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Lambeth Palace is the official Londonmarker residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is located in Lambethmarker, on the south bank of the River Thames a short distance upstream of the Palace of Westminstermarker on the opposite shore. It was acquired by the archbishopric around 1200. Lambeth Palace Roadmarker is to the west, Lambeth Roadmarker is to the south and Lambeth Bridgemarker is to the south-west.

History

The Guard Room
The south bank of the Thames, not part of historic London, developed slowly because the land was low and sodden: it was called Lambeth Marsh, as far downriver as Blackfriarsmarker. The name "Lambeth" embodies "hithe", a landing on the river: archbishops came and went by water, as did John Wycliff, who was tried here for heresy. In the English peasants' revolt of 1381 the Palace was attacked, and Archbishop Simon of Sudbury, captured by the rebels, was later executed.

The oldest remaining part of the palace is the Early English chapel. The so-called Lollard’s Tower, which retains evidence of its use as a prison in the 17th century, dates from 1440. There is a fine Tudor brick gatehouse built by John Cardinal Morton in 1495. Reginald Cardinal Pole lay in state in the palace for 40 days after he died there in 1558. It is thought that the fig tree in the palace courtyard is possibly the White Marseille fig planted by Cardinal Pole in 1525.

The Great Hall was ransacked by Cromwellian troops during the English Civil War, and after the Restoration, it was rebuilt by archbishop William Juxon in 1663 (dated) with a late Gothic hammerbeam roof, the likes of which had not been constructed for a hundred years. In this context, the choice of a hammerbeam roof was evocative; it spoke of High-Church Anglican continuity with the Old Faith (the King's brother was an avowed Catholic), a visual statement that the Interregnum was over. As with some Gothic details on University buildings of the same date, it is debated among architectural historians whether this is Gothic survival or an extraordinary early work of the Gothic Revival. The diarist Samuel Pepys recognized it for what it was: "a new old-fashioned hall" he called it.
The great hall with Cardinal Pole's fig tree in front
Lambeth Palace from the south circa 1685.
Among the portraits of the archbishops now housed in the Palace are examples by Hans Holbein, Anthony van Dyck, William Hogarth and Sir Joshua Reynolds.

New construction was added to the building in 1834 by Edward Blore (1787–1879), who rebuilt much of Buckingham Palacemarker later. Here his work is neo-Gothic enough to have satisfied Sir Walter Scott, and it fronts a spacious quadrangle. It is these buildings which are now inhabited by the archbishop.

Lambeth Palace Library

The palace is now also home to Lambeth Palace Library, the official library of the Archbishop of Canterbury and principal holder of records for the history of the Church of England, founded as a public library by archbishop Richard Bancroft in 1610. This contains a vast collection of material relating to ecclesiastical history, including archbishops' and bishops' archives and papers relating to various Anglican missionary and charitable societies. The valuable collection of original manuscripts contains important material, some dating as far back as the 9th century. The various other collections contain material on an immense variety of topics from the history of art and architecture to colonial and Commonwealth history, and innumerable aspects of English social, political and economic history. The library is also a significant resource for local history and genealogy.

St Mary-at-Lambeth

The adjacent parish church of St Mary-at-Lambeth was rebuilt around 1850, though the ancient monuments preserved give it an appearance of antiquity. Among them are tombs of some of the archbishops, including Richard Bancroft, and of the gardeners and plantsmen John Tradescant the elder and his son of the same name, and of Admiral William Bligh. St Mary's was deconsecrated in 1972, and a few years later the Museum of Garden Historymarker (now the Garden Museummarker) opened there, because of its Tradescant associations.

See also



References

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