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Languages of Vanuatu: Map


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Vanuatumarker has three official languages, English, French, and Bislama, a creole language evolved from English. Bislama is the first language of many urban ni-Vanuatu, that is, the residents of Port Vilamarker and Luganvillemarker. It is the most common second language elsewhere in the Vanuatu islands. It is similar to Tok Pisin of Papua New Guineamarker, and other nearby creoles.

In addition, however, there are over one hundred local languages spread over the archipelago. Vanuatu is considered to be the country with the highest density of languages per capita in the world, with an average of about 2,000 speakers for each indigenous languages; only Papua New Guineamarker comes close. Some of these languages are very endangered, with only a handful of speakers, and indeed several have become extinct in recent times. Generally however, despite the low numbers for most of the indigenous languages, they are not considered especially vulnerable for extinction.

All of the indigenous languages of Vanuatu are in the Austronesian language family. Most of them are in the group of North and Central Vanuatu languages. The Melanesian languages of Tafeamarker province in the south are South Vanuatu languages. Many of the languages are named after the island they are spoken on, though some of the larger islands have several different languages. Espiritu Santomarker and Malakulamarker are the most linguistically diverse, with about two dozen languages each. Many of these languages are very little-studied.

There are three Polynesian outlier languages, Emae on the island of the same name, Mele-Fila on the southern part of Efatemarker, and West Futunan on West Futuna and Aniwa. These are all Futunic languages.

According to Ethnologue's somewhat outdated statistics, the eight most commonly spoken local languages are: Raga (wrongly called Hano by Ethnologue; 7,000 speakers), Lenakel (6,500), Paama (6,000), Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin (6,000), East Ambae (5,000), West Ambae (4,500), Apma (4,500), and South Efate (3,750). However, because none of these languages have a standard form, and generally diverse dialects, it is difficult to distinguish when these represent separate languages or merely dialects. This is compounded by the fact that many of the languages have not received adequate linguistic treatment. Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin, whose name is composed of the names of several islands in Malampa Provincemarker with similar speech, is such a dialect continuum of languages similar to Uripiv.



  1. Daniel Nettle and Suzanne Romaine. Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World's Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Page 9.
  • Lynch, John; Crowley, Terry (2001). Languages of Vanuatu: A new survey and bibliography. Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. ISBN 0858834693

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