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Lancashire ( or, less commonly, ) is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancastermarker, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Vision of Britain – Lancashire Lancashire County Council is based in Prestonmarker. However, Lancaster is still considered to be the county town. Lancashire is sometimes referred to by the abbreviation Lancs, originally used by the Royal Mail. The population of the county is 1,449,700. People from the county are known as Lancastrians.

The history of Lancashire is thought to have begun with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book (1086), some of its lands had been treated as part of Yorkshiremarker. The area in between the rivers Merseymarker and Ribblemarker (referred to in the Domesday Book as "Inter Ripam et Mersam") formed part of the returns for Cheshiremarker. Once its initial boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberlandmarker, Westmorlandmarker, Yorkshire and Cheshire.

Lancashire emerged during the Industrial Revolution as a major commercial and industrial region. The county encompassed several hundred mill towns and collieries. By the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accringtonmarker, Blackburnmarker, Chorleymarker, Darwenmarker and Burnleymarker were major cotton mill towns during this time. Blackpoolmarker was a major centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns, particularly during wakes week.

The county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974,George, D., Lancashire, (1991) which removed Liverpoolmarker and Manchestermarker with most of their surrounding conurbations to form part of the metropolitan counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchestermarker. At this time, the detached Furness Peninsula was made part of Cumbriamarker. Today the county borders Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Merseyside and North and West Yorkshire. The Duchy of Lancaster exercises the right of the Crown in the area known as the County Palatine of Lancaster.

History

The historical extent of Lancashire

Early history

The county was established in 1182 and later than many other counties. In the Domesday Book, its lands between the Ribblemarker and the Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and were included in the returns for Cheshiremarker. Although some have taken this to mean that south Lancashire was, at that time, part of Cheshire, it cannot be said clearly to have been part of Cheshire. It is also claimed that the territory to the north formed, at that time, part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberlandmarker, Westmorlandmarker, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. The county was divided into the six hundred of Amoundernessmarker, Blackburnmarker, Leylandmarker, Lonsdalemarker, Salfordmarker and West Derby. Vision of Britain – Lancashire ancient county divisions Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, which was the detached part north of Morecambe Baymarker (also known as Furness), and Lonsdale South.

Modern history

Lancashire is now much smaller than its historical extent, following a major reform of local government. In 1889 an administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historical county except for county boroughs such as Blackburnmarker, Burnleymarker, Barrow-in-Furnessmarker, Prestonmarker, Liverpoolmarker, Manchestermarker. Vision of Britain – Lancashire ancient county boundaries The area covered by the Lord-Lieutenant (termed now a ceremonial county) continued to cover the entirety of the administrative county along with the county boroughs, and thus was expanded slightly whenever boroughs annexed areas in other neighbouring counties. Examples of this include Wythenshawemarker (an area of Manchestermarker south of the River Merseymarker and historically in Cheshiremarker), and southern Warringtonmarker. This area also did not cover the western part of Todmordenmarker, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshiremarker runs through the middle of the town.

During the 20th century the county became increasingly urbanised, particularly the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furnessmarker, Blackburnmarker, Boltonmarker, Bootlemarker, Burnleymarker, Burymarker, Liverpoolmarker, Manchestermarker, Oldhammarker, Prestonmarker, Rochdalemarker, Salfordmarker, St Helensmarker and Wiganmarker were added Blackpoolmarker (1904), Southportmarker (1905), and Warringtonmarker (1900). The county boroughs also had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were particularly complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Leesmarker urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire.

By the census of 1971 the population of Lancashire (including all its associated county boroughs) had reached 5,129,416, making it then the most populous geographic county in the UK. The administrative county of Lancashire was also the most populous of its type outside of London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county of Lancashire was abolished, as were the county boroughs. The urbanised southern part largely became part of two new metropolitan counties. The south-western part became part of Merseyside, the south-eastern part was incorporated into Greater Manchestermarker.Jones, B. et al, Politics UK, (2004)The new county of Cumbriamarker took the Furness exclave.

Lancashire in 1961
  1. Burnley
  2. Prestonmarker
  3. Rochdalemarker
  4. Barrow-in-Furness
  5. Blackpool
  6. Blackburn
  7. Southport
  8. Burymarker
  9. Boltonmarker
  10. Oldhammarker
  11. Wiganmarker
  12. Manchestermarker
  13. Salfordmarker
  14. Bootle
  15. St Helens
  16. Liverpoolmarker
  17. Warringtonmarker


The boroughs of Liverpoolmarker, Knowsleymarker, St Helensmarker and Sefton were entirely from Lancashire. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were Burymarker, Boltonmarker, Manchestermarker, Oldhammarker (part), Rochdalemarker, Salfordmarker, Tameside (part), Traffordmarker (part) and Wiganmarker. Warringtonmarker and Widnesmarker, south of the new Merseyside/Greater Manchester border, rather than become part of Greater Manchester or Merseyside were instead made part of the new non-metropolitan county of Cheshiremarker. The urban districts of Barnoldswickmarker and Earbymarker, the Bowland Rural Districtmarker and the parishes of Bracewell and Brogden and Salterforthmarker from the Skipton Rural Districtmarker from the West Riding of Yorkshire became part of the new Lancashire. One parish, Simonswoodmarker, was transferred from the borough of Knowsleymarker in Merseyside to the district of West Lancashiremarker in 1994. In 1998 the county borough system re-appeared in all but name, when Blackpoolmarker and Blackburn with Darwen became independent unitary authority areas. The Wars of the Roses tradition continued with Lancaster using as its symbol the red rose and York the white. Pressure groups, including Friends of Real Lancashire and the Association of British Counties advocate the use of the historical boundaries of Lancashire for ceremonial and cultural purposes.

Geography

Divisions and environs

The area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts. They are Burnleymarker, Chorleymarker, Fyldemarker, Hyndburnmarker, Lancastermarker, Pendlemarker, Prestonmarker, the Ribble Valley, Rossendalemarker, South Ribblemarker, West Lancashiremarker, and Wyremarker. Vision of Britain – Divisions of Lancashire

Blackpoolmarker and Blackburn with Darwen are unitary authorities which form part of the county for various functions such as Lord Lieutenant but do not come under county council control. The Lancashire Constabulary covers the two unitary authorities. The ceremonial county, the area including the unitary authorities, borders Cumbriamarker, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Greater Manchestermarker and Merseyside, and forms part of the North West England region.

Geology, landscape and ecology

The highest point of the ceremonial county is Gragarethmarker, near Whernsidemarker, which reaches a height of 627 m (2,057 ft). However, Green Hillmarker near Gragareth has also been cited as the county top. The highest point within the historic boundaries is Coniston Old Manmarker in the Lake Districtmarker at 803 m (2,634 ft).

Lancashire drains west from the Pennines into the Irish Sea. Rivers in Lancashire include the Ribblemarker, Wyremarker and Lune. Major tributaries of these rivers include the Calder, Crakemarker, Darwenmarker, Douglas, Hoddermarker, Irwell and Yarrow.

Politics

Logo
The county council, serving the shire county, is based in County Hall in Prestonmarker, built as a home for the Lancashire county administration (including the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary) and opened on 14 September 1882.

Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The council is currently controlled by the Conservative Party.

Duchy of Lancaster

The Duchy of Lancaster is one of two remaining royal duchies in the United Kingdom. It has large landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, and operates as a property company, but also exercises the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster, which includes areas that were removed from Lancashire as part of the 1974 boundary changes.

High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster".

The Duchy administers bona vacantia within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate, and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained.

There is no separate Duke of Lancaster, the title having merged in the Crown many centuries ago – but the Duchy is administered by the Queen in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was finally abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast is still in regular local use: 'The Queen, Duke of Lancaster'.

Economy

Lancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of industrial activity and hence of wealth. Activities included mining and textile production (particularly cotton), though on the coast there was also fishing. Historically, the docks in Prestonmarker were an industrial port, though are now disused for commercial purposes. Lancashire was historically the location of the port of Liverpoolmarker while Barrow-in-Furnessmarker is famous for shipbuilding.

Today the largest private industry in Lancashire is the defence industry with BAE Systemsmarker Military Air Solutions division based in Wartonmarker on the Fylde Coastmarker. The division also operates a manufacturing site in Samlesburymarker. Other defence firms include BAE Systems Land Systems which operates a site at Chorley, Ultra Electronics in Fulwoodmarker and Rolls-Royce Plc in Barnoldswickmarker.

The Nuclear Power industry has a major presence with the Springfields plant at Salwickmarker operated by Westinghouse and Heysham nuclear power stationmarker operated by British Energy. Other major manufacturing firms include Leyland Trucks which is a subsidiary of Paccar and builds the DAF truck range.

Other companies with a major presence in Lancashire include:



Economic output

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Year Regional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services
1995 13,789 344 5,461 7,984
2000 16,584 259 6,097 10,229
2003 19,206 294 6,352 12,560


Education

Lancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area also has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest (most schools) depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population, with Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Catholic secondary schools in Lancashire.

Lancashire is home to four universities; Lancaster Universitymarker, University of Central Lancashiremarker, Edge Hill Universitymarker and the Lancaster campus of The University of Cumbria. Additionally there are also seven colleges which offer higher education courses.

Transport

Lancashire has an extensive network of motorways covering the county and the West Coast Main Linemarker provides direct rail links with London and other major cities, with stations at Prestonmarker and Lancastermarker. The county has many other railway stations. The county is served by Blackpool International Airportmarker, however Manchester Airportmarker in Greater Manchester is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airportmarker, on Merseyside is also nearby.

Heyshammarker and Fleetwoodmarker offer ferry services to Irelandmarker and the Isle of Manmarker. As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canalmarker, Lancaster Canalmarker, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canalmarker, Ashton Canalmarker and Manchester Ship Canal.

Demography

The major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fyldemarker coast (the Blackpool Urban Areamarker), and a belt of towns running west-east along the M65: Prestonmarker, Blackburnmarker, Accringtonmarker, Burnleymarker, Nelsonmarker and Colnemarker. South of Preston are the towns of Leylandmarker and Chorleymarker; the three formed part of the Central Lancashiremarker New Town designated in 1970. The north of the county is generally sparsely populated, with Morecambemarker and Lancastermarker forming a small conurbation. Lancashire is home to a significant Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns.

Settlements

The table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.

Ceremonial county Administration borough/district Centre of administration Other towns, villages and settlements
Lancashire Blackburn with Darwen Borough (Unitary) Blackburnmarker Belmontmarker, Chapeltownmarker, Darwenmarker, Edgworthmarker, Tockholesmarker
Blackpool Boroughmarker (Unitary) Blackpoolmarker Bisphammarker, Layton
Burnley Boroughmarker Burnleymarker Harle Syke, Padihammarker, Rose Grove, Worsthornemarker, Clivigermarker.
Chorley Boroughmarker Chorleymarker Adlingtonmarker, Clayton-le-Woodsmarker, Coppullmarker, Crostonmarker, Ecclestonmarker, Euxtonmarker, Whittle-le-Woodsmarker
Fylde Boroughmarker Lytham St Annesmarker Freckletonmarker, Kirkhammarker, Wartonmarker, Wrea Greenmarker
Hyndburn Boroughmarker Accringtonmarker Althammarker, Churchmarker, Clayton-le-Moorsmarker, Great Harwoodmarker, Oswaldtwistlemarker, Rishtonmarker
City of Lancastermarker Lancastermarker Bolton-le-Sandsmarker, Carnforthmarker, Heyshammarker, Morecambemarker,
Pendle Boroughmarker Nelsonmarker Barnoldswickmarker †, Barrowfordmarker, Brierfieldmarker, Colnemarker, Earbymarker †, Foulridgemarker, Trawdenmarker
City of Prestonmarker Prestonmarker Bartonmarker, Broughtonmarker, Fulwoodmarker, Goosnarghmarker, Grimsarghmarker, Whittinghammarker
Ribble Valley Borough Clitheroemarker Bolton-by-Bowlandmarker, Chippingmarker, Hurst Greenmarker, Longridgemarker, Readmarker, Ribchestermarker, Slaidburnmarker, Whalley, Wilpshiremarker,
Rossendale Boroughmarker Rawtenstallmarker Bacupmarker, Chattertonmarker, Edenfieldmarker, Haslingdenmarker, Helmshoremarker, Whitworthmarker
South Ribble Boroughmarker Leylandmarker Bamber Bridgemarker, Faringtonmarker, Longtonmarker, Lostock Hallmarker, Penworthammarker, Samlesburymarker, Walton-le-Dalemarker
West Lancashire Boroughmarker Ormskirkmarker Appley Bridgemarker, Aughtonmarker, Banksmarker, Bickerstaffemarker, Burscoughmarker, Downhollandmarker, Great Altcarmarker, Halsallmarker, Lathommarker, Parboldmarker, Ruffordmarker, Scarisbrickmarker, Skelmersdalemarker, Tarletonmarker, Uphollandmarker
Wyre Boroughmarker Poulton-le-Fyldemarker Churchtownmarker, Cleveleysmarker, Fleetwoodmarker, Garstangmarker, Pillingmarker, Preesallmarker, St Michael's On Wyremarker, Thorntonmarker


This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at :Category:Towns in Lancashire, :Category:Villages in Lancashire, and :Category:Civil parishes in Lancashire.


Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshiremarker, Merseyside, Greater Manchestermarker and Cumbriamarker: Vision of Britain – Lancashire ancient boundaries

Greater Manchester Ashton-in-Makerfieldmarker, Ashton-under-Lynemarker, Boltonmarker, Burymarker, Chaddertonmarker, Dentonmarker, Ecclesmarker, Farnworthmarker, Heywoodmarker, Horwichmarker, Hindleymarker, Irlammarker, Kearsleymarker, Leighmarker, Little Levermarker, Manchestermarker, Middletonmarker, Oldhammarker, Prestwichmarker, Radcliffemarker, Rochdalemarker, Salfordmarker, Swinton and Pendleburymarker, Tyldesleymarker, Urmstonmarker, Westhoughtonmarker, Whitefieldmarker, Wiganmarker, Worsleymarker.
Merseyside Bootlemarker, Crosbymarker, Formbymarker, Huytonmarker, Kirkbymarker, Liverpoolmarker, Maghullmarker, Newton-le-Willowsmarker, Prescotmarker, St Helensmarker, Southportmarker
Cumbria Barrow-in-Furnessmarker, Conistonmarker, Dalton-in-Furnessmarker, Grange-over-Sandsmarker, Ulverstonmarker
Cheshire Warringtonmarker, Widnesmarker
West Yorkshire Todmordenmarker


Note: Cities are in bold
† – part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974


Boundary changes to occur before 1974 include:

  • Todmordenmarker (split between Lancashire and Yorkshire) entirely to West Riding of Yorkshire in 1889
  • Mossleymarker (split between Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire) entirely to Lancashire in 1889
  • Stalybridgemarker, entirely to Cheshire in 1889
  • the former county boroughs of Manchester and Warrington both extended south of the Mersey into historic Cheshire (areas such as Wythenshawemarker and Latchfordmarker)
  • correspondingly, the former county borough of Stockport extended north into historic Lancashire, including areas such as Reddishmarker and the Heatonsmarker (Heaton Chapelmarker, Heaton Merseymarker, Heaton Moormarker and Heaton Norrismarker).


Symbols

The Red Rose of Lancaster is a symbol for the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th century War of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was never officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that this flag had already been officially registered by the town of Montrosemarker, Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. As the Flag Institute will not register two flags of the same design (within the UK) Lancashire's official flag is now registered as a red rose on a gold field.

Sport

Cricket

Lancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members Andrew Flintoff, James Anderson and Sajid Mahmood. Due to changes in the county boundaries, the club's home ground, County Ground, Old Traffordmarker, is now outside the county of Lancashire, being in the metropolitan borough of Traffordmarker, Greater Manchestermarker.

Historically important local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League, all of which were formed in 1892. These league clubs hire international professional players to play alongside their amateur players.

Since 2000, the designated ECB Premier League for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.

Football

Football in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association. Due to the County Football Associations being aligned roughly along historic county boundaries, the Lancashire County FA contains members which were founded within Lancashire as it was in the late 19th Century, but which now lie outside the county borders, such as Manchester United and Liverpool. However, the Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association operate in Greater Manchestermarker and Merseyside respectively.

The six professional league teams based in Lancashire, as of the start of the 2009/10 season, are:

Rugby

Lancashire used to accommodate a substantial number of Rugby League teams who now fall in other counties. The county was a focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Lancashire County Cup which was abandoned in 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895.

Currently several rugby league teams are based within Lancashire including Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions and Blackpool Sea Eagles.

Rugby union teams include Fleetwood Rugby Club, Fylde and Preston Grasshoppers.

Archery

There are many archery clubs located within Lancashire.

In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from Yorkshiremarker who had held it for the past 7 years. The win received much media attention as the team consisted of 3 archers from the same family. One of these being 5 times World Record holder and Lancashire Sports Personality of the year in 2004 and Lancashire archery squad member Melissa-Jane Daniel from the Bowmen of Skelmersdale.

Lancashire archery records can be seen here.

Another notable Archer based in Lancashire is Richard Priestman of the Burscough Archers Archery Club. Richard and his wife Vlada are both former international archers, with Richard winning an Olympic bronze medal at both the Seoul and Barcelona Olympic games in 1988 and 1992. In 2009 Richard signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Bangladesh Archery Federation (BAF) and will train the national archery team for the upcoming 11th South Asian Games to be held in Dhaka from January 29 to February 9, 2010.

Other

Lancashire has a long history of wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers. Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, William Regal and The Dynamite Kid.

Cuisine

Lancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include:
  • Black peas, also known as parched peas: popular in Boltonmarker and Prestonmarker.
  • Bury black pudding has long been associated with the county. The most notable brand, Chadwick's Original Bury Black Puddings, are still sold on Bury Marketmarker, and are manufactured in Rossendalemarker.
  • Butter Cake – slice of bread and butter.
  • Butter pie – a savoury pie containing potatoes, onion and butter. Usually associated with Prestonmarker.
  • Clapbread: oatcake.
  • Chorley cakes: from the town of Chorleymarker.
  • Ducks: faggots as in savoury ducks.
  • Fag Pie: pie made from chopped dried figs, sugar and lard. Associated with Blackburnmarker and Burnleymarker where it was the highlight of Fag Pie Sunday (Mid-Lent Sunday).
  • Fish and Chips: first fish and chip shop in northern England opened in Mossleymarker near Oldham around 1863.
  • Frog-i'-th'-'ole pudding: now known as toad in the hole.
  • Frumenty: sweet porridge. Once a popular dish at Lancashire festivals like Christmas and Easter Monday.
  • Goosnarghmarker Cakes: Small flat shortbread biscuits with coriander or caraway seeds pressed into the biscuit before baking. Traditionally baked on feast days like Shrove Tuesday.
  • Jannock: cake or small loaf of oatmeal. Allegedly introduced to Lancashire (possibly Boltonmarker) by Flemish weavers.
  • Lancashire cheese has been made in the county for several centuries. Beacon Fell traditional Lancashire cheese has been awarded EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status.
  • Nettle Porridge: a common starvation diet in Lancashire in the early 1800s. Made from boiled stinging nettles with perhaps a handful of meal.
  • Ormskirkmarker Gingerbread: local delicacy which were sold all over South Lancashire
  • Pobs, Pobbies: bread and milk.
  • Potato Hotpot, a variation of the Lancashire Hotpot without meat also known as fatherless pie.
  • Ran Dan: barley bread. Food of last resort for the poor at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century.
  • Rag Pudding: Traditional Suet Pudding filled with Minced Meat and Onions.
  • Sad Cake: A traditional cake, perhaps a variation of the more widely known Chorleymarker cake, once common around Burnleymarker.
  • Throdkins: a traditional breakfast food of the Fyldemarker.
  • Uncle Joe's Mint Balls are traditional mint produced by Wm Santus & Co. Ltd. in Wiganmarker


Places of interest



The following are places of interest in the ceremonial county:

Notes and references

  1. Local Government Act 1972. 1972, c. 70
  2. Sylvester (1980). p. 14.
  3. Morgan (1978). pp.269c–301c,d.
  4. Booth, P. cited in George, D., Lancashire, (1991)
  5. Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252:
  6. Phillips and Phillips (2002). pp. 26–31.
  7. Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31:
  8. Berrington, E., Change in British Politics, (1984)
  9. Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974)
  10. OPSI – The Cheshire, Lancashire and Merseyside (County and Metropolitan Borough Boundaries) Order 1993
  11. FORL Retrieved 7 November 2008
  12. ABC Counties Retrieved 7 November 2008
  13. Lancashire County Council – Lancashire districts
  14. OPSI – The Lancashire (Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996
  15. Lancashire County Council – Map of Lancashire (Unitary boundaries shown)
  16. Government Office for the North West – Local Authorities
  17. BUBL Information Service – The Relative Hills of Britain
  18. Administrative (1974) County Tops
  19. Historic County Tops
  20. Opening of the new Town-Hall at Preston. The Times. September 15, 1882.
  21. Lancashire County Council – County Councillors by Area
  22. The Duchy of Lancaster - Boundary Map
  23. High Sheriffs, The Times, March 21, 1985
  24. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  25. includes hunting and forestry
  26. includes energy and construction
  27. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  28. Transport for Lancashire – Lancashire Inter Urban Bus and Rail Map (PDF)
  29. Vision of Britain – Lancashire boundaries 1974
  30. Chandler, J., Local Government Today, (2001)
  31. Youngs. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. Volume 2. Northern England.
  32. LCCC contact details
  33. List of ECB Premier Leagues
  34. Archery clubs in Lancashire
  35. Bowmen of Skelmersdale
  36. Lancashire Archery Records
  37. Burscough Archers Archery Club
  38. History of fish and chips


Bibliography

  • Crosby, A. (1996). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850339324.
  • Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0197227619.
  • Morgan, P. (1978). Domesday Book Cheshire: Including Lancashire, Cumbria, and North Wales. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850331404.
  • Phillips A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (2002), A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire Community Council Publications Trust. ISBN 0904532461.
  • Sylvester, D. (1980). A History of Cheshire. (The Darwen County History Series). (2nd Edition.) London and Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0850333849.


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