally a middle class
neighbourhood, in recent years, it has become a fashionable
residential enclave for the upper
to the upper
There are also commercial activities in Ikoyi which is spotted in
increasing number of offices, banks and shopping complexes. The
commercial core in the island is much concentrated in the
Island and Lekki Island are situated to
the south of Lagos
They have some of the most expensive real
estate properties in Africa, and for that reason, many new luxury
condos and apartments are blooming up everywhere. Along with Ikoyi,
Victoria Island occupies a major area in the suburbs of Lagos which
boasts of several sizable shopping districts (including Nigeria's
largest mall and movie theater) and several trendy beaches.
Lagos has a tropical savanna
Aw) that is similar to that of the rest
of southern Nigeria. There are two rainy seasons, with the heaviest
rains falling from April to July and a weaker rainy season in
October and November. There is a brief relatively dry spell in
August and September and a longer dry season from December to
March. Monthly rainfall between May and July averages over
300 mm (12 inches), while in August and September it is down
to 75 mm (3 inches) and in January as low as 35 mm (1.5
inches). The main dry season is accompanied by harmattan
winds from the Sahara Desert
, which between December and
early February can be quite strong. The average temperature in
January is 27°C (79°F) and for July it is 25°C (77°F). On average
the hottest month is March; with a mean temperature of 29°C (84°F);
while July is the coolest month.
Administration and demographics
LGAs of Metropolitan Lagos
(inh. per km²)
(home of the main port of Lagos)
(home of one of Lagos's largest business centres and of the
upscale communities of Victoria Island and Ikoyi, formerly
the residence of the Nigerian federal
(the historical centre and commercial core of the Lagos
|Somolu (aka Shomolu)
In terms of administration, Lagos is not a municipality
and has therefore no overall city
administration. The Municipality of Lagos, which covered
Lagos Island, Ikoyi and Victoria Island as well as some mainland
territory, was managed by the Lagos City Council (LCC), but it was
disbanded in 1976 and divided into several Local Government Areas
(most notably Lagos Island
LGA, Lagos Mainland LGA
and Eti-Osa LGA). The mainland beyond
the Municipality of Lagos, on the other hand, comprised several
separate towns and settlements such as Mushin, Ikeja and Agege.
the wake of the 1970s Nigerian oil boom, Lagos experienced a
population explosion, untamed economic growth, and unmitigated
rural migration. This caused the outlying towns and settlements to
develop rapidly, thus forming the Greater Lagos metropolis
today. The history of Lagos is still evidenced in the layout of the
LGAs which display the unique identities of the cultures that
the word Lagos most often refers to the urban area, called "Metropolitan Lagos" in
includes both the islands of the former Municipality of Lagos and
the mainland suburbs. All of these are part of Lagos State, which now comprises 20 Local Government
Lagos State is responsible for utilities including
roads and transportation, power, water, health, and
education.Metropolitan Lagos (a statistical division, and not an
administrative unit) extends over 16 of the 20 LGAs of Lagos State,
and contains 88% of the population of Lagos State, and includes
semi-rural areas. Lagos City has a considerable amount of high rise
buildings which makes up its skyline. Most of the tall buildings
are located in around the downtown Central Business District.
the former capital city of Nigeria but
it has since been replaced by Abuja.
Abuja officially gained its status as the capital of Nigeria on 12
December 1991, although the decision to move the federal capital
had been made in now Act no. 6 of 1976.
also home to the High Court of the Lagos State Judiciary, housed in
an old colonial building on Lagos Island.
Union Bank, One of Nigeria's Leading
Census data for Lagos
According to the preliminary results of the 2006 census, there are
7,937,932 inhabitants in Metropolitan Lagos. This figure is lower
than what had been anticipated and has created a controversy in
Nigeria. Lagos Island, the central Local Government Area and historic
centre of Metropolitan Lagos, had a population of 209,437 as of the
Authorities of Lagos State have attacked the results of the 2006
census, accusing the National Population Commission of having
undercounted the population of the state. This accusation is
strongly denied by the National Population Commission.
Lagos is, by most estimates, one of the fastest-growing cities in
the world. Lagos is currently experiencing a population increase of
about 275,000 persons per anum. In 1999 the United Nations
predicted that the city's
metropolitan area, which had only about 290,000 inhabitants in
1950, would exceed 20 million by 2010 and thus become one of the
ten most populous cities in the world. This projection, however,
must now be revised downward due to the results of the 2006
Like most cities, there is a huge spectrum of wealth distribution
among the people that reside in Lagos. It ranges from the very
wealthy to the very poor. Lagos has attracted many young
entrepreneurs and families seeking a better life from throughout
Nigeria and beyond.
Lagos is Nigeria's most prosperous city, and much of the nation's
wealth and economic activity are concentrated there. Most
commercial, financial and business centers of Lagos and of Nigeria
remain at the central business
in Lagos Island which is also typified with the
presence of high rise buildings. This is also where most of the
country's largest banks and financial institutions and headquarters
of big corporations are located. Lagos has one of the highest
standards of living as compared to other cities in Nigeria as well
as in Africa at large.
Lagos Central Business District
Lagos is also home to many of Nigeria's financial institutions,
Banks and insurance Companies.
Port of Lagos is Nigeria's leading port and
one of the largest and busiest in Africa. It is administered by
the Nigerian Ports
Authority and it is split into three main sections: Lagos port,
in the main channel next to Lagos Island, no longer used much,
Apapa Port (site of the container terminal) and Tin Can Port,
both located in Badagry Creek which flows into the Lagos Harbour
from the west.
The port features a railhead
The port has seen growing amounts of crude
exported, with export figures rising between 1997 and 2000.
Oil and petroleum
products provide 20% of
GDP and 95% of foreign
earnings in Nigeria as a whole.
Lagos has one of the largest and most extensive road networks in
Lagos has suburban terrains and has some ferry services. Highways
are usually congested in peak hours, due in part to the geography
of the city, as well as to its explosive population growth. Lagos
is also linked by many highways and bridges.
Local roads in Lagos vary in quality from well-maintained to
pothole-ridden. Most freeways are in good shape. The Lagos–Ibadan expressway and the Lagos–Abeokuta expressway are the major
arterial routes in the north of the city and serve as inter-state
highways to Oyo
State and Ogun
State respectively. To the west the
congested Lagos–Badagry Expressway serves outlying towns such as Festival Town, which was the location for the
1977 Festival of Black Arts and Culture 77.
Due to a culture
of poor maintenance among people and government, the suburb is now
like any other (see below).
The city teems with transit buses known to locals as Danfos
well as taxi motorcycles
. Both means of
transport are a vital part of Lagos's transport network.
The Lagos Metropolitan Transport Authority (LAMATA) agency was
recently created in order to solve the transport issues in the
state. The Bus Rapid Transit
scheme was launched on 4 June 2006
Lagos State recently implemented a BRT (bus rapid transit) system;
the first phase was completed in February 2008. It is expected to
operate along eight routes using specially designated BRT
Lanes running through the city, with the aim of
expanding to other routes in the future.The first phase of
the Lagos BRT runs 12 miles through Ikorodu Road and Funsho
Williams Avenue up to CMS.
After weeks of test runs,
operations started on March 17, 2008, six months earlier than
It has been estimated that the system will transport about 10,000
passengers in each direction per hour during peak travel times. The
corridor covers a distance of about
22 kilometers in length. The system is run by two operators, NURTW
Cooperative (Nigerian Union of Road Transport Workers) and LAGBUS,
a Lagos State Government owned Asset Management Company which
contributes about 180 high capacity buses for the implementation of
the first phase Mile 12 to CMS BRT Lite system.
Lagos's importance as a commercial centre and port and its
strategic location have led to it being the end-point of three
using Nigeria's national roads:
A planned railway line running through the Lagos metropolis is
being constructed with plans of completion as early as 2012.
Lagos State Ferry Services Corporation runs a few regular routes,
for example between Lagos Island and the mainland, modern ferries
and wharves. Private boats run irregular passenger services on the
lagoon and on some creeks. Many routes are expected to get on-board
served by Murtala Mohammed International
Airport, one of the largest airports in Africa and a top
international air passenger gateway to Nigeria.
is located in the northern suburb of Ikeja and has Domestic and
International Terminals. With 5.1 million passengers in 2008, the
airport accounts for almost fifty percent of all air traffic in
Nigeria. Outbound international travel from Murtala Mohammed
Airport accounts for the majority of all air passengers traveling
to and from Nigeria.The airport has recently undergone upgrades
along with the addition of a new terminal.
Music & film industry
Lagos is famous throughout West Africa
for its music scene. Lagos has given birth to a variety of styles
such as the Nigerian-styled hiphop
, and Afrobeat
Lagos is the center of the Nigerian movie industry, often referred
to as 'Nollywood
.' Idumota market on Lagos
Island is the primary distribution center. Many films are shot in
area of Lagos.
The cinemas are gradually losing their supporters to the movie
industry. Yoruba-spoken films happen to be the most watched in the
cinemas, followed by Indian films
are not premiered for a long period of time in the western sense,
especially with Yoruba-spoken films. The English-spoken films
controlled mainly by the Igbos are the most popular and move
directly from the studios to the market.
Iganmu is home to the National
— the primary centre for the performing arts in
As in other major cities of the world, football
is Lagos' most popular sport.
Prominent Lagos soccer clubs include Julius Berger FC
, First Bank
and Stationery Stores
Nigeria national football
team, also known as the Super Eagles, used to
play almost all of their home games in Lagos at the National
Stadium in Surulere; however, games are now mostly played
at the larger and newer National
Stadium in Abuja, which is
the default home of the Super Eagles.
Coastline, Lekki Beach in Lagos
Meridian Hotel, in Ikeja.
Dinner on the Lagos Lagoon.
Lagos, subsequently to the re-modernization project achieved by the
current administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is
gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the
largest cities in Africa and in the world. Lagos is currently
taking steps to become a global city
The 2009 Eyo carnival which took place on the April 25th, was a
step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known
as a business-oriented and a fast paced community. Lagos has a
number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean. Two of the popular
beaches include Bar Beach and Lekki Beach. However in January 2009,
a privately owned zoo was commissioned in the epe area of Lagos as
it serves as a home for many animals that originate from Africa.It
is a fully endorsed project by the Lagos State Government. Lagos
has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star
hotels.Some of the popular hotels include Sheraton Hotel and
Towers, Federal Palace Hotel, Ikoyi Hotel, Sofitel Lagos Moorhouse
Ikoyi, Eko Hotels And Suites and The Palmview Manor. Visitors are
mostly attracted to Nigeria's rich culture, entertainment scenes
and vitality which Lagos city offers. Tourist attractions include
Oba's Palace, the National Museum, Shrine of Fela and the beach
The Lagos State Government operates state schools. The education system
is the 6-3-3-4 system, which is practised throughout the country
(as well as by many other ECOWAS
The levels are Primary, Junior Secondary School
(JSS), Senior Secondary School (SSS), and university. All children
are offered basic education, with special focus now on the first
Lagos is home to several secondary schools, universities and other
vocational institutions that are either operated by the government
or private entities. Some examples are listed below.
||Exclusive private secondary school
|Babington Macaulay Junior Seminary
||Agunfoye Lugbusi Village Ikorodu, outskirts of Lagos
||Co-educational institution by the Anglican church of Lagos West
and Badagry diosces. Founded in 1996 by Archbishop Abiodun
|Anthony Village Senior High School
||Anthony Village, Lagos)
|Ansar-Ud-deen Grammar School
|CMS Grammar School
||First secondary school in Nigeria and second in West Africa.
Founded 1859 by the Anglican church. Its first campus was on
Odunlami/Broad Street, Lagos.
|Anwar-ul-Islam Model College
||First Muslim college in West Africa, 1948.
|Yaba College of Technology Secondary School
||Established by the Methodist and Anglican Churches in
|Eko Boys' High School
||Founded in January 13, 1913.
|King's College, Lagos
Island and Victoria Island
||Founded in 1909 on Lagos Island and has an annex on Victoria
|Methodist Boys' High
||Founded in 1878.
|Nigerian Institute of Medical Research
||Founded in 1927 while Nigeria was still a British colony. It is
a federal government-owned girl's secondary (high) school with
Fowler Memorial College for Girls
||Six-year preparatory college to help girls prepare for
university. Founded in 1991.
|St. Gregory College
||Southwest of Ikoyi
|Federal Government College Lagos
||Ijanikin (outer Lagos)
|St. Finbarr's college
|Lagoon Secondary School
|Maryland Comprehensive Seconday School
||Ikeja, Metropolitan Lagos
||All-boys Catholic secondary school. Founded in 2000.
|Atlantic Hall School
||Ijanikin (outer Lagos)
International Secondary School
|American International School
|Indian Language School
|British International School
|Lekki British International High School
||One campus in Anthony village, one campus on Lagos peninsula
||Ikeja (Lagos metropolis)
||Obanikoro, Lagos Metropolis
||Established by the Baptist Churches in 1875.
|International School Lagos
|Grace High School
|Grace Children School
|Doregos Private Academy
|Lycee Louis Pasteur (French international school)
||Victoria Island, Lagos
|Aunty Ayo Girls Comprehensive Secondary School
|Holy Child College
|Community High School, Ikoyi
||Formerly at Ilado, Maroko.
|The Dew Schools
|Airforce Secondary School, Ikeja
||Nigerian Airforce Base in Ikeja
|Krystal-Bal Comprehensive College
|Legacy High School
||Shasha Road, Akowonjo, Lagos metropolis
||Agidingbi C.B.D Ikeja
|Mainland High School
|Jextoban secondary school
||Ketu, Lagos metropolis
|Jibril Martin Memorial Grammar School
|Government College Lagos
|Eric Moore High School
|Kuje Secondary School
|Agboju Amuwo Secondary
|Starlight Model College
||Sari - Iganmu
|New State High
|Akintan Grammar School
|Ransome Kuti Memorial Grammar School
|Oluade Secondary School
|St Joseph Boys' Secondary School
|Ilupeju Grammar School
|Estate Grammar School
|Ilupeju Secondary School
|Solar International School
|Itolo Girls Secondary School, Eric Moore
|NEPA Staff Secondary School
||PHCN estate, Ikorodu, Lagos
L. A. School Ikeja, Ikeja, Lagos
|Cardoso High School, Apapa Lagos
|EWUTUNTUN GRAMMAR SCHOOL, EWUTUNTUN,MAFOLUKU
|FOUNDED IN 1980
EPE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1954
United Christian Secondary School,Liverpool,Apapa Lagos
- Yaba College of
Technology : founded in 1934, the college is Nigeria's first
higher educational institution and third in Africa. The college is
a center of culture and heritage. Currently it has student
enrollment of over 16,000.
- Lagos State Polytechnic is a polytechnic comprising of more than
this 6 schools including private polytechnic and was founded 25
years ago. Its main campus resides at Ikorodu, along Ijebuode
- Lagos City Polytechnic
- Grace Polytechnic
- Wolex Polytechnic
- Epe grammar school founded 1954
University of Lagos
Pan-African University is primarily a business school, offering
two MBA programmes. Founded in 1996 and awarded
University status in 2002, it consists of the Lagos Business School
and of Enterprise Development Services. The University also places
some emphasis on the study of art.
of Lagos (UNILAG) is a large institution dating from 1962,
with over 35,000 students. It comprises 13 faculties, run by
over 4,000 staff.
- Lagos State University (LASU) is a multi-campus university established in
1984 and owned by the Lagos State government. The main
campus is located at Ojoo, along the Lagos-Badagry Expressway.
- National Open
UniversityNational Open University is the first open university
in Nigeria, it is located on Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island,
- Lagos State College of Health Technology(LASCOHET)Yaba- A mini
instituition that run health courses such as Health information
Management, Pharmacist Technician, Medical Laboratary
Technician,Community health extension worker and Environmental
Health Technology, it is located in Yaba
- Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba-Mushin,
Eko Atlantic City
City is a planned 21st century city to be constructed,
intended to be built on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. Already, most of the land had been
reclaimed. The proposed development is targeting 400,000 residents
and 250,000 commuters flowing daily to the island. The project is
planned to return the coast to its position in the 1950s and 1960s,
reversing damage done by erosion.
- Main article: People from Lagos
- Atlanta, United
- Brussels, Belgium
- Bucharest, Romania
- Cairo, Egypt
- Cotonou, Benin
- Daegu, South Korea
- Istanbul, Turkey
- Montego Bay, Jamaica
- Newcastle, United
- Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Germany
- Ancient Olympia, Greece
- Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
- Ra'anana, Israel
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- Salcedo, Dominican Republic
- Salzburg, Austria
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Tbilisi, Georgia
- Toulouse, France
Notes and references
Metropolitan Community, Nigeria