is a fairy country (fantasy region
) containing four lands under
the rule of one monarch
It was first introduced in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
(1900) by L. Frank Baum
, one of many fairy countries that
he created for his books. It achieved a popularity that none of his
other works attained, and after four years, he returned to it. The
land was described and expanded upon in the Oz Books
. An attempt to cut off the
production of the series with The Emerald City of Oz
ending the story with Oz being isolated from the rest of the world,
did not succeed owing to readers' reactions and Baum's financial
need to write successful books.
The adjectival form of Oz is "Ozite". The term appears in
Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
, The Road to Oz
The Emerald City of Oz
. The term "Ozian" appears in
, but never came from Baum's pen.
The land of Oz is depicted as real in the books, unlike the
1939 movie adaptation
which transformed it into an ambiguous dream of Dorothy's.
In all, Baum wrote fourteen children's
about Oz and its odd inhabitants, as well as six shorter books
younger readers. After his death, Ruth Plumly Thompson
and other writers
continued the series.
"Oz as History"
In Baum's time, it was common for authors to present works of
fiction as true accounts (compare Sherlock Holmes
for other examples). While Baum presented Oz
as fiction in some of his forewords such as that of the first book,
in other books he presented it as a true account related to him by
those involved. Most notably, in The Emerald City of Oz
attempted to end the series on the basis of a letter he had claimed
to have received from Dorothy Gale
main character. In the following book, The Patchwork Girl of Oz
explained that after some difficulty he had re-established
communication with the characters by wireless telegraph
.Baum also began
signing himself as "Royal Historian of Oz," a title which several
other authors of the series have taken on after his death.
Because Baum himself wrote from an in-universe standpoint, many
fans of the series treat the books as if they were true, known
among the fans as the "Oz as History
standpoint. Any confusion or contradiction between the different
versions of their histories is said to be the fault of the
historian making an honest mistake, of the editors for removing
parts which they did not consider suitable for the child audience,
of the characters involved who reported the incidents in question
back to the historian, or explained by the concept that many
alternate versions of Oz co-exist simultaneously.
There are many discussions founded on clues in the series in Oz fan
(and previously Nonestica
and the Ozzy Digest
) on how large Oz is, its population, and many
other details not addressed explicitly in the books themselves.
Articles of the sort frequently appear in The Baum Bugle
While some fans enjoy trying to explain the various inconsistencies
in the books, others prefer to ignore them, since apparently the
inconsistencies were not important to Baum himself. These fans
prefer to view Oz from the contrasting, but more traditional, Oz as
standpoint. Many fans enjoy
both standpoints, and it is not uncommon for new ideas about Oz to
be examined from both standpoints by the same people.
Oz is, in the first book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
distinguished from Dorothy's native Kansas by not being civilized;
this explains why Kansas does not have witches and wizards, while
Oz does. In the third book, Ozma of
, Oz is described as a "fairy country", new terminology
that remained to explain its wonders.
The Land of Oz
Oz is roughly rectangular in shape, and divided along the diagonals
into four countries: Munchkin
(but commonly referred to as 'Munchkinland' in
adaptations) in the East, Winkie
(called "The Vinkus" in Gregory Maguire
and its sequel Son of a
) in the West, (sometimes West and East are reversed
on maps of Oz, see West and
below) Gillikin Country
the North, and Quadling Country
the South. In the center of Oz, where the diagonals cross, is the
fabled Emerald City
, capital of the
land of Oz and seat to the monarch of Oz, Princess Ozma
The regions have a color schema: blue for Munchkins, yellow for
Winkies, red for Quadlings, green for the Emerald city, and (in
works after the first) purple for the Gillikins, which region was
also not named in the first book. (This contrasts with Kansas;
Baum, describing it, used "gray" nine times in four paragraphs.) In
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
, this is merely the favorite
color, used for clothing and other man-made objects, and having
some influence on their choice of crops, but the basic colors of
the world are natural colors. The effect is less consistent in
later works. In The
Marvelous Land of Oz
, the book states that everything in
the land of the Gillikins is purple, including the plants and mud,
and a character can see that he is leaving when the grass turns
from purple to green, but it also describes pumpkins as orange and
corn as green in that land. Baum, indeed, never used the color
schema consistently; in many books, he alluded to the colors to
orient the characters and readers to their location, and then did
not refer to it again. His most common technique was to depict the
man-made articles and flowers as the color of the country, leaving
leaves, grass, and fruit their natural colors.
Most of these regions are settled with prosperous and contented
people. However, this naturally is lacking in scope for plot.
Numerous pockets throughout the land of Oz are cut off from the
main culture, for geographic or cultural reasons. Many have never
heard of Ozma, making it impossible for them to acknowledge her as
their rightful queen. These regions are concentrated around the
edges of the country, and constitute the main settings for books
that are set entirely within Oz. The Lost Princess of Oz
instance is set entirely in rough country in Winkie Country,
between two settled areas. In Glinda of
, Ozma speaks of her duty to discover all these stray
corners of Oz.
In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
, a yellow brick road
leads from the lands of
the Munchkins to the Emerald City. Other such roads featured in
other works: one from Gillikin Country in The Marvelous Land of
, and a second one from Munchkin Land in The Patchwork
Girl of Oz
Oz is completely surrounded on all four sides by a desert, which
insulates the citizens of Oz from discovery and invasion. In the
first two books, this is merely a desert, with only its extent to
make it dangerous to the traveler. Indeed, in The Marvelous
Land of Oz
, Mombi tries to escape through it and Glinda chases
her over the sands. Still, it is the dividing land between the
magic of Oz and the outside world, and the Winged Monkeys
can not obey Dorothy's command
to carry her home because it would take them outside the lands of
Oz. In Ozma of Oz
, it has become
a magical desert, the Deadly Desert
with life-destroying sands (no destruction is depicted in the Oz
books, unlike in the film, Return to
), a feature that remained constant through the rest of
the series. The desert has nonetheless been breached numerous
times, both by children from our world (mostly harmless), by the
Wizard of Oz himself, and by more sinister characters, such as the
, who attempted to conquer Oz.
After such an attempt in The
Emerald City of Oz
, the book ends with Glinda
creating a barrier of invisibility around the
Land of Oz, for further protection. This was, indeed, an earnest
effort on Baum's part to escape the series, but the insistence of
the readers meant the continuation of the series, and therefore the
discovery of many ways for people to pass through this barrier as
well as over the sands. Despite this continual evasion, the barrier
itself remained; nowhere in any Oz book did Baum hint that the
inhabitants were even considering removing the magical
West and East
The first known map of Oz was a glass slide used in Baum's
Fairylogue and Radio-Play
traveling show, showing the blue
land of the Munchkins in the east and the yellow land of the
Winkies in the west. These directions are confirmed by the text of
all of Baum's Oz books, especially the first, in which The Wicked Witch of the East
rules over the Munchkins
The Wicked Witch of the
rules over the Winkies
Like traditional western maps, the Fairylogue and
map showed the west on the left, and the east on
the right. However, the first map of Oz to appear in an Oz book had
those directions reversed, and the compass
adjusted accordingly. It is believed that this is a result
of Baum copying the map from the wrong side of the glass slide,
effectively getting a mirror image of his intended map. When he
realized he was copying the slide backward, he reversed the compass
rose to make the directions correct. However, an editor at Reilly
and Lee reversed the compass rose, thinking he was fixing an error
and resulting in further confusion. Most notably, this confused
Ruth Plumly Thompson, who frequently reversed directions in her own
Oz books as a result.
Another speculation stems from the original conception of Oz, which
at first appeared to be situated in an American desert. If Baum
thought of the country of the Munchkins as the nearest region to
him, it would have been in the east while he lived in Chicago, but
when he moved to California, it would have be in the west.
Modern maps of Oz are almost universally drawn with the Winkies in
the west and the Munchkins in the east, although west and east
often appear reversed. Many Oz fans believe this is the correct
orientation, perhaps as a result of Glinda's spell, which has the
effect of confusing most standard compasses; perhaps resembling its
similarity to the world Alice found through the looking glass
everything was a mirror image; or perhaps just reflecting the alien
nature of Oz. In Robert A.
's book The Number of the Beast
he explains that Oz is on a retrograde
planet, meaning that
it spins in the opposite direction of Earth so that the sun seems
to rise on one's left as one faces north. March Laumer
's The Magic Mirror of Oz
attributes the changes to a character named Till Orangespiegel
attempting to turn the Land of Oz orange.
Oz, like all of Baum's fantasy countries, was presented as existing
as part of the real world, albeit protected from civilization by
natural barriers. Indeed, in the first books, nothing indicated
that it was not hidden in the deserts of the United States. It
gradually acquired neighboring magical countries, often from works
of Baum's that had been independent, as Ix
from Queen Zixi of Ix
from The Magical Monarch of Mo
The first of these is Ev
, introduced in
Ozma of Oz
In Tik-Tok of Oz
included maps in the endpapers which definitively situated Oz in a
continent with its neighboring countries. Oz is the largest country
on the continent unofficially known as Nonestica
(this name was proposed by Robert R. Pattrick
for the whole of the countries
surrounding Oz; Pattrick proposed "Ozeria" for the whole continent,
but that name is generally unused in fan discussions), which also
includes the countries of Ev, Ix, and Mo, which has also been known
as Phunniland, among others. Nonestica is, according to the map, in
the Nonestic Ocean. A fair amount of evidence in the books point
to this continent as being envisioned as somewhere in the southern
At the opening of Ozma of Oz, Dorothy
is sailing to Australia
when she is washed
overboard (in a chicken coop, with Billina
the yellow hen), and lands on the shore of Ev—a rare instance in
which an outsider reaches the Oz landmass through non-magical (or
non-magical) means. Palm trees grow outside the
Royal Palace in the Emerald City, and horses are not native to Oz,
both points of consistency with a South-Pacific location;
illustrations and descriptions of round-shaped and domed Ozite
houses suggest a non-Western architecture. Conversely, Oz has
technological, architectural, and urban elements typical of Europe
and North America around the turn of the twentieth century; but
this may involve cultural input from unusual external sources (see
History below). Ruth Plumly Thompson asserts in her first Oz book,
The Royal Book of Oz
that the language of Oz is English, which also suggests European or
An argument against the South Pacific is that the seasons in Oz are
shown as the same seasons in the United States at the same time. In
addition, in The Wishing
Horse of Oz
follows the North Star
when he flies to
Thunder Mountain, which could only be done in the Northern
creation of the Emerald City may have been inspired by the White
City of the World Columbian Exposition, which he visited frequently.
building, in less than a year, may have been an element in the
quick construction of the Emerald City in the first book.
Schematically, Oz is much like the United States, with the Emerald
City taking the place of Chicago: to the East, mixed forest and
farmland; to the West, treeless plains and fields of wheat; to the
South, warmth and lush growth, and red earth.
It has also been speculated since The Wizard of Oz
first written that Oz may have been based on China. Either way, the
oriental influence on Oz has been noted by more than one
Ruth Plumly Thompson took a different direction with her Oz books,
introducing European elements such as the title character of
The Yellow Knight of
, a knight straight out of Arthurian Legend
The world of the Oz books is ruled (and presumably created) by the
immortals. These include fairies
, and several races created by Baum himself,
including ryls, knooks, gigans, and rampsies.
All of the immortals are ruled over three immortal "masters",
described in Baum's The Life and Adventures
of Santa Claus
- But in the center of the circle sat three others who
possessed powers so great that all the Kings and Queens showed them
- These were Ak, the Master Woodsman of the World, who rules
the forests and the orchards and the groves; and Kern, the Master
Husbandman of the World, who rules the grain fields and the meadows
and the gardens; and Bo, the Master Mariner of the World, who rules
the seas and all the craft that float thereon. And all
other immortals are more or less subject to these three.
The word "fairy" is used in several ways throughout the Oz books.
"Fairy people" is often used to describe the people of Oz, who seem
to be nothing more than human inhabitants of a fairy country. A
number of supernatural creatures are also called fairies, from
female spirits of nature who live in mist and on the rainbow, to
the nomes, who are seemingly all male, yet also described as earth
The most powerful kind of fairy is never known by any other name in
the books, although Baum sometimes differentiated them by spelling
Fairy with a capital F. The Fairies seem to be the most powerful
race, with seemingly limitless power. They travel in bands ruled
over by Fairy Queens, and spend their time primarily in helping
mortals and dancing.
Lurline is a Fairy Queen, and she and her band were the ones who
made Oz a fairyland. According to Baum's later books, Ozma is a
member of Lurline's band. There are no other Fairies of the highest
sort in the Oz books, although The Life and Adventures
of Santa Claus
Zixi of Ix
, which take place in lands neighboring Oz, both
mention other Fairy Queens and their bands.
Baum introduced the Nomes in Ozma of Oz
, and they served
as antagonists throughout the rest of the series. Baum always
spelled their name without the traditional silent G, perhaps to
Americanize the name, or to make it easier for his child audience
to pronounce. Thompson later "corrected" Baum's spelling in her
first book, and retained it throughout all the Oz books she
The Nomes are subterranean people who spend their time mining
precious stones from the earth. They consider all of the mineral
wealth of the world to be their own rightful property, which often
leads to conflicts with other races; as, for instance, when the
's brother disappears in a
mine, it is because the Nomes have captured him. They have a
massive army, but not much innate magical ability. Although they
play a major role in the Oz series, throughout a major part of the
series, there are no Nomes actually living in Oz.
The other immortal races of the world of the Oz books play less
significant roles, largely appearing in the "borderlands" books by
Baum that occur outside of Oz.
The mermaids care for all life in the ocean, and the nymphs serve a
similar function under the Fairies in the forests. The nymphs are
helped by the ryls, who color the flowers and care for all plants;
and the knooks, who are crooked creatures who govern the
The massive gigans also served the Fairies until Fairy Queen Lulea,
becoming annoyed with their large forms, transformed them into the
tiny rampsies, smallest of all immortals. Whatever function they
served is unknown, for they're only mentioned in Baum's short story
, in which the gigans reshape the land
in their boredom.
Although Baum did not often use the word "mortal," Thompson seemed
far more fond of it as a way of describing the people who had come
to Oz from the great outside world. Since Oz was a land much like
any other prior to Lurline's enchantment, it seems that the only
mortals in Oz are those who were not in Oz at the time it was
enchanted, and were not born in Oz thereafter.
The Wizard was the first mortal in Oz described in Baum's books,
followed by Dorothy and all the characters she met in her travels.
Apart from the Wizard, the only mortals who originally found their
way to Oz without Dorothy in Baum's books were Trot, Cap'n Bill,
and Betsy Bobbin.
Witches and wizards
At the time of The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz
, the lands in the North, South,
East and West of Oz are each ruled by a witch; the Witches of the
North and South are Good, while the Witches of the East and West
are Wicked. Glinda
, the Good Witch of the
South, is later revealed to be the most powerful of the four. After
Dorothy's house crushes the Wicked Witch of the East
liberating the Munckins from bondage, the Good Witch of the North
Dorothy that she (the Witch of the North) is not as powerful as the
Wicked Witch of the East had been, or she would have freed the
During the first scene in Oz in The Wonderful Wizard of
, the Good Witch of the North (Locasta or Tattypoo) explains
to Dorothy that Oz still has witches and wizards, not being
, and goes on to explain that
witches and wizards can be both good and evil, unlike the evil
witches that Dorothy had been told of. That book contained only the
four witches (besides the humbug wizard), but despite Ozma's
prohibition on magic, many more magicians feature in later
Baum tended to capitalise the word "Witch" when referring to the
Witches of the North, South, East or West, but did not do so when
referring to witches in general (e.g. In the afore-mentioned first
scene of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
, Locasta (or Tattypoo)
thanks Dorothy for killing the "Wicked Witch of the East", and
introduces herself as "the Witch of the North", with the word
"Witch" capitalised in both cases. However, when she goes on to
tell Dorothy that "I (the Witch of the North) am a good witch, and
the people love me" (the word "witch" is not capitalised).
White is the traditional color of witches in Oz. The Good Witch of
the North wears a pointed white hat and a white gown decorated with
stars, while Glinda, the Good Witch of the South (called a
"sorceress" in later books), wears a pure white dress. Dorothy is
taken for a witch not only because she had killed the Wicked Witch
of the East, but because her dress is blue and white checked.
Ozma, once on the throne, prohibits the use of magic by anyone
other than Glinda
the Good, the Wizard
, and herself—as, earlier, the Good Witch
of the North had prohibited magic by any other witch in her
domains. The illicit use of magic is a frequent feature of villains
in later works in the series, appearing in The Scarecrow of Oz
, Rinkitink in Oz
, The Lost Princess of Oz
The Tin Woodman of
, and The Magic of
There is a multitude of other races living in the land of Oz, many
of which only appear once. Among these are:
- The Flatheads: Humans who carry their brains in cans
- The Cuttenclips: Living paper dolls
- The Hammerheads: An armless race with extensible necks
- The bun people of Bunbury
- The bunnies of Bunnybury
- The living kitchen utensils of Utensia
- The Fuddles: Anthropomorphic
- The china people
- The Loons: living balloon people
- The Hoopers: Tall people who locomote by grabbing their ankles
Outside of them are many other strange races who are often found
living in the wilderness of Oz. Despite the overlordship of Ozma,
many of the communities live autonomously; Oz has great tolerance
for eccentricity and oddness.
Many characters in Oz are animated objects. Such figures as the
Glass Cat and the Scarecrow
common. Entire regions are the homes of such animated beings. The
Dainty China Country is entirely filled with creatures of china,
who would freeze into figurines if removed; the China princess
lives in fear of breaking, because she would never be as pretty
even if repaired.
Many other characters are highly individual, even unique members of
a species. Many such people from the outer worlds find refuge in
Oz, which is highly tolerant of eccentricity.
The history of Oz prior to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
(often called the prehistory of Oz as it takes place before Baum's
"histories") is often the subject of dispute, as Baum himself gave
conflicting accounts. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the
title character recounts that he was a ventriloquist and a circus
balloonist from Omaha, and during
one flight the rope for his parachute vent became tangled,
preventing him from descending until the next morning, when he
awoke floating over a strange land.
When he landed, the
people thought he was a great wizard because of his ability to fly.
He did not disabuse them of this notion, and with his new power
over them, he had them build a city with a palace in the center of
Oz. He also ordered them to wear green glasses so it would appear
to be made entirely of emeralds. However, in the later Oz books the
city is depicted as actually being made of emerald or other green
materials. The Wizard was a young man when he first arrived in Oz,
and grew old while he was there. Afraid of the Wicked Witches of
the West and the East, who, unlike him, could do real magic, the
Wizard hid away in a room of his palace and refused to see
visitors. He lived in this way until the arrival of Dorothy in the
In The Marvelous Land of
the prehistory was changed slightly. Glinda, the Good
Witch of the South, reveals that the Wizard usurped the previous
king of Oz, Pastoria
, and hid away his
daughter Ozma. This was Baum's reaction to the popular 1903
Broadway extravaganza Baum adapted from his book, The Wonderful
Wizard of Oz
, in which the Wizard took the role of the main
antagonist and the Wicked Witch of the West was left out.
The wizard, however, had been more popular with his readers than he
thought. In Ozma of Oz
omitted any mention of the Wizard's having usurped the throne of
Ozma's father, but the largest changes occurred in the next
In the preface to Dorothy and the Wizard in
Baum remarks that the Wizard had turned out to be a
popular character with the children who had read the first book,
and so he brought the Wizard back. During it, the Wizard relates
yet another account of his history in Oz, telling Ozma that his
birth name was Oscar Zoroaster Phadrig Isaac Norman Henkle Emmanuel
Ambroise Diggs, which, being a very long and cumbersome name, and
as his other initials spelled out "PINHEAD," he preferred to leave
just as O.Z. The balloon part of his story was unchanged, except
for the detail added by Ozma, that the people probably saw his
initials on his balloon and took them as a message that he was to
be their king. She relates that the country was already named Oz (a
word which in their language means "great and good"), and that it
was typical for the rulers to have names that are variations of Oz
(King Pastoria being a notable exception to this rule).
Ozma elaborates further, saying that there were once four Wicked
Witches in Oz, who leagued together to depose the King, but the
Witches of the North and South were conquered by Good Witches
before the Wizard arrived in Oz. According to this version, the
King at the time was Ozma's grandfather. This version of prehistory
restores the Wizard's reputation, but adds the awkwardness of both
Ozma and her father having been born in captivity.
In The Tin Woodman of
Baum writes how Oz came to be a fairyland:
- Oz was not always a fairyland, I am told. Once it
was much like other lands, except it was shut in by a dreadful
desert of sandy wastes that lay all around it, thus preventing its
people from all contact with the rest of the world. Seeing
this isolation, the fairy band of Queen Lurline, passing over Oz
while on a journey, enchanted the country and so made it a
Fairyland. And Queen Lurline left one of her fairies to
rule this enchanted Land of Oz, and then passed on and forgot all
Thenceforward, no one in Oz would ever age, get sick, or die. After
becoming a fairyland, Oz harbored many Witches, Magicians and
Sorcerers until the time when Ozma made magic illegal without a
permit. In yet another inconsistency, it is implied that Ozma was
the fairy left behind by Queen Lurline to rule the country,
contradicting the story where she was Pastoria's daughter. This is
later confirmed in Glinda of
- "If you are really Princess Ozma of Oz," the Flathead said,
"you are one of that band of fairies who, under Queen Lurline, made
all Oz a Fairyland. I have heard that Lurline left one of
her own fairies to rule Oz, and gave the fairy the name of
While this explains why no one dies or ages, and nevertheless there
are people of differing ages in Oz, it is completely inconsistent
with the earlier versions of the prehistory.
Maguire, author of Wicked
addresses this inconsistency by saying that the people of Oz
believe that Ozma is reincarnated—that her spirit was left behind
by Lurline, but her body is reborn to different mortal
In Jack Snow
's The Magical Mimics in Oz
prehistory story is retold. This version relates that Ozma was
given to the king of Oz as an adoptive daughter, for he was old and
had no children.
In Volkov's Magic Land stories, the prehistory is quite different.
The land was created 6-7,000 years ago by a wizard named Gurrikap,
who was tired of people coming to him with requests, so he decided
to find a place without them annoying him. He found a remote land
and separated it from the rest of the world, along with putting all
the other enchantments (Volkov's version doesn't seem to include
any forms of immortality). However, he failed to notice that the
land already contained people (since he was a giant, already
suffering from nearsightedness in his advanced age, and the people
in the Magic Land were much shorter than in other places), but,
upon discovering the fact, decided that removing the enchantments
would be unnecessary, and instead ordered the people to keep away
from his castle. After that, the notable events included a conquest
attempt by a sorceress named Arachna (Gurrikap was still alive, and
put her in an enchanted sleep for 5,000 years. Her awakening formed
the story for the fifth book in Volkov's series), an unsuccessful
coup by a prince named Bofaro to overthrow his father about 1,000
years ago (they were banished to an underground cave and became the
Magic Land's main source of metal and gems, perhaps analogous to
the Nomes), and the arrival of the Four Witches (which only
occurred about 500 years ago in this continuity).
History through the first six books
Eventually, Dorothy Gale and her whole house
are blown into Oz from Kansas by a
When the house lands, it crushes the Wicked Witch of the East
Gregory Maguire's book, Wicked:
The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West
, she is
given a name, Nessarose), ruler of the Munchkins
. In an attempt to get back to her home,
she journeys to the Emerald City. Along the way, she meets the
, the Cowardly Lion
, and the Scarecrow
, all of whom accompany her. Once
there, they become the first people to gain an audience with the
Wizard since he went into seclusion, although he disguises himself
because Dorothy now has the Wicked Witch of the East's magic silver
slippers, and he is afraid of her. The Wizard sends Dorothy and her
party to destroy the Wicked
Witch of the West
and in exchange promises to grant her request
to be sent home. Surprisingly, Dorothy destroys the Witch by
throwing a pail of water on her. Defeated, the Wizard reveals to
the group that he is in fact not a real wizard and has no magical
powers, but he promises to grant Dorothy's wish and take her home
himself in his balloon. He leaves the Scarecrow in his place to
Finally, it is discovered that the wizard had given the daughter of
the last king of Oz, Princess Ozma, to the old witch Mombi
to have her hidden away. Mombi had turned Ozma
into a boy named Tip, whom she raised. When all of this is revealed
Tip is turned back into Ozma and takes her rightful place as the
benevolent ruler of all of Oz. Ozma successfully wards off several
attempts by various armies to overthrow her. To prevent any
upheaval of her rule over Oz, she outlaws the practice of all magic
in Oz except by herself, the returned and reformed wizard, and by
Glinda, and she has Glinda make all of Oz invisible to outsiders.
Ozma remains the ruler of Oz for the entirety of the series.
Economy and politics
Some political analysts have claimed that Oz is a thinly disguised
though some Baum scholars disagree. Advocates of this theory
support it using this quotation from The Emerald City of Oz
- "There were no poor people in the land of Oz, because there
was no such thing as money, and all property of every sort belonged
to the Ruler. Each person was given freely by his
neighbors whatever he required for his use, which is as much as
anyone may reasonably desire. Every one worked half the
time and played half the time, and the people enjoyed the work as
much as they did the play, because it is good to be occupied and to
have something to do. There were no cruel overseers set to
watch them, and no one to rebuke them or to find fault with
them. So each one was proud to do all he could for his
friends and neighbors, and was glad when they would accept the
things he produced."
This is a revision of the original society: in the first two books,
the people of Oz lived in a money-based economy. For instance, the
people of the Emerald City use "green pennies" as coinage. Money
was not abolished in the course of the series, but excised from the
conception of Oz. Indeed, in The
Magic of Oz
, a character from Oz gets into trouble when he
goes to Ev because he was unaware of the concept of money. This
decision to remove money from Oz may reflect Baum's own financial
difficulties in the times when he was writing these books.
Since Oz is ruled by a monarch
though she may be, Oz is closer in
nature to a absolute monarchy
a welfare state or a Marxist one. When she was first introduced, Ozma was
the monarch specifically of the Emerald City, but in the
description of Ozma of Oz, Oz is presented as a federal
state, rather like the German Empire, in monarchies rather than republics: having an
overall ruler in Ozma, and individual kings
and queens of smaller portions.
The society grew steadily more Utopian, in that its peace and
prosperity were organized, but from the first book, it was a
stupendously wealthy country, in contrast to Kansas's crop
failures, droughts, and mortgages—just as it also is colorful to
contrast with Kansas's gray. On the other hand, despite the
presence of the Emerald City, Oz is an agrarian country, similar to
Kansas; the story has been interpreted as a Populist
parable, and certainly contains many
The Wonder City of Oz
Princess Ozma (called "Queen Ozma" in this book) is seen running
for election ("ozlection") to her office as ruler against Jenny
Jump, a half-fairy newcomer from New Jersey.
However, this book was not written by Baum,
but by John R. Neill, Baum's second successor. Further, the concept
of the "ozlection" was not in Neill's manuscript for the book, but
was added by an editor at Reilly and Lee, the publisher.
At times the rulers of Oz's territories have grander titles than
would normally be customary, but this is done mostly for the
satisfaction of the incumbents. The ruler of the Winkie Country is
the Emperor, the Tin Woodman. The ruler of the Quadling Country
is Glinda the Good. The
Munchkin country is ruled by a king, later identified as
Cheeriobed, who is revealed to be married to the Good Witch of the
North, who, a spell broken, abdicates leadership of the Gillikin
country to Joe King and Queen Hyacinth of Up Town.
The Royal Flag of Oz is based on the map of the Land of Oz, the
four colors represent the four countries, and the green star
represents the Emerald City.
Oz is mostly a peaceful land and the idea of subversion is largely
unknown to its people. Most military positions are only formal.
This has caused many problems, such as in the The Marvelous Land of Oz
the Emerald City, which was only guarded by an elderly doorman and
one soldier who was the entire Army of Oz at the time, was easily
conquered by the Army of Revolt led by General
. This army was in turn overwhelmed by another army of
girls, led by Glinda.
Security of Oz is mostly maintained by magic, such as Glinda's
spell making Oz completely invisible. Oz also has a natural barrier
in the form of a desert that surrounds the land: anyone who touches
the desert turns to sand. The Nome King
has tried to conquer Oz on several occasions. A nominal army once
existed, but it had an extremely large officers/privates ratio,
other than its commander the Tin Woodman and one private, the
portion of it seen in Ozma of Oz was composed entirely of cowardly
officers. In the end of the book it was said that there are three
privates all in all, and it is unknown how many—if any—officers
were left at home during Ozma's travel to Ev. The private seen in
the book, named Omby Amby, is later promoted to Captain
In the movie Return to Oz,
mechanical man Tik-Tok
is the entire royal
army of Oz.
Attempts by outsiders to conquer the Land of Oz are frequent,
particularly in the Oz books by Ruth Plumly Thompson. But these
attempts are always successfully thwarted in the end, usually by
Ozma or by forces sympathetic to her.
Recurring characters in the series include:
See also: List of characters in the Oz
Gale, a girl from Kansas
- The Scarecrow, a
living man made of straw and briefly King of the Emerald City.
- The Tin Woodman
(Nick Chopper), an enchanted man, made entirely out of tin, and the
current Emperor of the Winkies
- The Cowardly
Lion, the timid King of Beasts
- Princess Ozma,
the rightful ruler of Oz.
- The Wizard, the former ruler of Oz,
originally Oscar Diggs from Omaha, Nebraska and now a skilled wizard
Pumpkinhead, a man made out of branches with a carved
pumpkin for a head
- Tik-Tok, a
super-intelligent, clockwork robot (one of the first robots in literature)
- The Patchwork
Girl, (a.k.a. "Scraps") a living patchwork doll
- The Shaggy Man,
another human from "the real world"
- Glinda, the good witch
of the South, or Quadling Country,
and its benevolent ruler (although in the 1939 MGM movie, she was
the Good Witch of the North)
Alternate Lands/Versions of Oz
The 1939 MGM film's Oz
The Land of Oz as portrayed in the 1939 MGM film
different from that portrayed in the books. The most notable
difference is that in the film the entire land of Oz appears to be
dreamed up by Dorothy (thus making it a dream world
), although, Dorothy
earnestly corrects the adults at the end that she was indeed there.
The apparent message is that one should appreciate one's home, no
matter how dull it may be. This contrasts sharply with the books,
in which Dorothy and her family are eventually invited to move to
Oz due to a bank foreclosure on the farm, showing both that Oz is a
real place, and that it is a Utopia compared to Kansas.
There are many other small differences between the books and the
movie. For example, the first witch Dorothy meets in Oz in the book
is the Good Witch of the North, a minor character that only had one
other appearance in Baum's books. In the movie this character is
conflated with Glinda, who is the Good Witch of the South in the
It is also worthy of note that the Dorothy of the books is brave
and resourceful, only crying when faced with despair, whereas the
older Dorothy of the movie (portrayed as a twelve-year-old by
sixteen-year-old Judy Garland) spends several portions of the film
crying and being told by others what to do, however her fear was
overshadowed by Lion's. This is more consistent with Thompson's
portrayal of Dorothy—Baum is known for his strong female
The Wicked Witch of the West also changes significantly between
books and movie. In the books no mention is ever made of her skin
color, whereas in the movie she is green without explanation,
although the Winkies she has enslaved are also green. In the book
she is portrayed as having only one eye, which could see distant
objects like a telescope, but in the movie she uses a crystal ball
to watch Dorothy from afar. The 1939 MGM film makes the first
reference to The Witches of the East and West being sisters, which
was not the case in the book.
The Wizard of Oz does not resort to anywhere near as much trickery
in the movie as the book. In the book he entertains each member of
Dorothy's party on a different day, and takes a different form for
each. In the movie he takes only one false form—that of a giant
The nature of the Emerald City is changed in the film. In the book,
the city is not actually green, but everyone is forced to wear
green spectacles (ostensibly to protect their eyes from the
dazzling splendor of the city), thus making everything appear
green. In the film, the city is actually green. The architecture of
the Emerald City in the movie uses a much more contemporary Art
Deco style than Baum could have imagined.
The movie replaces the silver shoes of the book with ruby slippers.
This was because full color motion pictures were still a relatively
new technology in 1939, and MGM wanted to show off the process.
Shiny red shoes were more impressive in a color motion picture than
silver ones. Due to the popularity of the movie, the green witch
and the ruby slippers are more well known to the general public
than their book counterparts, and are even considered iconic.
Gregory Maguire's revisionist Oz
In his revisionist Oz novels Wicked:
The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West
Son of a Witch
A Lion Among Men
, Gregory Maguire
portrays a very different
version of the Land of Oz. Maguire's Oz is not Baum's utopia, but a
land troubled by political unrest and economic hardship. One
political issue in Maguire's novels is the oppression of the
Animals (Maguire distinguishes speaking Animals from non-speaking
animals by the use of initial capital letters). There are many
religious traditions in Maguire's Oz, including Lurlinism (which
regards the Fairy Lurline as Oz's creator), Unionism, which
worships the Unnamed God, and the pleasure faiths which had swept
Oz during the time that the witches were at Shiz. An example of the
pleasure faiths were tic-toc (where creatures were enchanted to
tell secrets or the future and run by clockwork), and
Maguire's presentation of Oz's geography is also tinged with
politics. A large political prison, Southstairs, exists in caverns
below the Emerald City. Gillikin, home of Shiz University
, has more industrial
development than other parts of Oz. Munchkinland is Oz's
breadbasket and at one point declares its independence from the
rule of the Emerald City. Quadling Country is largely marshland,
inhabited by the artistic and sexually free Quadlings. The Vinkus
(Maguire's name for Winkie Country) is largely open grassland,
populated by semi-nomadic tribes with brown skin.
The musical Wicked
on Maguire's first Oz novel, portrays an Oz slightly closer to the
version seen in Baum's novels and the 1939 film
. The oppression of the
Animals is still a theme, but the geographical and religious
divisions portrayed in Maguire's novel are barely present.
In both the book and musical, several characters from the
traditional Oz stories are present with different names. Glinda is
originally called Galinda, but changes her name. The Wicked Witch
of the West is called Elphaba
, the Wicked
Witch of the East is called Nessarose. In the musical, but not in
the book, Boq
becomes the Tin Man, and Fiyero
becomes the Scarecrow.
Alexander Melentyevich Volkov's Magic Land
Alexander Melentyevich Volkov was a Russian author best known for
his translation of The Wizard of Oz
into Russian, and for
writing his own original sequels, which were based only loosely on
Baum's. Volkov's books have been translated into many other
languages, and are better known than Baum's in some countries. The
books, while still aimed at children, feature many mature political
and ethical elements. They have been retranslated into English,
partially by March Laumer, who used elements of them in his own
March Laumer's Oz
was one of the first
authors to continue the Oz series after the Famous Forty. His books
were written with the permission of Contemporary Books, who owned
Reilly & Lee
, the original
publisher. His canon includes everything he knew of that was set in
the land of Oz, including Volkov's Russian Oz, the MGM movie, the
Disney sequel, and many of Baum's own books that most fans do not
Laumer also made several controversial changes to Oz. He married
off several of the major characters, often to unlikely prospects.
For example, the intelligent and mature sorceress Glinda was
married to Button Bright, who had been a small and dim-witted child
throughout Baum's books. He also aged Dorothy to a teenager to make
her a romantic prospect for several characters, made Ozma a
based on her upbringing as a boy,
and made the Shaggy Man an ephebophile
based on his frequent travels with young girls.
Laumer's books do not portray one consistent version of Oz. Because
most of his books were collaborations, he often included elements
of other author's visions of Oz which may have been inconsistent
with his own. For example, while he explicitly made Dorothy sixteen
in A Fairy Queen in Oz
, he had her physically eight in
Aunt Em and Uncle Henry in Oz
; and while he portrayed
Volkov's Oz as a parallel universe in Farewell to Oz
also showed Volkov's characters living in Baum's Oz in many of his
other books, such as Aunt Em and Uncle Henry in Oz
Despite these discrepancies, many of his books are consistent with
each other, and characters introduced in some often appear in
Philip José Farmer's Oz
Philip José Farmer
a very different Oz in his book A Barnstormer in Oz
. The premise is
that nothing after the first book occurred—Dorothy never returned
to Oz, and instead grew up, got married, and had a son. Her son,
Hank Stover, is the main character, a World War I veteran flier and
the titular barnstormer. While flying in his Curtiss JN-4 biplane
enters a green haze and emerges in the civil war-stricken land of
Farmer portrays the land of Oz as a science fiction
author, attempting to
explain scientifically many of the "magical" elements of Baum's
Robert A. Heinlein's Oz
Robert A. Heinlein
's book, The Number of the Beast
passes through many famous fictional worlds including those of
Alice in Wonderland
, Gulliver's Travels
, and Ringworld
, as well as some of Heinlein's own
works, and of course the land of Oz.
The Oz portrayed in the book is very close to Baum's Oz, although
Heinlein does make an attempt to explain some things from the
standpoint of a science fiction author. He explains that Oz is on a
retrograde planet, where the direction of rotation relative of the
poles is reversed, resulting in the sun seeming to rise in what
would normally be the west.
Heinlein also explains that the population remains steady in Oz
despite the lack of death because it is impossible for children to
be born in Oz. When the population does increase through
immigration, Glinda just extends the borders an inch or two in each
direction, which makes more than enough space for all additional
L. Sprague de Camp's Oz
In his originally collaborative Harold Shea
Sprague de Camp, like Heinlein before him, brings his own
characters to Oz from their own universe in his book Sir Harold and the Gnome
. Unlike Heinlein, he does not rewrite Oz as science
fiction, but he does deviate from the original books. He follows
Thompson's Oz books, thus using her spelling of "Gnome" and her
final fate of the character, but he makes several changes to the
world, including aging Ozma and Dorothy and marrying them
Tad Williams' Otherland Oz
In the Otherland
series, by Tad Williams
, a virtual reality version of Oz
exists, wherein real-world antagonists play sadistic versions of
the roles of the Tin Man, The Scarecrow, and the Cowardly Lion, in
a twisted, martial, and post-apocalyptic version of Oz, populated
both by characters from the novels, and a large quantity of male
and female humans who go by the names "Henry" and "Em"
respectively. The humans, computer-generated characters based on
the lost minds of children drawn into the Otherland program, look
forward to a messianic prophecy foretelling the coming of "The
Dorothy," where a child would be born among them.
The Outer Zone (Tin Man)
The 2007 Sci Fi
Oz as the Outer Zone (O.Z.), a parallel universe that was first
visited by Dorothy Gale
latter Victorian Era
and is ruled over
by her descendants. It is implied, by reference to centuries having
elapsed since Dorothy came to the O.Z., that time has progressed at
different rates in the O.Z. and "the other side". The re-imagined
Oz is described as a place where "the paint has peeled, and what
was once the goodness of Oz has become the horrible bleakness of
the O.Z." The scenic design
O.Z. features elements of steampunk
particularly the "1930's fascist realist" decor of the evil sorceress's
palace and the computer-generated
Central City, analogue
of the Emerald City
Emerald City Confidential
2009 point-and-click adventure video game Emerald City Confidential
reinvents Oz in a film noir
as a femme fatale, the
Lion as a corrupt lawyer and some other changes.
Being a fantasy series Oz is rich in magic. In particular, there
are many magic items which play an important role in the
The Silver Shoes
originally belonged to
the Wicked Witch of the East and transported Dorothy back to Kansas
in the first book.
Powder of Life
Powder of Life is a magic substance from the book series The
substance first appears in The Marvelous Land of Oz
It is a magical powder that brings inanimate objects to life. The
obtained it from a "crooked magician." Later in the series it is
revealed that the substance is made by a Dr.
. In order to make the substance, Dr. Pipt had to stir four
for six years. Only a few
grains of the powder could be made at a time. It is always
described as being carried in a pepper
Mombi's shaker also contained three "wishing pills" fabricated by
The Powder has been used by Volkov in his series. There, it is
produced from a certain plant of such viability that the smallest
piece can grow into a plant within a day, on any surface except for
solid metal. However, if it is sun dried on such a surface, it
turns into the Powder of Life. No incantation is required to make
the powder work. The second book of the series is centered around a
man who animates an army of wooden soldiers with the Powder and
uses them for conquering the Magic Land.
The Magic Belt is first introduced in Ozma of Oz
. The belt is a magical tool with
seemingly limitless powers. It is generally used as a universal
problem solver, and functions as a deus
solution in several of the books. Originally the
belt belonged to the Nome King
stolen away from him by Dorothy Gale
and given to Ozma
. Ozma uses the belt
several times to magically transport people, and most notably to
make all of Oz invisible to outsiders. It gives the wearer
protection from harm.
In the Oz books, this object is always identified as the Magic
Belt—in capitals—to distinguish it from any generic magical belts
that may exist in the fantasy universe.
In The Lost Princess of
, Dorothy states that the Magic Belt only grants one
wish a day: she used yesterday's wish on a box of caramels, but
saved today's for an emergency. Baum's decision to ration the Magic
Belt to one wish a day may be a retcon
attempt to limit the Belt's otherwise infinite ability to get his
characters out of predicaments; at any rate, this one-per-day wish
limit is never mentioned again in any other Oz book.
In Ozma's boudoir hangs a picture in a radium frame. This picture
usually appears to be of a pleasant countryside, but when anyone
wishes for the picture to show a particular person or place, the
scene will display what is wished for. Sometimes the onlooker is
able to hear sounds from the scene within the Magic Picture and
sometimes an additional device is necessary to transmit
A similar device is present in Volkov's series. There, it is given
as a present to the Scarecrow by the Good Witch of the South
. It is a box
of pink wood with a thick frosted glass screen. The device is
password activated, and limited in range to the Magic Land (with
the exception of deep underground caverns and certain types of
magical interference). The box is shown to be virtually
indestructible; it withstood repeated abuse from a villain
attempting to use it.
Great Book of Records
Glinda's Great Book of Records is introduced in the thirteenth
chapter of The Scarecrow of
: "In this book is inscribed everything that takes place
in all the world, just the instant it happens; so that by referring
to its pages Glinda knows what is taking place far and near, in
every country that exists." The Book proves useful in The
Scarecrow of Oz
and Glinda of
; and it recurs in many of the stories of Baum's
successors and imitators. It is one of the prime magic devices of
Oz; villains steal it when they can (as in The Lost Princess of Oz
Handy Mandy in Oz
it covers the planet and not merely Oz, the Book's entries are
compressed and sometimes cryptic, and difficult to decipher (as in
Paradox in Oz
or Queen Ann in Oz
Death in Oz
In the later Oz books, no one can die. One of the books assures us
that while you are in the Land of Oz, you can not die.
Unfortunately, this information comes after
the books have been chopped into pieces, beheaded, melted, and so
forth and it is mentioned that you could be transformed into an
inanimate object, turned into sand, and buried. Even so, you would
still be alive and presumably conscious.
Baum puts it this way in the third chapter of The Emerald City of Oz
- "No disease of any sort was ever known among the Ozites, and so
no one ever died unless he met with an accident that prevented him
Note also the spell which caused this also prevented aging, and
took effect on everyone in Oz at the same time; this means that any
babies in Oz are eternally babies, and that anyone who was at the
moment of death is permanently caught there, and so on.
Death is treated inconsistently; in some books it is said that it
is impossible to die, in others, people die. Problematically, the
plot often depends on something either dying, or not being
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
shows an early example of the
problem: although the Tin Woodman does not die when his limbs and
head are severed, the two wicked witches are killed. One theory
brought forth as to why the Tin Woodsman does not die is discussed
in Edward Einhorn
's book "Paradox in Oz
", where King Oz says that the
Tin Woodsman (then Nick Chopper) would have died were it not for
his time magic. When the Tin Woodman rescues the Queen of the Field
Mice by chopping off the head of a pursuing wildcat, it seems
unlikely the cat's unjoined head and body continue to live
independently of each other, although this goes unmentioned. Again,
although the Tin Woodman survived losing all his body, prior to
that, he had grown up and lost his parents in a manner inconsistent
with later descriptions of Oz. Again, in Ozma of Oz
, Jack Pumpkinhead was described
as "a little overripe", and in Dorothy and the Wizard in
, he does not appear at all, although all the other
characters do reappear; the implication is that he spoiled, as he
feared from his creation. It is unlikely, however, since, according
to the previous book
, while a
pumpkin which serves as Jack's head can spoil, it can be replaced,
which was done several times without a problem,
Both Ozma of Oz
and Tik-Tok of Oz
with meat growing on them, so it is possible that no animal was
killed for most of the meat eaten in Oz. However, in Tin
Woodman of Oz
a hungry Jaguar tries to eat a live monkey,
suggesting that occasionally (among animals, at least) animal flesh
is preferred to that of plants.
Death is a matter of some debate among Oz fans, and there seem to
be as many explanations as there are fans, none of which has ever
been widely accepted by a majority of the fans because none of them
explain all the deaths. For example, in The Road to Oz
Baum attempted to explain this inconsistency by saying that only
bad people could die. However, he had already mentioned the death
of good King Pastoria in a previous book, and went on to mention
the death of good King Kynd in a later book.
Another of Baum's attempts to explain death in Oz is the following
passage from The Emerald City of Oz
- No disease of any sort was ever known among the Ozites, and
no one ever died unless he met with an accident that prevented him
This passage has been translated by some fans to mean that one
ceases to live if one's body is damaged to the extent that it
cannot be repaired. However, in Tik-Tok of Oz
suggested that Oz people could go on living after being eaten and
digested, and also that Nomes would continue to live after being
cut into tiny pieces, which disproves the destruction theory.
Any working theory must make Baum wrong about something, but fans
may never reach a consensus on exactly what he was wrong
The issue of death leads into another issue of much dispute among
fans. Baum says in The Emerald City of Oz
that no one ever
ages in Oz either. Many Oz fans feel that this is unfair as it
leaves extremely old people eternally bedridden, and it leaves some
families changing diapers and comforting crying infants for
eternity. Presumably this includes pre-birth aging, which makes
everyone in Oz sterile and fixes the population. However, although
pregnancy is never mentioned in Oz, it is also possible that some
women are left eternally pregnant, although if Dot and Tot in Merryland
considered canon, babies are delivered by storks.
It has also been questioned whether children continue to be
mentally childlike, or remain children only in body.
In Oz, animals such as the Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger can
talk, and all native animals appear to be able to.
It is important to note that Wicked:
The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West
the difference between Animals and animals. Animals (capitalized)
are sentient beings that can talk. Several theories exist as to how
animals gained the gift of speech.
The treatment of non-native animals was inconsistent. In the first
book, the dog Toto
never speaks, although brought to Oz. In The Patchwork Girl of
Dorothy even outright says that Toto can not talk because
he's not a fairy dog. However, in Ozma of Oz
, the chicken Billina
ability to speak merely by being swept to the lands near Oz, and in
Dorothy and the Wizard
, the kitten Eureka and the cab horse
Jim also gained the ability when reaching the
land of Mangaboos, a similarly magical land. In Tik-Tok of Oz
, Baum restored the continuity
: Toto can speak, and always
could, but never bothered to, because it was unnecessary.
An additional inconsistency is introduced with Tik-Tok of
: Hank the Mule can not speak until he reaches the Land of
Oz, although he lands on the shore of Ev first, where Billina the
chicken gained the ability to speak. This might be because
Tik-Tok of Oz
was originally a stageplay version of
Ozma of Oz.
Dorothy was replaced by Betsy because he had
sold the stage rights for Dorothy, and Billina was replaced by Hank
because a mule could more convincingly be played by two people in a
costume. Hank probably could not talk because Baum already had his
speaking comedy characters: the Shaggy Man, and Tik-Tok. Thus Hank
would fill a better niche as a visual comedy character, in the
tradition of British pantomime. The part of Hank was also an analog
to the part of Dorothy's cow Imogene, Toto's replacement on stage
in the immensely successful 1903 Broadway version of The Wizard of Oz
success that Baum tried to duplicate for the rest of his
Origin of the name Oz
A legend of uncertain validity is that when relating bedtime
stories (the earliest form of the Oz books) Baum was asked by one
of his listeners the name of the magical land. He glanced at a
nearby filing cabinet, which had three drawers, labeled A–G, H–N,
and O–Z. Thus he named the land Oz. This story was first told in
1903, but his wife always insisted that the part about the filing
cabinet was not true. In Dorothy and the Wizard in
, the name is translated as "great and good", which is
roughly equivalent to the meaning of "Öz" in Turkish
, although that would be pronounced
more like "ohs," which Jack Snow
suggested was a possible pronunciation of the name.
Another theory is that Oz is a corruption of Uz
(interestingly, that's the word used to
translate Oz to modern Hebrew), the homeland of Job
in the Old
. It is also speculated that Oz was named after the
abbreviation for ounce
, in the theory that Oz
is an allegory for the populist struggle against the illusion (the
wizard) of the gold standard
(with an s) is also Old English
Baum's fairy stories that take place in the United States were
situated on the Ozark
Plateau, and the similarity of name may not be a
that it comes from either oasis
because it is surrounded by desert on all sides, or ooze
due to the creation legend
of a great
is a common vernacular contraction of
(Australia—Aussie—Aus—Oz). Australia is a large
continent predominated by desert regions, with pockets of intense
green tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine greenlands and
rainforests. It is quite possible that Baum took the popular
nickname of Australia as the national name for his fictional world.
Also note that many fans place Oz in the South Pacific, see
according to the Oxford
, the first references to Australia by this
name were made in 1902—after the first book had been
have said that Oz stands for New York, since the letters before O and Z respectively are
In the Sci-fi mini-series "Tin Man" Oz was portrayed as an acronym
for The Outer Zone
- James Thurber, "The Wizard of Chitenango", in Fantasists on
Fantasy, edited by Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski,
New York, Avon, 1984; pp. 64–5. ISBN 038086553X.
- Thurber, "The Wizard of Chitenango", p. 66.
- L. Frank Baum, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, edited by
Michael Patrick Hearn, New York,
Crown, 1976; p. 96. ISBN 0517500868.
- Michael O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L.
Frank Baum, Lawrence, KS, University Press of Kansas, 1997; p.
53. ISBN 070060832X.
- Riley, p. 138.
- John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of
Fantasy, New York, St. Martin's Griffin, 1999; "Oz", p. 739.
- Riley, p. 53.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 92.
- Riley, p. 105.
- Riley, p. 106.
- Riley, p. 155.
- Riley, p. 177.
- Riley, p. 209.
- Riley, p. 223.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 107.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 106.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 293.
- Riley, p. 139.
- The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Oz", p. 740.
- Riley, p. 186.
- Riley, p. 167.
- Riley, p. 37.
- Riley, p. 228.
- Riley, pp. 186–7.
- Robert R. Pattrick, "Oz Geography," The Baum Bugle,
Vol. 3 No. 1 (May 1959) to Vol. 4 No. 1 (May 1960).
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 99.
- Riley, p. 57.
- Riley, p. 182.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 102.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 115.
- Riley, pp. 177–8.
- Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales
and Their Tradition, London, Routledge, 1998; pp. 180–1. ISBN
- Zipes, p. 165.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 311.
- Riley, p. 154.
- Riley, p. 106.
- Riley, p. 146.
- Riley, p. 140.
- Riley, pp. 216–17.
- Frequently Asked Questions The Wonderful Wizard of
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 202.
- Riley, p. 156.
- Riley, p. 220.
- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, p. 75.
- Riley, pp. 139–40.
- Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American
Literature, Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 1980;
p. 85. ISBN 0253356652.
- Attebery, pp. 86–7.
- The Giant Horse of Oz.
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Pulse video (Atom Films mirror) - November 13, 2007
- "Brick by Brick: Bringing Tin Man to Life",
SciFi Pulse video (YouTube mirror) - November 16,
- "Review of Emerald City Confidential", Adventure
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- The Annotated Wizard of Oz, pp. 138–9.
- Riley, pp. 146–7.
- The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Website has moved!
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- Riley, p. 125.