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Lance Edward Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is an Americanmarker professional road racing cyclist who rides for UCI ProTeam Radio Shack. He is also the founder and chairman of the Lance Armstrong Foundation for cancer research and support.

He won the Tour de France a record-breaking seven consecutive years, from 1999 to 2005. He is the only person to win seven times, having broken the previous record of five wins, shared by Miguel Indurain, Bernard Hinault, Eddy Merckx and Jacques Anquetil. He has survived testicular cancer, a tumor that metastasized to his brain and lungs in 1996. His cancer treatment included brain and testicular surgery and extensive chemotherapy, and his prognosis was originally poor.

In 1999, he was named the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year. In 2000 he won the Prince of Asturias Award in Sports. In 2002, Sports Illustrated magazine named him Sportsman of the Year. He was also named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year for the years 2002–2005. He received ESPN's ESPY Award for Best Male Athlete in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, and won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality Award in 2003. Armstrong retired from racing on July 24, 2005, at the end of the 2005 Tour de France, but returned to competitive cycling in January 2009, finishing third in the 2009 Tour de France.


Early career

Armstrong was born on September 18, 1971, in Plano, Texasmarker, a northern suburb of Dallasmarker.

At the age of 12, he began his sporting career as a swimmer at the City of Plano Swim Club and finished fourth in Texas state 1,500-meter freestyle. He stopped swimming after seeing a poster for a junior triathlon which he entered and won easily.

In the 1987–1988 Tri-Fed/Texas ("Tri-Fed" was the former name of USA Triathlon), Armstrong was the number one ranked triathlete in the 19-and-under group; second place was Chann McRae, who became a US Postal Service cycling teammate and the 2002 USPRO national champion. Armstrong's points total for 1987 as an amateur was better than the five professionals ranked that year. At 16, Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990 at 18 and 19, respectively.

It became clear that his greatest talent was as a bicycle racer after he won the U.S. amateur championship in 1991. Representing the U.S., he finished 14th in the 1992 Summer Olympics with the help of teammate Bob Mionske. This performance earned him his first professional contract with Motorola with whom he won his first race, the Trophee Laigueglia in Italy, beating the favourite Moreno Argentin. Also in 1992, Armstrong competed in the Tour of Ireland race.

In 1993, Armstrong won 10 one-day events and stage races. He became one of the youngest riders to win the UCI Road World Championship, and took his first stage win at the 1993 Tour de France from Chalons-sur-Marnemarker to Verdunmarker. He was in 97th place overall when abandoned in the Alps after the 12th stage.

He also collected the Thrift Drug Triple Crown of Cycling: the Thrift Drug Classic in Pittsburghmarker, the K-Mart West Virginia Classic, and the CoreStates USPRO national championship in Philadelphiamarker. Thrift Drug said it would award $1 million to a rider winning all three races, a feat previously unachieved. At the USPRO championship, Armstrong sat up on his bicycle on the final lap, took out a comb, combed his hair and smiled for the cameras.

In 1994, he again won the Thrift Drug Classic and came second in the Tour Du Pont in the United States. His successes in Europe were second placings in the Clásica San Sebastián and Liège-Bastogne-Liège.

He won the Clásica San Sebastián in 1996, and this time won the Tour Du Pont and took a handful of stage victories in Europe including the stage to Limogesmarker in the Tour De France. He dedicated the win to teammate Fabio Casartelli who had who died in a crash on the descent of the Col de Portet d'Aspetmarker on the 15th stage.

Armstrong's successes were much the same in 1996. He became the first American to win the La Flèche Wallonne and again won the Tour Dupont. However, his performances began to suffer and he was only able to compete for five days in the Tour De France. At Atlantamarker he was only able to finish 6th in the time trial and 12th in the road race in the 1996 Olympic Games.


On October 2, 1996, at age 25, Armstrong was diagnosed with stage three testicular cancer. The cancer had spread to his lungs, abdomen and brain. On that first visit to a urologist in Austin, Texas, for his cancer symptoms he was already coughing up blood and had a large, painful testicular tumor. Immediate surgery and chemotherapy were required to save his life. Armstrong had an orchiectomy to remove his diseased testicle. After his surgery his doctor admitted that he had had less than a 40% survival chance.

The standard chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of this type of cancer is a cocktail of the drugs BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (or Platinol). Armstrong, however, chose an alternative, VIP (etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin), to avoid the lung toxicity associated with the drug bleomycin. This decision may have saved his cycling career. His primary treatment was received at the Indiana University (IU), Indianapolismarker, Medical Center, where Dr. Lawrence Einhorn had pioneered the use of cisplatinum to treat testicular cancer. His primary oncologist there was Dr. Craig Nichols. Also at IU, his brain tumors were surgically removed and found to be necrotic (dead). His last chemotherapy treatment was received on December 13, 1996.

His cancer went into complete remission, and by January 1998 he was already engaged in serious training for racing, moving to Europe to race for the U.S. Postal team. A pivotal week (April, 1998) in his comeback was one he spent training in the very challenging Appalachian terrain around Boone, North Carolina, with his racing friend Bob Roll.

Tour de France success

Before his cancer treatment, Armstrong had won two Tour de France stages. In 1993, he won the 8th stage and in 1995 he took stage 18 in honor of teammate Fabio Casartelli who crashed and died on stage 15. Armstrong dropped out of the 1996 Tour on the 7th stage after becoming ill, a few months before his diagnosis.

Armstrong's cycling comeback began in 1998 when he finished fourth in the Vuelta a España. In 1999 he won the Tour de France, including four stages. He beat the second rider, Alex Zülle, by 7 minutes 37 seconds. However, the absence of Jan Ullrich (injury) and Marco Pantani (drug allegations) meant Armstrong had not yet proven himself against the biggest names. Stage wins included the prologue, stage eight, an individual time trial in Metzmarker, an Alpine stage on stage nine, and the second individual time trial on stage 19.

In 2000, Ullrich and Pantani returned to challenge Armstrong. The race that began a six-year rivalry between Ullrich and Armstrong ended in victory for Armstrong by 6 minutes 2 seconds over Ullrich. Armstrong took one stage in the 2000 Tour, the second individual time trial on stage 19. In 2001, Armstrong again took top honors, beating Ullrich by 6 minutes 44 seconds. In 2002, Ullrich did not participate due to suspension, and Armstrong won by seven minutes over Joseba Beloki.

The pattern returned in 2003, Armstrong taking first place and Ullrich second. Only 1 minute 1 second separated the two at the end of the final day in Parismarker. U.S. Postal won the team time trial on stage four, while Armstrong took stage 15, despite being knocked off on the ascent to Luz Ardidenmarker, the final climb, when a spectator's bag caught his right handlebar. Ullrich waited for him, which brought Ullrich fair-play honors.

In 2004, Armstrong finished first, 6 minutes 19 seconds ahead of German Andreas Klöden. Ullrich was fourth, a further 2 minutes 31 seconds behind. Armstrong won a personal best five individual stages, plus the team time trial. He became the first since Gino Bartali in 1948 to win three consecutive mountain stages; 15, 16, and 17. The individual time trial on stage 16 up Alpe d'Huezmarker was won in style by Armstrong as he passed Ivan Basso on the way despite setting out two minutes after the Italian. He won sprint finishes from Basso in stages 13 and 15 and made up a significant gap in the last 250m to nip Klöden at the line in stage 17. He won the final individual time trial, stage 19, to complete his personal record of stage wins.

In 2005, Armstrong was beaten by David Zabriskie in the Stage 1 time trial by 2 seconds, despite passing Ullrich on the road. His Discovery Channel team won the team time trial, while Armstrong won the final individual time trial. To complete his record-breaking feat, Armstrong crossed the line on the Champs-Élysées on July 24 to win his 7th consecutive Tour, finishing 4m 40s ahead of Basso, with Ullrich third.

Returning in 2009, Armstrong finished third, 5:24 back, becoming the second oldest rider to stand on the Tour podium. His Astana team dominated the race, with teammate Alberto Contador taking the overall title, and Astana also winning the team time trial.

In addition to 7 Tour de France wins, Armstrong won 22 individual stages (including 11 time trials) and his team won the team time trial on 4 occasions through 2009.

Physical attributes

Armstrong has recorded an aerobic capacity of 83.8 mL/kg/min (VO2 Max), higher than the average person (40-50), but lower than other Tour De France winners, Miguel Indurain (88.0, although reports exist that Indurain tested at 92-94) and Greg LeMond (92.5). He has a resting heart rate of 32-34 beats per minute (bpm) with a maximum heart rate of 201 bpm.

Collaboration of sponsors

Armstrong revolutionized the support behind his well-funded teams, asking sponsors and suppliers to contribute and act as part of the team. For example, rather than having the frame, handlebars, and tires designed and developed by separate companies with little interaction, his teams adopted a Formula One relationship with sponsors and suppliers named "F-One", taking full advantage of the combined resources of several organizations working in close communication. The team, Trek, Nikemarker, AMDmarker, Bontrager (a Trek company), Shimano, Giro and Oakley, collaborated for an array of products.

Comeback II

Astana: 2009

Armstrong announced on September 9, 2008 that he would return to pro cycling with the express goal of participating in the 2009 Tour de France. "After talking with my children, my family and my closest friends, I have decided to return to professional cycling in order to raise awareness of the global cancer burden," Armstrong said on his website.VeloNews reported that Armstrong will race for no salary or bonuses and will post his internally tested blood results online.

The announcement ended speculation that he would return with in the Tour of California, Paris-Nice, the Tour de Georgia and the Dauphiné-Libéré. Astana missed the 2008 Tour after Alexandre Vinokourov was ejected from the 2007 Tour for testing positive.

Australian ABCmarker radio reported on September 24, 2008 that Armstrong would compete in the UCI Tour Down Under through Adelaidemarker and surrounds in January 2009. UCI rules say a cyclist has to be in an anti-doping program for six months before an event, but the Tour Down Under allowed Armstrong to compete after he engaged Don Catlin, a leading anti-doping scientist, to independently test him throughout his comeback races. The Premier of South Australia, Mike Rann, declared that Armstrong's participation would make the tour "the biggest sporting event in South Australian history."

In October 2008, Armstrong confirmed he would compete in the 2009 Giro d'Italia, his first participation.

On January 17, Armstrong said at a press conference for the Tour Down Under that his comeback was motivated by spending most of his days spreading the Livestrong message and raising national awareness of cancer. Though his fitness levels had supposedly returned to peak condition, Armstrong placed 29th in the race. Armstrong said he considered this a successful result, as the thousands of fans who flocked to Adelaide to see him compete — booking every hotel room in the city — added $17 million to the South Australian economy, and the government rewarded his effort by pledging $4.1 million towards the construction of a centre for cancer research.

Armstrong's stolen Trek bicycle was returned to the Sacramento police by an anonymous citizen on February 18, 2009. The time-trial bike was found four days after it disappeared from the Astana team truck after he used it before Stage 1 of the Tour of California. A police statement read, "The facts surrounding how the person came into possession of the bicycle are not being released at this time due to an ongoing investigation."

In February 2009, Armstrong was confirmed to compete in the Tour of Ireland from 19-23 August 2009, before then participating in the Livestrong Global Cancer Summit from August 24-26th in Dublin. The Astana Cycling team confirmed in early March that Armstrong will return to Europe to continue his comeback season with races at Milan-Sanremo and the Vuelta a Castilla y León.He had to retire from the 2009 Vuelta Castilla y León during the first stage after crashing in a rider pileup in Baltanásmarker, Spain and breaking his collarbone.

Armstrong flew back to Austin, Texasmarker for corrective surgery, which was successful, and was back training on a bicycle within four days of his operation. On April 10, 2009, a controversy emerged between the AFLD and Armstrong and his team manager, Johan Bruyneel, stemming from a March 17, 2009 encounter with an AFLD anti-doping official who visited Armstrong after a training ride in Beaulieu-sur-Mermarker. When the official arrived, Armstrong claims he asked—and was granted—permission to take a shower while Bruyneel checked the official's credentials. In late April, the AFLD cleared Armstrong of any wrongdoing. Armstrong returned to racing after his collarbone injury at the Tour of the Gila in New Mexicomarker on 29 April.

On 7 July, in the fourth stage of the 2009 Tour de France, Armstrong narrowly failed to win the yellow jersey after his Astana team won the team time trial. His Astana team won the 39 km lap of Montpelliermarker but Armstrong ended up just over two tenths of a second (0.22) outside of Fabian Cancellara's overall lead. Armstrong finished the 2009 Tour de France in third place overall, 5:24 behind the overall winner, his Astana teammate Alberto Contador.

Team RadioShack: 2010

On July 21, 2009, Armstrong reported that he plans to return to the Tour de France in 2010. RadioShack has been named as the main sponsor for Armstrong's team in 2010: Team RadioShack.

Family and personal life

Armstrong was born Lance Edward Gunderson to Linda Mooneyham, a secretary, and Eddie Charles Gunderson, a route manager for The Dallas Morning News. He was named after Lance Rentzel, a Dallas Cowboys wide receiver. His father left his mother when Lance was two and has two other children from another relationship. His mother later married Terry Keith Armstrong, a wholesale salesman, who adopted Lance in 1974. Linda has married and divorced three times. Armstrong refuses to meet his birth father and has described Terry Armstrong as deceitful.

Armstrong met Kristin Richard in June 1997. They married on May 1, 1998 and have three children: Luke, born October 1999, and twins Isabelle and Grace, born November 2001. The pregnancy was possible through sperm Armstrong banked three years earlier, prior to chemotherapy and surgery. The couple filed for divorce in September 2003. At Armstrong's request, his children flew in for the Tour de France podium ceremony in 2005, where Luke helped his father hoist the trophy, while his daughters (in yellow dresses) held the stuffed lion mascot and bouquet of yellow flowers.

Armstrong began dating singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow in autumn of 2003 and revealed their relationship in January 2004. The couple announced their engagement in September 2005 and their split in February 2006. In October 2007, Armstrong and fashion designer Tory Burch ended a relationship after several months. He dated American actress Kate Hudson from May-July 2008. On July 30 2008, a representative for Hudson announced the relationship had ended amicably.

In December 2008, Armstrong announced that his girlfriend, Anna Hansen, was pregnant with his child. The couple started dating in July 2008 after meeting through Armstrong's charity work. Although it was believed that Armstrong could no longer father children, after having undergone chemotherapy for testicular cancer, this child was conceived naturally. The baby boy, Maxwell Edward "Max" Armstrong, was born on June 4, 2009 in Aspen, Coloradomarker. Armstrong announced the birth using the micro-blogging service Twitter. Armstrong has become a popular Twitter user with approx. 2,000,000 followers or more.

Armstrong owns homes in Austin, Texasmarker and Aspen, Colorado, as well as a ranch in the Texas Hill Country. Armstrong is a fan of the University of Texasmarker Longhorns college football program and is often seen on the sidelines supporting the team.

In regards to religion, he is agnostic, quoted as saying, "at the end of the day, if there was indeed some body or presence standing there to judge me, I hoped I would be judged on whether I had lived a true life, not on whether I believed in a certain book, or whether I'd been baptized. If there was indeed a god at the end of my days, I hoped he didn't say, 'But you were never a Christian, so you're going the other way from heaven.' If so, I was going to reply, 'You know what? You're right. Fine.'"

Allegations of drug use

Armstrong has been criticised for his disagreements with outspoken opponents of doping such as Paul Kimmage and Christophe Bassons. Bassons wrote a number of articles for a French newspaper during the 1999 Tour De France which made references to doping in the peloton. Subsequently, Lance had an altercation with Christophe Bassons during the 1999 Tour De France where Bassons said Armstrong rode up alongside on the Alpe d'Huez stage to tell him "it was a mistake to speak out the way I do and he asked why I was doing it. I told him that I'm thinking of the next generation of riders. Then he said 'Why don't you leave, then?' Armstrong confirmed the story. On the main evening news on TF1, a national television station, Armstrong said: "His accusations aren't good for cycling, for his team, for me, for anybody. If he thinks cycling works like that, he's wrong and he would be better off going home". Kimmage, a controversial journalist who referred to Armstrong as a 'cancer in cycling' also asked Lance questions in relation to his 'admiration for dopers' at a press conference at the Tour of California in 2009 provoking a scathing reaction from Armstrong. This spat continued and is exemplified by Kimmage's articles in The Sunday Times.

Armstrong has continually denied using performance-enhancing drugs and has described himself as "the most tested athlete in the world". A 1999 urine sample showed traces of corticosteroid in an amount that was not in the positive range. A medical certificate showed he used an approved cream for saddle sores which contained the substance.

On March 17, 2009, French Anti-doping Agency tested Armstrong for the 24th time in the last year and the test was negative for performance-enhancing drugs.

Specific allegations

  • Armstrong has been criticized for working with controversial trainer Michele Ferrari. Greg Lemond described himself as "devastated" on hearing of them working together, while Tour de France organizer Jean-Marie Leblanc said, "I am not happy the two names are mixed." Following Ferrari's later-overturned conviction for "sporting fraud" and "abuse of the medical profession," Armstrong suspended his professional relationship with him, saying that he had "zero tolerance for anyone convicted of using or facilitating the use of performance-enhancing drugs" and denying that Ferrari had ever "suggested, prescribed or provided me with any performance-enhancing drugs."

Ferrari was later absolved of all charges by an Italian appeals court of the sporting fraud charges as well as charges of abusing his medical license to write prescriptions. The court stated that it overturned his conviction "because the facts do not exist" to support the charges.
  • In 2004, reporters Pierre Ballester and David Walsh published a book alleging Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs (L. A. Confidentiel - Les secrets de Lance Armstrong). It contains allegations by Armstrong's former masseuse, Emma O'Reilly, who claimed Armstrong once asked her to dispose of used syringes and to give him makeup to conceal needle marks on his arms. Another figure in the book, Steve Swart, claims he and other riders, including Armstrong, began using drugs in 1995 while members of the Motorola team, a claim denied by other team members. Allegations in the book were reprinted in the UK newspaper The Sunday Times in a story by deputy sports editor Alan English in June 2004. Armstrong sued for libel, and the paper settled out of court after a High Court judge in a pre-trial ruling stated that the article "meant accusation of guilt and not simply reasonable grounds to suspect."

The newspaper's lawyers issued the statement: "The Sunday Times has confirmed to Mr. Armstrong that it never intended to accuse him of being guilty of taking any performance-enhancing drugs and sincerely apologised for any such impression." (See also in The Guardian). Armstrong later dropped similar lawsuits in France.
  • On March 31 2005, Mike Anderson filed a brief in Travis County District Court in Texas, as part of a legal battle following his termination in November 2004 as an employee of Armstrong. Anderson worked for Armstrong for two years as a personal assistant. In the brief, Anderson claimed that he discovered a box of Androstenone while cleaning a bathroom in Armstrong's apartment in Gironamarker, Spainmarker. Androstenine is not on the list of banned drugs. Anderson stated in a subsequent deposition that he had no direct knowledge of Armstrong using a banned substance.

Armstrong denied the claim and issued a counter-suit. The two men reached an out-of-court settlement in November 2005; the terms of the agreement were not disclosed.
  • On August 23, 2005, L'Équipe, a major French daily sports newspaper, reported on its front page under the headline "le mensonge Armstrong" ("The Armstrong Lie") that 6 urine samples taken from the cyclist during the prologue and five stages of the 1999 Tour de France, frozen and stored since at "Laboratoire national de dépistage du dopage de Châtenay-Malabry" (LNDD), had tested positive for Erythropoietin in recent retesting conducted as part of a research project into EPO testing methods. For years, it had been impossible to detect the drug, called erythropoietin, which builds endurance by boosting the production of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. The world governing body of cycling, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), did not begin using a urine test for EPO until 2001, two years after the samples were taken. This claim was based on an investigation in which they claimed to be able to match samples from the 1999 Tour that were used to hone the EPO test to Armstrong. To establish a link between Armstrong and the samples, the LNDD matched the tracking numbers on the samples with those on Armstrong's record with the UCI during the 1999 Tour.

Armstrong immediately replied on his website, saying, "Unfortunately, the witch hunt continues and tomorrow’s article is nothing short of tabloid journalism. The paper even admits in its own article that the science in question here is faulty and that I have no way to defend myself. They state: 'There will therefore be no counter-exam nor regulatory prosecutions, in a strict sense, since defendant’s rights cannot be respected.' I will simply restate what I have said many times: I have never taken performance enhancing drugs."

In October 2008, the AFLD gave Armstrong the opportunity to have samples taken during the 1998 and 1999 Tours de France retested. Armstrong immediately refused, saying, "the samples have not been maintained properly." Head of AFLD Pierre Bordry stated: "Scientifically there is no problem to analyse these samples - everything is correct" and "If the analysis is clean it would have been very good for him. But he doesn't want to do it and that's his problem."

  • In June 2006, French newspaper Le Monde reported claims by Betsy and Frankie Andreu during a deposition that Armstrong had admitted using performance-enhancing drugs to his physician just after brain surgery in 1996. The Andreus' testimony was related to litigation between Armstrong and SCA Promotions, a Texas company attempting to withhold a $5-million bonus; this was settled out of court with SCA paying Armstrong and Tailwind Sports $7.5 million, to cover the $5-million bonus plus interest and lawyers' fees.

The testimony stated "And so the doctor asked him a few questions, not many, and then one of the questions he asked was... have you ever used any performance-enhancing drugs? And Lance said yes. And the doctor asked, what were they? And Lance said, growth hormone, cortisone, EPO, steroids and testosterone."Armstrong suggested Betsy Andreu may have been confused by possible mention of his post-operative treatment which included steroids and EPO that are taken to counteract wasting and red-blood-cell-destroying effects of intensive chemotherapy, but this is at odds with the fact that it was necessary for Armstrong to tell the doctor the list of drugs taken, and the use of the phrase "performance enhancing".

The Andreus' allegation was not supported by any of the eight other people present, including Armstrong's doctor Craig Nichols, or his medical history. However, according to Greg LeMond (who has been embroiled with his own disputes with Armstrong), there exists a recorded conversation in which Stephanie McIlvain, Armstrong's contact at Oakley Inc., said of Armstrong's alleged admission 'You know, I was in that room. I heard it.' McIlvain has contradicted LeMond and denied the incident occurred in her sworn testimony.
  • In July 2006, the Los Angeles Times published a story on the allegations raised in the SCA case. The report cited evidence at the trial including the results of the LNDD test and an analysis of these results by an expert witness. From the LA Times article: "The results, Australian researcher Michael Ashenden testified in Dallas, show Armstrong's levels rising and falling, consistent with a series of injections during the Tour. Ashenden, a paid expert retained by SCA Promotions, told arbitrators the results painted a "compelling picture" that the world's most famous cyclist "used EPO in the '99 Tour." Ashenden's finding were disputed by the Vrijman report, which pointed to procedural and privacy issues in dismissing the LNDD test results. The LA Times article also provided information on testimony given by Armstrong's former teammate, Swart, Andreu and his wife Betsy, and Instant messaging conversation between Andreu and Jonathan Vaughters regarding blood-doping in the peloton. Vaughters signed a statement disavowing the comments and stating he had: "no personal knowledge that any team in the Tour de France, including Armstrong's Discovery team in 2005, engaged in any prohibited conduct whatsoever." Andreu signed a statement affirming the conversation took place as indicated on the instant messaging logs submitted to the court.

The SCA trial was settled out of court, and the LA Times reported: "Though no verdict or finding of facts was rendered, Armstrong called the outcome proof that the doping allegations were baseless." The L.A. Times' article provides a review of the disputed positive EPO test, allegations and sworn testimony against Armstrong, but notes that: "They are filled with conflicting testimony, hearsay and circumstantial evidence admissible in arbitration hearings but questionable in more formal legal proceedings."

Handling of urine tests

In October 2005, in response to calls from the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for an independent investigation, the UCI appointed Dutch lawyer Emile Vrijman to investigate the handling of urine tests by the French national anti-doping laboratory, LNDD. Vrijman was head of the Dutch anti-doping agency for ten years; since then he has worked as a defense attorney defending high-profile athletes against doping charges. Vrijman's report cleared Armstrong because of improper handling and testing. The report said tests on urine samples were conducted improperly and fell so short of scientific standards that it was "completely irresponsible" to suggest they "constitute evidence of anything." The recommendation of the commission's report was no disciplinary action against any rider on the basis of LNDD research. It also called upon the WADA and LNDD to submit themselves to an investigation by an outside independent authority. The WADA rejected these conclusions. The IOC Ethics Commission subsequently censured Dick Pound, the President of WADA and a member of the IOC, for his statements in the media that suggested wrongdoing by Armstrong.

In April 2009, Dr. Michael Ashenden said "the LNDD absolutely had no way of knowing athlete identity from the sample they're given. They have a number on them, but that's never linked to an athlete's name. The only group that had both the number and the athlete's name is the federation, in this case it was the UCI." He added "There was only two conceivable ways that synthetic EPO could've gotten into those samples. One, is that Lance Armstrong used EPO during the '99 Tour. The other way it could've got in the urine was if, as Lance Armstrong seems to believe, the laboratory spiked those samples. Now, that's an extraordinary claim, and there's never ever been any evidence the laboratory has ever spiked an athlete's sample, even during the Cold War, where you would've thought there was a real political motive to frame an athlete from a different country. There's never been any suggestion that it happened."

Armstrong's work outside of cycling

In 1997, Armstrong founded the Lance Armstrong Foundation, which supports people affected by cancer. During his original retirement beginning after the 2005 season, he also maintained other interests. He was the pace car driver of the Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for the 2006 Indianapolis 500.

In 2007, Armstrong with Andre Agassi, Muhammad Ali, Warrick Dunn, Jeff Gordon, Mia Hamm, Tony Hawk, Andrea Jaeger, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, Mario Lemieux, Alonzo Mourning, and Cal Ripken, Jr. founded Athletes for Hope, a charity which helps professional athletes get involved in charitable causes and inspires non-athletes to volunteer and support the community. In 2008 and 2009 he appeared on the PBS Kids show Arthur as himself. In 2008 it was about teaching biking and in 2009 it was helping spread the awareness of Cancer.


Armstrong ran the 2006 New York City Marathon with friends, Robert McElligott and Lewis Miles. With Nike, he assembled a pace team of Alberto Salazar, Joan Benoit Samuelson, and Hicham El Guerrouj to help him reach 3 hours. He struggled with shin splints and was on pace for a little above 3 hours but pushed through the last to 2h 59m 36s, finishing 856th. He said the race was extremely difficult compared to the Tour de France. "For the level of condition that I have now, that was without a doubt the hardest physical thing I have ever done. I never felt a point where I hit the wall. It was really a gradual progression of fatigue and soreness." The NYC Marathon had a dedicated camera on Armstrong throughout the event. This camera, according to Armstrong, pushed him to continue through points in which he would have normally "stopped and stretched". He also helped raise $600,000 for his LiveStrong campaign during the run.

With more dedication to marathon training, Armstrong ran the 2007 NYC Marathon in 2h 46m 43s finishing 232nd, a substantial improvement from his previous year. On April 21, 2008, he ran the Boston Marathon in 2h 50m 58s, finishing in the top 500.


In the New York Times, teammate George Hincapie hinted at Armstrong's running for Governor of Texas after cycling. In the July 2005 issue of Outside, Armstrong hinted at running for governor, although "not in '06". Armstrong and former president George W. Bush, a Republican and fellow Texan, call themselves friends. Bush called Armstrong in France to congratulate him after his 2005 victory, and in August 2005, The Times reported the President had invited Armstrong to his Prairie Chapel Ranchmarker to go mountain biking. In a 2003 interview with The Observer, Armstrong said: "He's a personal friend, but we've all got the right not to agree with our friends."

In August 2005, Armstrong hinted he had changed his mind about politics. In an interview with Charlie Rose on PBS on August 1, 2005, Armstrong pointed out that running for governor would require the commitment that led him to retire from cycling. Again, on August 16, 2005, Armstrong told a local Austin CBS affiliate that he was no longer considering politics:
"The biggest problem with politics or running for the governor—the governor's race here in Austin or in Texas—is that it would mimic exactly what I've done: a ton of stress and a ton of time away from my kids.
Why would I want to go from pro cycling, which is stressful and a lot of time away, straight into politics?"

In 2006, Armstrong began to clarify that he intends to be involved in politics as an activist for change in cancer policies. In a May 2006 interview with Sports Illustrated, Armstrong is quoted: "I need to run for one office, the presidency of the Cancer Fighters' Union of the World." Sports Illustrated quoted Armstrong that he fears halving his influence with legislators if he chose one side in politics. His foundation lobbies on behalf of cancer patients before United States Congress.

Teams and victories



See also


  1. Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: It's Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to Life (ISBN 0-425-17961-3), Putnam 2000.
  2. Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: It's Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to Life, Chapter 5, (ISBN 0-425-17961-3), Putnam 2000.
  3. The Lance Armstrong Performance Program ISBN 1-57954-270-0
  4. Armstrong's 'F-One' group plots the hour
  5. Associated Press via The Arizona Republic, "Lance Armstrong to return for 2009 Tour de France".
  6. USATODAY, "Armstrong coming out of retirement for another Tour".
  7. Armstrong coming out of retirement for Tour
  8. Rome News - Tribune
  9. An audience with Lance Armstrong, one of the greats » The Roar - Your Sports Opinion
  10. presents the 11th Tour Down Under
  11. Police Recover Lance Armstrong's Stolen Bike - Local News | News Articles | National News | US News -
  12. Armstrong's visit prompts mixed feelings - The Irish Times - Tue, Feb 24, 2009
  13. Lance Armstrong Skipping Critérium International And Flanders - BikeRadar
  16. Lance Armstrong, Girlfriend, Expecting Baby in June, December 23, 2008
  17. Lance Armstrong's book: It's Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to Life, published by G.P Putnam's Sons 2000. pp. 116-118
  22. Le coup de blues de Christophe Bassons - l'Humanite
  23. Cited, L'Équipe, 17 July 1999.
  24. Kimmage, Paul. "Tour gears up for return of Lance Armstrong", The Sunday Times, 5 July 2009.
  25. - "Throughout his career only one test showed indications of the presence of doping products. In the 1999 Tour, a urine sample showed small traces of cortico-steroids. Armstrong was cleared, however, when his U.S. Postal team, produced a medical certificate showing that he used a cream to ease the pain of a saddle sore. Even that sample, however, was below the levels that would have triggered a positive result at the time."
  26. "Drugs issue refuses to go away due to winner's Ferrari links" The Guardian
  27. "Disappointed Armstrong cuts ties with Ferrari after conviction" The Times
  28. - the world centre of cycling
  29. Stop strong-arm tactics , The Scotsman, June 20, 2004
  30. The Guardian
  31. Armstrong faces legal marathon
  32. Lance drops lawsuits, The Austin American-Statesman, July 7, 2006
  33. Court brief, by Mike Anderson, March 31, 2005 - (warning: PDF-file, 2.8 MB)
  34. Papers: Lance had steroid in home , The Austin American-Statesman, April 1, 2005
  35. Armstrong asks Austin court to sanction his former assistant , The Austin American-Statesman, April 2, 2005
  36. Lance Armstrong settles lawsuit with former assistant , The Austin American-Statesman, November 5, 2005
  37. L'EQUIPE.FR Cyclisme - CYCLISME - Affaire Armstrong
  38. MyWire | AFP: No comment on Armstrong from US cycling, anti-doping groups
  39. Is he innocent? You decide, The Doping Journal, September 22, 2005
  40. "Litke: Suspicion Remains Lance's Opponent"
  41. "Agency challenges Armstrong to have urine samples retested"
  42. "Doping boss rues Armstrong stance"
  43. Ex-Friends Say Armstrong Admitted Drug Use
  44. Armstrong issues statement
  45. Papers charge Armstrong admitted doping
  46. Evidence of a banned substance?
  47. "The possibility of tampering"
  48. Athletes for Hope
  49. Results - The ING New York City Marathon
  50. Search -
  51. Serena got the message, now it's Lance's turn as French cheers become jeers for US stars | World news | The Observer
  52. [1]


Further reading

  • Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: It's Not About the Bike: My Journey Back to Life (ISBN 0-425-17961-3), Putnam 2000. Armstrong's own account of his battle with cancer and subsequent triumphant return to bike racing.
  • Lance Armstrong, Sally Jenkins: Every Second Counts (ISBN 0-385-50871-9), Broadway Books 2003. Armstrong's account of his life after his first four Tour triumphs.
  • Linda Armstrong Kelly, Joni Rodgers: No Mountain High Enough: Raising Lance, Raising Me (ISBN 0-7679-1855-X), Broadway Books 2002. Armstrong's mother's account of raising a world class athlete and overcoming adversity.
  • Daniel Coyle: Lance Armstrong's War: One Man's Battle Against Fate, Fame, Love, Death, Scandal, and a Few Other Rivals on the Road to the Tour De France (ISBN 0-06-073497-3), Harper Collins 2005. Former writer for Outside magazine documents Armstrong's road to the Tour in 2004, teaching us about both Armstrong and the Tour.
  • Pierre Ballester, David Walsh: L. A. Confidentiel: Les secrets de Lance Armstrong (ISBN 2-84675-130-7), La Martinière . Various circumstantial evidence pointing to Armstrong doping.
  • Pierre Ballester, David Walsh: L.A. Officiel (ISBN 2-84675-204-4), La Martinière . Why Armstrong gave up trial against the authors after publication of L.A. Confidentiel.
  • Sharon Cook, Graciela Sholander: Dream It Do It: Inspiring Stories of Dreams Come True (ISBN 1-884587-30-5), Planning/Communications 2004. Chapter 4 details Armstrong's efforts to return to championship form following his cancer treatment.
  • John Wilcockson: 23 Days in July (ISBN 0-7195-6717-3), John Murray 2004. An account of how Armstrong won his 6th Tour title in 2004.
  • John Wilcockson: The 2005 Tour De France: The Last Chapter of the Armstrong Era (ISBN 1-931382-68-9), Velo Press 2005. The story behind Armstrong's final Tour de France before his first retirement and his 7th consecutive victory.
  • John Wilcokson: LANCE: The Making of the World's Greatest Champion (ISBN 9780306815874), Da Capo Press 2009. The story of what drives the 7-time Tour de France champion through the words of Armstrong's family, friends, rivals, and Armstrong himself. [810223]

External links

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