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Las Vegas ( ; ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevadamarker, the seat of Clark Countymarker, and an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, fine dining, and entertainment. Las Vegas, which bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, is famous for the number of casino resorts and associated entertainment. A growing retirement and family city, it is the 28th most populous city in the United States with an estimated population by the U.S. Census Bureau of 558,383 as of 2008. The estimated population of the Las Vegas metropolitan area as of 2008, was 1,865,746.

Established in 1905, Las Vegas officially became a city in 1911. With the growth that followed, at the close of the century Las Vegas was the most populous American city founded in the 20th century (a distinction held by Chicagomarker in the 19th century). The city's tolerance for various forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and this image has made Las Vegas a popular setting for films and television programs. On the other hand, Las Vegas also has the highest number of churches per capita of any major U.S. city. Outdoor lighting displays are everywhere on the Las Vegas Stripmarker and are seen elsewhere in the city as well. As seen from space, the Las Vegas metropolitan area is the brightest city on Earth.

The name Las Vegas is often applied to unincorporated areas that surround the city, especially the resort areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip. This stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard is mainly in the unincorporated communities of Paradisemarker and Winchestermarker, and continues partly into unincorporated Enterprisemarker.

History

The first reported visit to the valley by someone of European descent was Raphael Rivera in 1829. Las Vegas was named by Spaniardsmarker in the Antonio Armijo party, who used the water in the area while heading north and west along the Old Spanish Trail from Texasmarker. In the 1800s, areas of the Las Vegas Valley contained artesian wells that supported extensive green areas or meadows (vegas in Spanish), hence the name Las Vegas.

John C. Frémont traveled into the Las Vegas Valley on May 3, 1844, while it was still part of Mexicomarker. He was a leader of a group of scientists, scout and observers for the United States Army Corps of Engineers. On May 10, 1855, following annexation by the United Statesmarker, Brigham Young assigned 30 missionaries of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints led by William Bringhurst to the area to convert the Paiute Indian population to Mormonism. A fortmarker was built near the current downtown area, serving as a stopover for travelers along the "Mormon Corridor" between Salt Lakemarker and the briefly thriving colony of saints at San Bernardino, Californiamarker. However, Mormons abandoned Las Vegas in 1857. Las Vegas was established as a railroad town on May 15, 1905, when 110 acres (44.5 ha) owned by the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, was auctioned off in what is now downtown Las Vegas. Among the railroads most notable owners and directors were Montanamarker Senator William A. Clark, Utahmarker U.S. Senator Thomas Kearns and R.C. Kerens of St. Louismarker. The land was auctioned off in what is now downtown Las Vegas. Las Vegas was part of Lincoln Countymarker until 1909 when it became part of the newly established Clark Countymarker. The St. Joan of Arc Catholic Church near 4th and Bridger in downtown was founded in 1910. Las Vegas became an incorporated city on March 16, 1911 and Peter Buol was the first mayor.

Las Vegas started as a stopover on the pioneer trails to the west, and became a popular railroad town in the early 1900s. It was a staging point for all the mines in the surrounding area, especially those around the town of Bullfrog, that shipped their goods out to the rest of the country. With the proliferation of the railroads, Las Vegas became less important but the completion of the nearby Hoover Dammarker in 1935 resulted in the growth of residents and tourism. The dam, located southeast of the city, also formed Lake Meadmarker, the world's largest man-made lake and reservoir. Today, tours are offered into lesser known parts of the dam. The legalization of gambling in 1931 led to the advent of the casino-hotels, for which Las Vegas is famous. Major development occurred in the 1940s. The success of the city's early casino businesses was owed to American organized crime. Most of the original large casinos were managed or at least funded under mob figures Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, Meyer Lansky or other mob figures at this time. The rapid growth of this gambling empire is credited with dooming Galveston, Texasmarker; Hot Springs, Arkansasmarker; and other major gaming centers in the 1950s.




With the arrival of billionaire Howard Hughes in the late 1960s, who purchased many casino-hotels and television stations in the city, legitimate corporations began to purchase casino-hotels as well, and the mob was run out by the federal government over the next several years. The constant stream of tourist dollars from the hotels and casinos was also augmented by a new source of federal money. This money came from the establishment of what is now Nellis Air Force Basemarker. The influx of military personnel and casino job-hunters helped start a land building boom which still goes on today.

Though Las Vegas's gambling revenues have been surpassed by Macaumarker, the city remains one of the world's top entertainment destinations.

Geography and climate

Typical desert scene in the Las Vegas area
Las Vegas is situated on the arid desert floor within Clark County. Correspondingly, the surrounding environment is dominated by desert vegetation and some wildlife, and the area can be subject to torrential flash floods. Enabling the rapid population expansion was a major addition to the city's sewage treatment capacity. The sewage treatment expansion resulted from a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant funded 2008 programs to analyze and forecast growth and environmental impacts through the year 2019.

The city is in an arid basin surrounded by dry mountains. City elevation is around above sea level. The Spring Mountainsmarker lie to the west. As befits a desert, much of the landscape is rocky and dusty. Within the city, however, there are a great deal of lawns, trees, and other greenery. Due to water resource issues, there is now a movement to encourage xeriscapes instead of lawns. Another part of the water conservation efforts include scheduled watering groups for watering residential landscaping. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 131.3 square miles (340.0 km2), of which 131.2 square miles (339.8 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (0.04%) is water.

Climate

Snowfall is rare but possible as seen December 2008.
Vegas' climate is an arid, desert climate (Koppen climate classification BWh), typical of the Mojave Desert in which it lies. The city enjoys abundant sunshine year-round and has about an average of 300 sunshine days a year, with very little rainfall.

The summer months of June through September are very hot and mostly dry with average daytime highs of - and nighttime lows of - ; and most days in July and August exceed but with very low humidity, frequently under 10%.

Las Vegas' winters are of short duration and the season is generally mild, with daytime highs near and nighttime lows around . The mountains surrounding Las Vegas accumulate snow during the winter but snow is rare in the Las Vegas Valley itself. Several years apart, however, snow has fallen in the valley. Temperatures can sometimes drop to freezing but winter nighttime temperatures will rarely dip below 30 degrees.

Annual precipitation in Las Vegas is around , which mainly occurs during winter but is not uncommon anytime of the year.

Demographics

The United States Census Bureau 2008 estimates place the population for the Las Vegas Metropolitan Statistical Area at 1,865,746 people, and the region is one of the fastest growing in the United States. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from Californiamarker.

As of the 2005-2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau,White Americans made up 70.8% of Las Vegas' population; 51.8% were non-Hispanic whites.Blacks or African Americans made up 10.6% of Las Vegas' population; 10.4% were non-Hispanic blacks.American Indian made up 0.7% of the city's population; 0.6% were non-Hispanic.Asian Americans made up 5.0% of the city's population; 4.9% were non-Hispanic.Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.4% of the city's population.Individuals from some other race made up 8.9% of the city's population; 0.2% were non-Hispanic.

Individuals from two or more races made up 3.5% of the city's population; of which 2.5% were non-Hispanic.

In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 29.2% of Las Vegas' population.

As of the census of 2000, there were 478,434 people, 176,750 households, and 117,538 families residing in the city. The population density was . There are 190,724 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the city was 69.86% White, 10.36% African American, 0.75% Native American, 4.78% Asian, 0.45% Pacific Islander, 9.75% from other races, and 4.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.61% of the population.

There were 176,750 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $53,000 and the median income for a family was $58,465. Males had a median income of $35,511 versus $27,554 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,060. About 6.6% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.

Las Vegas has one of the highest suicide and divorce rates of the U.S. A research study that found Las Vegas residents are 40% less likely to commit suicide if they leave Las Vegas and visitors are twice as likely to commit suicide there as elsewhere was published in the Las Vegas Sun newspaper in 2008, breaking a long-time taboo on discussion of suicide in Las Vegas. The city's high divorce rate is not wholly due to Las Vegans themselves getting divorced. Since divorce is easier in Nevada than most other states, many people come from across the country for the easier process.

For similar reasons, Las Vegas has also one of the highest marriage rates of U.S. cities as well, with many licenses issued to people from outside the area (see Las Vegas weddings).

Economy



The primary drivers of the Las Vegas economy have been the confluence of tourism, gaming, and conventions which in turn feed the retail and dining industries. The city serves as world headquarters for the world's two largest Fortune 500 gaming companies, Harrah's Entertainment and MGM Mirage. Several companies involved in the manufacture of electronic gaming machines, such as slot machines, are located in the Las Vegas area. In the 2000s retail and dining have become attractions of their own.Tourism marketing and promotion are handled by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority, a county wide agency. Its annual Visitors Survey provides detailed information on visitor numbers, spending patterns and resulting revenues.

Constant population growth means that the housing construction industry is vitally important. In 2000 more than 21,000 new homes and 26,000 resale homes were purchased. In early 2005 there were 20 residential development projects of more than each underway. During the that same period Las Vegas was regarded at the fastest growing community in the U.S. However, the recession of 2007-2009 and the accompanying business downturn has sent business and growth tumbling, with Las Vegas recording one of the highest home foreclosure rates in the country. The disappearance of disposable consumer income and the backlash against corporate entertainment spending sent the hospitality industry into a tailspin that it has yet to recover from as of late 2009.

Redevelopment



When The Miragemarker opened in 1989, it started a trend of further development of the southern portion of the Las Vegas Stripmarker. This resulted in a drop in tourism from the downtown area but many recent projects and condo construction have seen an increase in visitors to downtown.

A concerted effort has been made by city officials to diversify the economy from tourism by attracting light manufacturing, banking, and other commercial interests. The lack of any state individual or corporate income tax and very simple incorporation requirements have fostered the success of this effort.

Las Vegas has recently enjoyed an enormous boom both in population and in tourism. The urban area has grown outward so quickly that it is beginning to run into Bureau of Land Management holdings along its edges, increasing land values enough that medium- and high-density development is beginning to occur closer to the core. As a reflection of the city's rapid growing population, the new Chinatown of Las Vegas was constructed in the early 1990s on Spring Mountain Road. Chinatown initially consisted of only one large shopping center complex, but the area was recently expanded for new shopping centers that contain various Asian businesses.

With the Strip expansion in the 1990s, the downtown area (which has maintained an old Las Vegas feel) began to suffer. The city made a concerted effort to turn around the fortunes of downtown. The Fremont Street Experiencemarker (FSE) was built in an effort to draw tourists back to the area and has proven to be popular in that regard. The multi-level Neonopolismarker, complete with 11 theaters (managed by Galaxy Theaters, Inc.), was built to offer more retail opportunity and services. Many highrise condo projects have also been underway as downtown is transforming into a livable neighborhood. Other promising signs emerged for the area. The city had successfully lured the Internal Revenue Service operations from the far west of the city to a new downtown building that opened in April 2005. The IRS move is expected to create a greater demand for additional businesses in the area, especially in the daytime hours.

The city purchased of property from the Union Pacific Railroad in 1995 with the goal of creating something that would draw more tourists and locals to the downtown area. In 2004 Las Vegas Mayor Oscar Goodman announced plans for the Symphony Park which will include residential and office high-rises, the Lou Ruvo Brain Institutemarker, an academic medical center, The Smith Center for the Performing Arts, and a new City Hall. After failed negotiations with The Related Co. on the development of Union Park in October 2005, San Diegomarker-based Newland Communities was chosen by the city as the new development firm. The Newland contract calls for Dan Van Epp, Newland's regional vice president and former president of the Howard Hughes Corp., to oversee his company's work on Symphony Park. The Lou Ruvo Brain Institutemarker was completed in 2009.

Along with the Symphony Park, other promising residential and office developments have begun construction around downtown Las Vegas. New condominium and hotel high rise projects have changed the entire Las Vegas skyline dramatically in recent years. Many large high-rise projects are planned for downtown Las Vegas as well as the Las Vegas Stripmarker.

In 2004, the city partnered with Cheetah Wireless Technologies and MeshNetwork to pilot a wide area mobile broadband system. The pilot system is installed downtown, around the Fremont Street Experience. In 2005, on a lot adjacent to the city's 61 ac (247,000 m2), the World Market Center opened. It is intended to be the nation's and possibly the world's preeminent furniture wholesale showroom and marketplace, and is meant to compete with the current furniture market capital of High Point, North Carolinamarker.

On October 23, 2006, plans were unveiled to build a World Jewelry Center in Downtown's Symphony Park. Similar to the World Market Center, the WJC will be a one stop shop for jewelry trade shows from around the world. The project proposes a 57-story, office tower.

Tourism

The major attractions in Las Vegas are the casinos. The most famous hotel casinos are located on Las Vegas Boulevard, better known as the Las Vegas Stripmarker. Many of these hotels are massive, carrying thousands of rooms, with their large adjoining casino areas. There are many hotel casinos in the city's downtown area as well, which was the original focal point of the city's gaming industry in its early days. Several large hotels and casinos are also located somewhat off the Strip but adjacent to it, as well as in the county around the city. As of 2009, total number of hotel rooms in Las Vegas was over 140,000.

Some of the most notable casinos involved in downtown gaming are on the Fremont Street Experiencemarker which was granted variances to allow bars to be closer together, similar to the Gaslamp Quarter of San Diegomarker.

Downtown area casinos



Surrounding Cities



Culture



On the first Friday of each month, the "First Friday" celebration is held which exhibits the works of local artists and musicians in a section of the city's Downtown region now called the "Arts District".

The Southern Nevada Zoological-Botanical Park, also known as the Las Vegas Zoo, exhibits over 150 species of animals and plants.

The $485 million Smith Center for the Performing Arts (currently under construction) will be located downtown in Symphony Park. The center will be appropriate for Broadway shows and other major touring attractions as well as orchestra, opera, and dance performances.

The city also hosts annual events like the Helldorado Days .

Sports

Las Vegas does not have major-league sports, although the metropolitan population is as large or larger than many cities that have them. The two major reasons are concern about legal sports betting and competition for the entertainment dollar, both of which Las Vegas has in abundance. The city currently has two minor league sports teams, baseball's Las Vegas 51s of the Pacific Coast League (the AAA farm club of the Toronto Blue Jays), and hockey's Las Vegas Wranglers of the ECHL (an affiliate of the Phoenix Coyotes).

In the past, the city had teams in the Canadian Football League, the XFL, the WBL, and the Arena Football League. There is speculation that the completion of a new arena that had been expected to open in 2010 (and now has no projected opening date) would bring teams from the NBA and NHL. The city is reportedly on the short list of Major League Soccer for an expansion franchise in the near future. There have also been contacts between city officials and several Major League Baseball owners regarding relocation. The ownership of the Florida Marlins held a widely-publicized meeting with Mayor Oscar Goodman in the winter of 2004. The city was a strong candidate to be the new home of the Montreal Expos, who eventually became the Washington Nationals. It was reported that the guarantee of a new stadium built entirely with public funds swung the balance in Washingtonmarker's favor. Major League Baseball held their 2008 winter meetings in Las Vegas.

High profile limited-duration sporting events have been successful. Las Vegas hosted the 2007 NBA All-Star Game. The NASCAR Sprint Cup series has drawn up to 165,000 fans. Las Vegas also hosts a significant number of professional fights, primarily boxing fights. Many of these fights (such as those in MMA's UFC) take place near downtown or on the Strip in one of the major resort/hotel/casino event centers. Mandalay Baymarker is frequently a top contender as a venue for the UFC. Las Vegas is often referred to as "The Mecca of boxing" title which it often shares with New York's Madison Square Gardenmarker. Meanwhile, the amateur MMA league Tuff-N-Uff competes at The Orleans. The National Finals Rodeo has drawn thousands of fans to the city since 1985, and a contract extension was signed in 2005 keeping the event in Las Vegas through 2014. The NBA Summer League is currently held in the city, and the USA Olympic basketball team trained in the city in 2008.

The University of Nevada, Las Vegasmarker competes in NCAA Division I in men's and women's sports. UNLV is a member of the Mountain West Conference. The College of Southern Nevada also has an athletic program, with significant success in baseball at the community college level.

There are strong athletic programs at many Las Vegas high schools, with a number of players in several sports going on to major colleges and professional careers as athletes, including Andre Agassi, Greg Anthony, Marcus Banks, Steven Jackson, Ryan Ludwick, Greg Maddux, Frank Mir, DeMarco Murray and Ryan Reynolds.

Parks and recreation

Las Vegas has dozens of parks, including Las Vegas Springs Preserve recreational and educational facility and Floyd Lamb State Parkmarker.

Attractions

Las Vegas is a popular destination for Hawaiians. In 2002, almost 80,000 former residents of Hawaiimarker lived in Las Vegas, and nearly 3,000 Hawaiians visited Las Vegas every week. Las Vegas is sometimes referred to as Hawaii's Ninth Island. The city is the home to the first ABC Stores branch outside the state of Hawaii.

Government

The City of Las Vegas government operates as a council-manager government. The Mayor sits as a Council member-at-large and presides over all of the City Council meetings. In the event that the Mayor cannot preside over a City Council meeting, the Mayor Pro-Tem is the presiding officer of the meeting until such time as the Mayor returns to his seat. The City Manager is responsible for the administration and the day-to-day operation of all of the municipal services and city departments. The City Manager also maintains intergovernmental relationships with federal, state, county and other local governments.

Much of the Las Vegas metropolitan area is split into neighboring incorporated cities or unincorporated communities. Approximately 700,000 people live in unincorporated areas governed by Clark Countymarker, and another 465,000 live in incorporated cities such as North Las Vegasmarker, Hendersonmarker and Boulder Citymarker. Las Vegas and nearly all of the surrounding metropolitan area share a police department, the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, which was formed after a 1973 merger of the Las Vegas Police Department and the Clark County Sheriff's Department. North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City as well as some colleges have their own police departments.

A Paiute Indian reservation occupies about one acre (4000 m2) in the downtown area of Las Vegas.

Las Vegas, as the county seat and home to the Lloyd D. George Federal District Courthouse, draws numerous legal service industries providing bail, marriage, divorce, tax, incorporation and other legal services.

City council

( Council members' official city websites are also available)

  • Oscar B. Goodman – Mayor and Council member at Large (Term Expires in 2011)
  • Gary Reese – Mayor Pro-Tem and 3rd Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2011)
  • Lois Tarkanian – 1st Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2011)
  • Steve Wolfson, Esq – 2nd Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2009)
  • Stavros Anthony – 4th Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2013)
  • Ricki Barlow – 5th Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2011)
  • Steve Ross – 6th Ward Council member (Term Expires in 2009)


Education

Primary and secondary public education is provided by the Clark County School District (CCSD), which is the fifth most populous school district in the nation (projected enrollment for the 2007–2008 school year is 314,000 students in grades K–12).

The University of Nevada, Las Vegasmarker (UNLV) is in Paradisemarker, about three miles (5 km) south of the city limits and roughly two miles east of the Strip. The University of Nevada Medical School has a campus near downtown Las Vegas. Several national colleges, including the University of Phoenix, have campuses in the Las Vegas area. Nevada State Collegemarker and Touro University Nevada are both in nearby Hendersonmarker. The College of Southern Nevada has campuses in Las Vegas, North Las Vegasmarker and Henderson. Henderson also is home to DeVry University and the Keller Graduate School of Management, as well as the University of Southern Nevada. Other private entities in the Las Vegas Valley include Apollo College, National University, ITT Technical Institute.

Transportation

RTC Transit is a public transportation system providing bus service throughout Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas and other suburban areas of the valley. Intercity bus service to Las Vegas is provided by traditional intercity bus carriers, including Greyhound; many charter services, including Green Tortoise; and several Chinatown bus lines. Amtrak California also operates Deluxe Express Thruway Motorcoach dedicated service between the City and its nearest passenger rail station in Barstow, Californiamarker. Also, City Ride Bus Service is provided by the Transportation Services Division. It offers two routes in the downtown area with fares running from free to $0.50, depending on age and disabilities.

With the exceptions of Las Vegas Boulevard, Boulder Highway , and Rancho Drive , the majority of surface streets in Las Vegas are laid out in a grid along Public Land Survey System section lines. Many are maintained by the Nevada Department of Transportation as state highways. The street numbering system is divided by the following streets:
  • Westcliff Drive, US 95 Expressway, Fremont Streetmarker and Charleston Boulevard divide the north-south block numbers from west to east.
  • Las Vegas Boulevard divides the east-west streets from the Las Vegas Stripmarker to near the Stratosphere, then Main Street becomes the dividing line from the Stratosphere to the North Las Vegas border, after which the Goldfield Street alignment officially divides east and west.
  • On the east side of Las Vegas, block numbers between Charleston Boulevard and Washington Avenue are different along Nellis Boulevard, which is the eastern border of the city limits.
  • All city street signs begin with a N, S, W, or E designation.


Interstates 15, 515, and US 95 lead out of the city in all four directions. Two major freeways - Interstate 15 and Interstate 515/U.S. Route 95 - cross in downtown Las Vegas. I-15 connects Las Vegas to Los Angelesmarker, Californiamarker and heads northeast to and beyond Salt Lake Citymarker, Utahmarker. I-515 goes southeast to Hendersonmarker, beyond which US 93 continues over the Hoover Dammarker towards Phoenix, Arizonamarker. US 95 connects the city to northwestern Nevada, including Carson Citymarker and Renomarker. US 93 splits from I-15 northeast of Las Vegas and goes north through the eastern part of the state, serving Elymarker and Wellsmarker, and US 95 heads south from US 93 near Henderson through far eastern California. A partial beltway has been built, consisting of Interstate 215 on the south and Clark County 215 on the west and north. Other radial routes include Blue Diamond Road to Pahrumpmarker and Lake Mead Boulevard to Lake Meadmarker.

East-west roads, north to south
North-south roads, west to east


McCarran International Airportmarker handles international and domestic flights into the Las Vegas Valley. The airport also serves private aircraft and freight/cargo flights. Some of the general aviation traffic use the smaller North Las Vegas Airportmarker and Henderson Executive Airportmarker.

The Union Pacific Railroad is the only class one railroad to provide rail freight service to the city. Until 1997, the Amtrak Desert Wind train service ran through Las Vegas using the Union Pacific Railroad tracks that run through the city. Amtrak service to Las Vegas goes to Needles, Californiamarker and continues on Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach bus service. Plans to restore Los Angeles to Las Vegas Amtrak service using a Talgo train have been discussed but no plan for a replacement has been implemented. The Las Vegas Amtrak station was located in the Plaza Hotel. It held the distinction of being the only train station in the United Statesmarker that was located in a casino.

Sister cities



See also



References

  1. Los Angeles Herald:Directors Elected By Salt Lake Railroad, February 16, 1905 pp. 3.
  2. Chung, Su Kim. Las Vegas Then and Now. Thunder Bay Press. San Diego, California: 2005. p. 36
  3. http://usgovinfo.about.com/cs/censusstatistic/a/aagoingeast.htm
  4. US Census Bureau
  5. US Census Bureau
  6. http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2008/nov/13/just-being-vegas-raises-risk-suicide-study-finds/ Las Vegas Sun, November 13, 2008
  7. The Mecca of boxing
  8. Most arterial roads are shown, as indicated on the Nevada Department of Transportation's 2004 Roadway Functional Classification map. Retrieved May 2008.


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