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Laguna is a province of the Philippinesmarker found in the CALABARZONmarker region in Luzonmarker. Its capital is Santa Cruzmarker and the province is located southeast of Metro Manilamarker, south of the province of Rizalmarker, west of Quezonmarker, north of Batangasmarker and east of Cavitemarker. Laguna almost completely surrounds Laguna de Baymarker, the largest lake in the country. The province got its name from the Spanish word lago, which means lake or lagoon.

Laguna is notable for being the birthplace of José Rizal, the country's national hero. Laguna is also famous among tourists for the Pagsanjánmarker Falls, the University of the Philippinesmarker campus and the hot spring resorts in Los Bañosmarker on the slopes of Mount Makiling, Pilamarker Town Plaza, Taytay Falls, Majayjay, the wood carvings and papier mache created by the people of Paetémarker, the turumba of Pákilmarker, the Seven Lakes of San Pablo City and the Hidden Valley Springs in Calauanmarker.

History

The Province of Laguna was named after Laguna de Baymarker, the body of water that forms its northern boundary. Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Baymarker (Laguna de Bay is Spanish which means "Lake of Bay"), the first provincial capital. Captain Juan de Salcedo with a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers and many Bisayan allies conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spainmarker in 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscan friars started the work of Christianization.

In 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in Manilamarker, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong (now Rizalmarker), Tayabasmarker (now Quezonmarker) and the Bicol Peninsula. Fathers Juan de Placencia and Diego de Oropesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places. From 1580, the towns of Bay, Caliraya, Majayjay, Nagcarlán, Liliw, Pila, Santa Cruz, Lumbán, Páñgil and Sinilóan were founded. In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes (now San Pablo City) and built a wooden church and convent considered as the best and finest in the province.

In 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban, Majayjay and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the provincial government was moved to Pagsanján, and later, in 1858, to Santa Cruz. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay and Lucbán.

The province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain. In 1603's, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, and in 1639, they fortified themselves in the highlands of Cavinti and Lumbán, surrendering in Pagsanján a year later.

The loyalty of the people of Laguna to the crown was tested during the British invasion (1762-1764) when thousands of Filipinos rallied to its defense. When a detachment of British troops under Captain Thomas Backhouse entered the province in search of the silver cargo of the galleon Filipino, Francisco de San Juan of Pagsanján led a band of volunteers that fought them in several engagements in and around the town which was then the provincial capital (1688-1858). Captain Backhouse plundered the town and burned its newly reconstructed church but San Juan succeeded in escaping with the precious hoard to Pampanga where the treasure greatly bolstered the defense effort of Simón de Anda. For his heroism, San Juan was made a brigade commander and alcalde mayor of Tayabas (now Quezon) province.

The people's loyalty gradually degenerated into bitter hostility. Grave abuses by the colonizers, including that of the clergy, caused the resentment of the natives to be fanned into a rising flood of insurrection. In 1840 for instance, religious intolerance led the people of Majayjay, Nagcarlán, Bay, and Biñán to join the revolt of Hermano Pule (Apolinario de la Cruz) of Lucbán, Tayabas.

Laguna was also exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. José Rizal, who was born in Calamba. The persecution of Dr. Jose Rizal and his parents toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation, so that by 1896, thousands of patriotic inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Nagcarlan, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, and Pagsanjan had joined the revolutionary Katipunan.

Laguna was one of the eight provinces to rise in revolt against the Spanish misrule led by Generals Paciano Rizal of Calambâ, Severino Taino of Pagsanján, Agüeda Kahabagán (woman general) of Calauan, and Miguel Malvar of Batangas. The ill-equipped Filipino forces fought the well-armed enemy until on August 31, 1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards. There had been only one respite, the Pact of Biac-na-Bató on December 14 to 15, 1897.

Laguna actively supported the first Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23, 1899. Its two delegates to the Malolos Congress, Don Higino Benitez and Don Graciano Cordero, were natives of Pagsanján.

Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1901), General Juan Cailles and General Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30, 1901, when surrender became inevitable. Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag.

The Province of Laguna progressed rapidly in peace. Roads were built, schools were established, and in 1917, the Manila Railroad Company extended its line to Laguna as far as Pagsanjan.

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines (1942-1945), Laguna was a center of Filipino resistance despite the presence of Makapili collaborators. Beginning in 1945, attacks by the Filipino soldiers and the recognized guerrillas against Japanese forces in Laguna increased in anticipation of the Liberation of the Philippines by joint Filipino & American forces.

Present-day Laguna shows a thriving economy. Peopled by 1,734,618 (1997 estimated population) industrious citizens and possessing a total area of 1760 km² of land, Laguna produces millions of pesos worth of coconuts, rice, sugar, citrus fruits, lanzones and other products. Tourists flock to its beauty spots, especially Pagsanjan Falls, Los Baños Hot Springs, Makiling National Park, Caliraya Lake and many others. Levels of development vary. The towns near Metro Manila have become industrialized whereas the inner towns continue to engage in agricultural production or pursue agri-based industries and cottage and small-scale industries.

Laguna was one of the first sites of the Philippine Revolution. Calamba Citymarker is the birthplace of José Rizal, the country's national hero.

Government Members

  • Governor: Teresita "Ningning" S. Lazaro (Lakas-CMD)
  • Vice-Governor: Ramil L. Hernandez (PMP)


House of Representatives



Board Members

1st District:
  • David "Dave" M. Almarinez
  • Emilio "Emil" M. Tiongco
  • Ramon "Monching" C. Carillo


2nd District:
  • Rolando "Rolly" S. Bagnes
  • Juan M. Unico
  • Neil Andrew "Neil" N. Nocon


3rd District:
  • Katherine "Karen" C. Agapay
  • Reynaldo "Rey" D. Paras


4th District:
  • Benedicto Mario C. Palacol, Jr.
  • Domingo G. Panganiban


Economy

  • Natural Resources: Laguna is endowed with abundant natural resources. Its forests are filled with bamboo, rattan, and soft hardwood. Its wide fields and vast forests are ideal for growing rice, coconuts, vegetables, tropical fruits, orchids, and other ornamental flowers and exotic plants. The province is also rich in mineral resources such as clay, jasper and basalt glass.


There are about forty rivers in Laguna with a total area of almost 0.5 square kilometres. In the forests of Mount Makiling and in the waters of Laguna de Bay are an abundance of flora and fauna. The Laguna de Bay has an approximate area of 3800 km² broken down into 2900 km² of land and 900 km² of lake proper with 220 km shoreline.

Laguna's greatest natural resource is water. It has an estimated 300 million US gallons (1,100,000 m³) of underground water, capable of generating energy for Laguna's expanding power needs. At least seven principal water basins in the province with a total of 5,773 km² drainage area and 1,316 km² level area provide an estimated 9.238 km³ total run-off annually.

  • Agricultural Activities: Crop Production, Livestock and Poultry Production, Fishing


  • Investment Opportunities: Ecotourism enterprises; Convention centers; Coconut inter-cropping; Forest Trees, Cutflowers & ornamentals; Fruit & vegetable processing; Herbal medicines; Herbal essences; Gifts and housewares; Metalcraft (Industrial equipment, Engines, Surgical instruments, Agricultural machinery, tools); Service Facilities (Packaging, Warehousing, Trucking services, dryers); Electronics (Consumer electronics, Telecommunications, Computers & peripherals, Semi-conductors); and Garments and footwear; Agriculture; Fishing; Forestry; Tourism.


  • Financial Institutions: Banking institutions maintain an extensive branch network in Laguna. Commercial banks, savings and mortgage banks, private development banks, stock savings and loan associations, and rural banks operated a total of 267 branches in the province.
Non-bank financial institutions provide supplementary financial services to Laguna residents and businesses. A total of 394 offices have been set up by lending investors, pawnshops, financial companies, nonstock savings and loan associations, and investment houses with quasi-banking functions.

  • Exports: US$7.0 Billion (1997) out of total Philippine exports of $25 Billion
US$1.5 billion (1996)

Political

Laguna is subdivided into 27 municipalities and 3 cities.

Cities



Municipalities



Physical

Laguna lies on the southern shores of Laguna de Baymarker, the largest lake in the country. On the southern border of the province are Mt. Makiling and Mt.marker Banahawmarker, both are long dormant volcanoes, but still sources of geothermal energy. Mt. Makiling is popular for the numerous hot spring resorts that are found on its slopes. Pagsanjanmarker Falls, is a popular waterfall that tumbles down a deep gorge in the hills.

The eastern portion of Laguna straddles the southernmost portions of the Sierra Madremarker mountain range.

Climate

The province is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year for a small portion near the southern boundary. The other parts, west of Santa Cruz municipality, experience a dry season from November to April and rainy season during the rest of the year. The eastern and southern most portions do not have distinct season, with rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year.

Major attractions

Historical

City/Municipality Name of Landmark Roads from Manila Description
Calambâ Citymarker Rizal Shrine South Luzón Tollway - Calambâ Exit via National Road to J.P. Rizal Avenue The Rizal Shrine is located in Calamba Citymarker and features the home of José Rizal.
Los Bañosmarker Homma-Yamashita Shrine SLEX - Calamba Exit via National Road
Cavintimarker Japanese Garden SLEX - Calambâ Exit via National Road to Famy-Cavinti Road
Nagcarlánmarker Underground Cemetery SLEX - Calamba Exit via Maharlika Highway to San Pablo-Nagcarlan Road
Mabitacmarker The Battle of Mabitac Mural, Mabitac
Pilamarker Pila Town Plaza and Ancestral Homes
Pinagbayanan Crematorium The Philippinesmarker' oldest crematorium ever.
Los Bañosmarker Baker Hall, UP Los Banos,
Biñán Biñan Town Plaza and Ancestral Homes SLEX- Biñán Exit
Santa Cruzmarker Emilio Jacinto Shrine Burial Site, Villa Valenzuela and Santa Cruz Town Plaza SLEX- Calamba Exit via National Road to Santa Cruz Road


Natural

  • Pagsanjan Falls, Pagsanjan (The Magdapio Falls used to be called the Magdapio Falls but have become popularly known as the Pagsanjan Fallsmarker because the trip starts in Pagsanjanmarker.
City/Municipality Name Road from Manila Remarks
Calamba Citymarker and Los Bañosmarker Mount Makiling SLEX - Calamba Exit via Maharlika Highway to National Road The place where Maria Makiling, the Laguna's only goddess named after it.
Calauanmarker Hidden Valley Springs The only hot spring in the province.
Los Bañosmarker Crocodile Lake
Nagcarlanmarker Eight mountains It includes Mt. Atimla, Mt. Mabilog, Mt. Nagcarlan, Mt. Malauban, Mt. Lansay, Mt. Bayaquitos, Mt. Cristobal and Mt. Banahaw.
San Pablo Citymarker Seven Lakes It includes like Sampaloc Lake, Lake Bunot, Lake Calibato, Lake Pandin, Lake Yambo, Lake Palakpakin, and Lake Muhikap.
Botocan, Majayjaymarker Dalitiwan River,Taytay Falls
Sinilóanmarker Buruwisan Falls


Man-made

City/Municipality Name Road from Manila Remarks
Pilamarker Diocesan Shrine of St. Anthony of Pádua SLEX - Calambâ Exit via National Road
Pilamarker Pila Municipal Museum
Los Bañosmarker Boy Scouts of the Philippines Camp, UP
Los Bañosmarker Pook ni Maria Makiling
Calamba Citymarker Hot Spring Resorts
Paetémarker Paete's Woodcarving The woodcarving of Laguna is made here
Cabuyaomarker St. Polycarp Church A catholic church
Mamatidmarker, Cabuyaomarker San Vicente Ferrer Church soon to be Diocesan Shrine of Saint Vincent Ferrer by April 2010
Majayjaymarker St. Gregory Church A catholic church
Paetémarker St. James the Apostle Church
Pakilmarker San Pedro de Alcantara Church also known as the Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Turumba
San Pedromarker Centro Pacita Commercial Center in Pacita
San Pedromarker Sto. Rosario Parish Church
Landayan, San Pedromarker Santo Sepulchre National Road
Mabitacmarker Our Lady of Candelaria
Biñán San Isidro Labrador Church Sto. Niño de Cebu Parish
San Pablo Citymarker St. Paul the First Hermit Cathedral
Santa Cruzmarker Immaculate Concepcion Parish Church


Educational attractions / schools and universities

Alaminos
  • Marcelino Fule Memorial College
  • St. Paul Learning School of Alaminos
  • Ibayiw National High School
  • Reymaries School
  • Alaminos National High School (former San Juan National High School)


Bay
  • Little People's School


Biñan
  • La Consolacion College-Biñán
  • Brent International School
  • Caritas Don Bosco School
  • De La Salle Canlubang
  • Santa Catalina College
  • Colegio San Agustín - Biñan
  • University of Perpetual Help Jonelta System (Biñán Campus)
  • Saint Michael's College of Laguna
  • Holy Spirit School
  • Lake Shore Educational Institute
  • Biñan National High School


Cabuyao
  • Laguna State Polytechnic University (Cabuyao Campus)
  • Our Lady of Assumption College (Cabuyao Campus)
  • Malayan Colleges Laguna
  • Southeast Asia Institute of Science, Arts and Technology - Cabuyao Technological Campus
  • Pamantasan ng Cabuyao
  • Child Jesus Academy
  • Saint Vincent College of Cabuyao
  • Colegio de Sto. Niño de Cabuyao
  • Colegio de Sta. Cecilia
  • Kolehiyo de Canlubang (Mamatid Branch)
  • Cabuyao National Highschool
  • Cabuyao Institute
  • Liceo de Cabuyao
  • Liceo de Mamatid
  • Cabuyao Central School


Calamba City

Los Baños

Nagcarlan
  • St. Mary's Academy of Nagcarlan
  • Rizal Standard Academy
  • Elyon Academia
  • Nagcarlan Montessori Center
  • Mizpah Christian School
  • Cornerstone Christian Academy of Nagcarlan
  • Bright Shiners Elementary School
  • Crisanto Guysayko Memorial Elementary School
  • Lazaan-Malinao Elementary School
  • Yukos Elementary School (Main)
  • Yukos Elementary School (Annex)
  • Plaridel National High School
  • Calumpang National High School
  • Talangan National High School
  • Upland National High School
  • Laguna State Polytechnic University (Nagcarlan Campus)


Pagsanjan Paete
  • Eastern Laguna Colleges
  • Liceo de Paeté
  • Poten and Eliseo Quesada Memorial National High School


Pila
  • Pila Museum, Pila, Laguna
  • Liceo de Pila
  • Pila Central(Elementary)


Rizal
  • Antipolo-Sulsuguin Elementary School
  • Ashton Faith Academy
  • Rizal National High School
  • GV Montessori
  • Rizal Elementary School
  • Pook Elementary School


San Pablo City

San Pedro
  • Immaculate Heart of Mary School
  • San Francisco De Sales School
  • San Geronimo Emilliani School
Polytechnic University of the Philippines - San Pedro Campus (new site)
  • Casa del Niño Montessori & Science High School
  • Our Lady of Assumption College
  • San Pedro College of Business Administration
  • STI San Pedro
  • Saint Louis Anne College
  • AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC)-San Pedro Campus
  • Laguna Science and Technology College
  • Colegio de San Pedro
  • San Vicente Livelihood Program (Adelina II Subdivision)
  • IETI - Magsaysay
  • Saint Francis College
  • Laguna Northwestern College (LNC-Main Campus in San Antonio)
  • Laguna Northwesten College (LNC-Annex in Pacita I)
  • San Pedro Relocation Center National High School (SPRCNHS Main Campus in Langgam)
  • San Pedro Relocation Center National High School (SPRCNHS Cuyab Campus)
  • San Pedro Relocation Center National High School (Landayan Campus)
  • Amazing Grace School
  • Pacita Complex National High School
  • Sampaguita National High School (Main Campus in Sampaguita Village)
  • Sampaguita National High School (Annex in Adelina I)
  • Our Lady of Assumption College
  • San Pedro Manpower Training School (Elvinda Village Ice Plant)
  • Liceo de San Pedro (LDSP-Main building is located in front of the municipal plaza)
  • Liceo de San Pedro (LDSP-Annex building is located beside the town church)


Santa Cruz
  • ACTS Computer Collage
  • AMA Computer University
  • AMA Computer Learning Center
  • Pedro Guevarra Memorial National High School
  • Laguna State Polytechnic University (formerly the Laguna School of Arts and Trades)
  • Immaculate Conception Catholic School
  • Basic Christian International School & Special Education Center
  • Don Bosco High School
  • Our Lady of Maulawin Educational Foundation INC.
  • Philippine Women's University (Santa Cruz, Laguna branch)
  • Laguna Santiago Educational Foundation Inc.
  • Laguna University
  • Montessori Professional College
  • Santa Cruz Central Elementary School
  • Saint Therese School
  • Saint John Bosco
  • New San Luis Recreational, Educational, Culture & Sports Village
  • Union Collage Of Laguna
  • STI Sta. Cruz


Santa Rosa City Siniloan
  • Laguna State Polytechnic University (Sinilóan Campus)


Luisiana
  • Liceo de Luisiana
  • Luis Bernardo Memorial High School


Magdalena
  • Almes


Notable personalities from Laguna



See also



External links




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