The Late Middle Ages
is a term used by historians
to describe European history
of the 14th and 15th
centuries (c. 1300–1499). The Late Middle Ages were preceded
by the High Middle Ages
followed by the Early Modern era
Around 1300, centuries of European
and growth came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as
the Great Famine of
and the Black Death
reduced the population by as much as half according to some
estimates. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
. France and England experienced
serious peasant risings: the Jacquerie,
the Peasants' Revolt, and the
Hundred Years' War.
to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church
was shattered by the
. Collectively these
events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle
Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great
progress within the arts and sciences. A renewed interest in
texts led to what has later been termed
the Italian Renaissance
absorption of Latin texts had started in the twelfth-century
Renaissance through contact with Arabs during
the Crusades, but the availability of
important Greek texts accelerated with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks,
when many Byzantine scholars had to
seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy.
Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of
which facilitated dissemination of
the printed word and democratized learning. These two things would
later lead to the Protestant
. Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery
began (Age of Discovery
growth of the Ottoman Empire
culminating in the fall of Constantinople in 1453, cut off trading
possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to discover new
trading routes, as was the case with Columbus
’s travel to the Americas
in 1492, and Vasco da Gama
’s circumnavigation of India
in 1498. Their discoveries strengthened the
economy and power of European nations.
The changes brought about by these developments have caused many
scholars to see it as leading to the end of the Middle Ages, and
the beginning of the modern world. However, the division will
always be a somewhat artificial one for other scholars, who argue
that since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European
society, there is a certain continuity between the Classical
and the Modern age. Some
historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late
Middle Ages at all, but rather see the 14th century Renaissance as
a direct transition to the Modern Era.
The limits of Christian Europe
being defined in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Grand Duchy of Moscow was
beginning to repel the Mongols, and
the Iberian kingdoms
completed the Reconquista of the
peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the Balkans fell under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire.
remaining nations of the continent were locked in almost constant
international or internal conflict. The situation gradually led to
the consolidation of central authority, and the emergence of the
. The financial demands of
war necessitated higher levels of taxation, resulting in the
emergence of representative bodies – most notably the English Parliament
. The growth of
secular authority was further aided by the decline of the papacy
with the Great Schism
, and the coming
of the Protestant
failed union of Sweden and Norway of
1319–1365, the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar
Union was instituted in 1397. The Swedes were
reluctant members of the Danish-dominated
union from the start.
- Main articles: Denmark,
In an attempt to subdue the Swedes,
King Christian II of Denmark
had large numbers of the Swedish aristocracy killed in the Stockholm Bloodbath
of 1520. Yet this
measure only led to further hostilities, and Sweden broke away for
good in 1523. Norway, on the other hand, became an inferior party
of the union, and remained united with Denmark until 1814.
from its relative isolation, and was the only Scandinavian country not struck by the Black Death. Meanwhile, the
Norwegian colony on Greenland died out, probably under extreme weather conditions
in the 15th century.
These conditions might have been the
effect of the Little Ice Age
of Alexander III of
Scotland in 1286 threw the country into a succession crisis,
and the English king, Edward I,
was brought in to arbitrate.
When Edward claimed
overlordship over Scotland, this led to the Wars of Scottish Independence
The English were eventually defeated, and the Scots were able to
develop a stronger state under the Stewarts
. From 1337, England's attention was
largely directed towards France in the Hundred Years' War
. Henry V’s victory at the Battle of
Agincourt in 1415 briefly paved the way for a unification of
the two kingdoms, but his son Henry
VI soon squandered all previous gains.
The loss of
France led to discontent at home, and almost immediately upon the
end of the war in 1453, followed the dynastic struggles of the
Wars of the Roses
involving the rival dynasties of Lancaster
. The war ended in the accession of
of the Tudor
family, who could continue the work
started by the Yorkist kings of building a strong, centralized
monarchy. While England's attention was thus directed
elsewhere, the Hiberno-Norman lords
in Ireland were becoming gradually more assimilated into Irish
society, and the island was allowed to develop virtual independence
under English overlordship.
French House of Valois,
which followed the House of Capet in
1328, was at its outset virtually marginalized in its own country,
first by the English invading forces of the Hundred Years' War, later by the powerful
Duchy of Burgundy.
- Main articles: France, Burgundy, Burgundian Netherlands
appearance of Joan of Arc
on the scene
changed the course of war in favour of the French, and the
initiative was carried further by King Louis XI
. Meanwhile Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, met resistance in his
attempts to consolidate his possessions, particularly from the
Confederation formed in
When Charles was killed in the Burgundian Wars
at the Battle of Nancy
in 1477, the Duchy of Burgundy
was reclaimed by France.
At the same time, the County of
and the wealthy Burgundian Netherlands
came into the
Holy Roman Empire
control, setting up conflict for centuries
- Main articles: Germany, Hungary,
prospered in the fourteenth century,
and the Golden Bull of 1356
the king of Bohemia first among the imperial electors
, but the Hussite revolution
threw the country into
crisis. The Holy Roman Empire
passed to the Habsburgs
in 1438, where it
remained until the Empire's dissolution in 1806. Yet in spite of
the extensive territories held by the Habsburgs, the Empire itself
remained fragmented, and much real power and influence lay with the
individual principalities. Also financial institutions, such as the
and the Fugger
family, held great power, both on an economic
and a political level.
kingdom of Hungary experienced a golden age during the fourteenth
In particular the reign of the Angevin
kings Charles Robert
(1308–42) and his son
(1342–82) were marked by
greatness. The country grew wealthy as the main European supplier
of gold and silver. Meanwhile Poland's attention
was turned eastwards, as the union with Lithuania created an enormous entity in the region.
The union, and the conversion of Lithuania, also marked the end of
The thirteenth century had seen the fall of the state of Kievan Rus'
, in the face of the Mongol invasion
. In its place would
eventually emerge the Grand Duchy
of Moscow, which won a great victory against the Golden Horde at the Battle of
Kulikovo in 1380. The victory did not end Tartar rule in the
region, however, and its immediate beneficiary was Lithuania, which extended its influence eastwards.
was under the reign of Ivan III
the Great (1462–1505), that Moscow finally became a major regional
power, and the annexation of the vast Republic of Novgorod
in 1478 laid the
foundations for a Russian national state. After the Fall of Constantinople
in 1453 the
Russian princes started to see themselves as the heirs of the
. They eventually
took on the imperial title of Tsar
, and Moscow
was described as the Third Rome
Europe in 1328.
Byzantine Empire and the Balkans
Byzantine Empire had for a long
time dominated the eastern Mediterranean in politics and culture. By the fourteenth
century, however, it had almost entirely collapsed into a tributary
state of the Ottoman Empire, centred
on the city of Constantinople and a few enclaves in Greece.
- Main articles: Byzantine
Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia
the Fall of Constantinople
1453, the Byzantine Empire was permanently extinguished.
Bulgarian Empire was in
decline by the fourteenth century, and the ascendancy of Serbia was marked
by the Serbian victory over the Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbazhd in 1330.
1346, the Serbian king Stefan Dušan
been proclaimed emperor. Yet Serbian dominance was short-lived; the
Serb armies were defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo
in 1389, where most of the
Serbian nobility were killed and the country became a part of the
Ottoman empire, like Bulgaria before it. By the end of the medieval
period, the entire Balkan
annexed by, or became vassals
Avignon was the seat of the papacy from
1309 to 1376. With the return of the Pope to Rome in 1378, the
State developed into a major secular power, culminating
in the morally corrupt papacy of Alexander VI. Florence grew to prominence amongst the Italian city-states
through financial business, and the dominant Medici family became important promoters of the
Renaissance through their patronage of
the arts. Also other city states in northern Italy expanded
their territories and consolidated their power, primarily Milan and Venice.
- Main articles: Italy, Spain, Portugal
War of the Sicilian
had by the early fourteenth century divided southern
Italy into an Aragon
Kingdom of Sicily
and an Anjou Kingdom of Naples
. In 1442, the two
kingdoms were effectively united under Aragonese control.
marriage of Isabella of
Castile` and Ferdinand II of
Aragon and 1479 death of John II
of Aragon led to the creation of modern-day Spain.
Granada was captured from the Moors,
thereby completing the Reconquista. Portugal had during the fifteenth century –
particularly under Henry the
Navigator – gradually explored the coast of Africa, and in 1498, Vasco
da Gama found the sea route to India.
Spanish monarchs met the Portuguese challenge by financing Columbus
’s attempt to find the western
sea route to India, leading to the discovery of America
in the same year as the capture of
Around 1300–1350 the Medieval Warm
gave way to the Little Ice
. The colder climate resulted in agricultural crises, the
first of which is known as the Great Famine of 1315-1317
demographic consequences of this famine
however, were not as severe as those of the plague
of the later century, particularly the
. Estimates of the death rate
caused by this epidemic range from one third to as much as sixty
percent. By around 1420, the accumulated effect of recurring
plagues and famines had reduced the population of Europe to perhaps
no more than a third of what it was a century earlier. The effects
of natural disasters were exacerbated by armed conflicts; this was
particularly the case in France during the Hundred Years' War
As the European population was severely reduced, land became more
plentiful for the survivors, and labour consequently more
expensive. Attempts by landowners to forcibly reduce wages, such as
the English 1351 Statute of
, were doomed to fail. These efforts resulted in
nothing more than fostering resentment among the peasantry, leading
to rebellions such as the French Jacquerie
in 1358 and the English Peasants' Revolt
The long-term effect was the virtual end of serfdom
in Western Europe. In Eastern Europe, on the
other hand, landowners were able to exploit the situation to force
the peasantry into even more repressive bondage.
Up until the mid-fourteenth century, Europe had experienced a
steadily increasing urbanisation
Cities were of course also decimated by the Black Death, but the
urban areas' role as centres of learning, commerce and government
ensured continued growth. By 1500 Venice, Milan, Naples, Paris and Constantinople probably had more than 100,000 inhabitants.
Twenty-two other cities were larger than
40,000; most of these were to be found in Italy and the Iberian
peninsula, but there were also some in France, the Empire, the Low
Countries plus London in
The upheavals caused by the Black Death left certain minority
groups particularly vulnerable, especially the Jews
. The calamities were often blamed on this
group, and anti-Jewish pogroms were carried
out all over Europe; in February 1349, 2,000 Jews were murdered in
Also the state was guilty of discrimination
against the Jews, as monarchs gave in to the demands of the people,
the Jews were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1306,
from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.
While the Jews were suffering persecution, one group that probably
experienced increased empowerment in the Late Middle Ages was
women. The great social changes of the period opened up new
possibilities for women in the fields of commerce, learning and
religion. Yet at the same time, women were also vulnerable to
incrimination and persecution, as belief in witchcraft
battles such as Courtrai
(1302), Bannockburn (1314), and Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the
great territorial princes of Europe that the military advantage of
the feudal cavalry was lost, and that a well
equipped infantry was
Through the Welsh Wars
the English became
acquainted with, and adopted the highly efficient longbow
. Once properly managed, this weapon
gave them a great advantage over the French in the Hundred Years'
The introduction of gunpowder
the conduct of war significantly. Though employed by the English as
early as the Battle of Crécy
initially had little effect
in the field of battle. It was through the use of cannons
as siege weapons
that major change was brought about; the new methods would
eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications
Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of
armies. The use of the national
was gradually replaced by
paid troops of domestic retinues
. The practice was associated
with Edward III of England
of the Italian
city-states. All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high
At the same time, the period also saw the emergence
of the first permanent armies. It was in Valois
France, under the heavy demands of
the Hundred Years' War, that the armed forces gradually assumed a
Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly
more elaborate chivalric
code of conduct
for the warrior class. This new-found ethos can be seen as a
response to the diminishing military role of the aristocracy, and
gradually it became almost entirely detached from its military
origin. The spirit of chivalry was given expression through the new
; the first of which
was the Order of St. George
founded by Charles I of Hungary
in 1325, the best known probably the English Order of the Garter
, founded by Edward
III in 1348.
The Great Schism
French crown's increasing dominance over the Papacy culminated in the transference of the Holy See to Avignon in 1309. When the Pope returned to Rome in 1377,
this led to the election of different popes in Avignon and Rome,
resulting in the Great Schism
The Schism divided Europe along political
lines; while France, her ally Scotland and the Spanish kingdoms
supported the Avignon Papacy, France's enemy England stood behind
the Pope in Rome, together with Portugal, Scandinavia and most of
the German princes.
Constance (1414–1418), the Papacy was once more united in
Even though the unity of the Western Church was to
last for another hundred years, and though the Papacy was to
experience greater material prosperity than ever before, the Great
Schism had done irreparable damage. The internal struggles within
the Church had impaired her claim to universal rule, and promoted
among the people
and their rulers, paving the way for reform movements.
Though the Catholic Church
fought against heretic movements, in the Late Middle Ages, it
started to experience demands for reform from within. The first of these
came from the Oxford professor John Wyclif in
Wycliffe held that the Bible
should be the only authority in religious questions, and spoke out
. In spite of influential supporters
among the English
as John of Gaunt
, the movement was not
allowed to survive. Though Wycliffe himself was left unmolested,
his supporters, the Lollards
eventually suppressed in England.
Richard II of England
marriage to Anne of Bohemia
established contacts between the two nations and brought Lollard
ideas to this part of Europe. The teachings of the Czech
priest Jan Hus
based on those of John Wyclif, yet his followers, the Hussites
, were to have a much greater political
impact than the Lollards. Hus gained a great following in Bohemia
, and in 1414, he was requested to appear at
the Council of Constance, to defend his cause. When he was burned
as a heretic in 1415, it caused a popular uprising in the Czech
lands. The subsequent Hussite Wars
apart due to internal quarrels, and did not result in religious or
national independence for the Czechs
both the Catholic Church and the German element within the country
Though technically outside the time-period of the Middle Ages, the
ended the unity of the
Western Church – one of the distinguishing characteristics of
the medieval period.
started the Reformation by the posting of the 95 theses on the castle church of Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. The immediate provocation behind the act was
Pope Leo X’s renewing the indulgence for
the building of the new St. Peter's Basilica in 1514.
Luther was challenged to recant his
heresy at the Diet of Worms
When he refused, he was placed under the ban of the Empire by
the protection of Frederick the Wise
, he was
then able to translate the Bible into German
To many secular rulers, the Protestant reformation was a welcome
opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Catholic
Church met the challenges of the reforming movements with what has
been called the Catholic or Counter-Reformation
. Europe became split
into a northern Protestant
and a southern
Catholic part, resulting in the Religious Wars of the 16th and 17th
Trade and commerce
increasingly dominant position of the Ottoman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the Christian
nations of the west, who in turn started looking for
alternatives. Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new
trade routes – south of Africa to
India, and across the Atlantic Ocean to America.
Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up direct sea routes with Flanders, the Champagne fairs lost much of their
At the same time, English wool export shifted
from raw wool to processed cloth, resulting in losses for the cloth
manufacturers of the Low Countries. In the Baltic and
Sea, the Hanseatic
League reached the peak of their power in the fourteenth
century, but started going into decline in the
In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, a process
took place – primarily in Italy but partly also in the
Empire – that historians have termed a 'commercial
revolution'. Among the innovations of the period were new forms of
and the issuing of insurance
, both of which contributed to reducing
the risk of commercial ventures; the bill of exchange
other forms of credit that circumvented the canonical laws
, and eliminated the dangers of
; and new forms of
, in particular double-entry bookkeeping
which allowed for better oversight and accuracy.
With the financial expansion, trading rights became more jealously
guarded by the commercial elite. Towns saw the growing power of
, while on a national level special
companies would be granted monopolies on particular trades, like
the English wool Staple
beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense
wealth. Families like the Fuggers
in Italy, the de la Poles
in England, and individuals like
in France would help
finance the wars of kings, and achieve great political influence in
Though there is no doubt that the demographic crisis of the
fourteenth century caused a dramatic fall in production and
commerce in absolute
terms, there has been a vigorous
historical debate over whether the decline was greater than the
fall in population. While the older orthodoxy was that the artistic
output of the Renaissance was a result of greater opulence, more
recent studies have suggested that there might have been a
so-called 'depression of the Renaissance'. In spite of convincing
arguments for the case, the statistical evidence is simply too
incomplete that a definite conclusion can be made.
Arts and sciences
In the fourteenth century, the predominant academic trend of
was challenged by the
primarily an attempt to revitalise the classical languages
, the movement also
led to innovations within the fields of science, art and
literature, helped on by impulses from Byzantine
scholars who had to seek refuge
in the west after the Fall of
in 1453. In science, classical authorities like
were challenged for the first
time since antiquity. Within the arts, humanism took the form of
. Though the
fifteenth-century Renaissance was a highly localised
phenomenon – limited mostly to the city states of northern
Italy – artistic developments were taking place also further
north, particularly in the Netherlands.
Philosophy, science and technology
The predominant school of thought in the thirteenth century was the
reconciliation of the teachings of
with Christian theology
. The Condemnation
of 1277, enacted at the University of Paris, placed restrictions on ideas that could be
interpreted as heretical; restrictions that had implication for
alternative was presented by William
, who insisted that the world of reason and the world
of faith had to be kept apart. Ockham introduced the principle of
parsimony – or Occam's
– whereby a simple theory is preferred to a more
complex one, and speculation on unobservable phenomena is avoided.
This new approach liberated scientific speculation from the
dogmatic restraints of Aristotelian science, and paved the way for
new approaches. Particularly within the field of theories of
great advances were made,
when such scholars as Jean Buridan
and the Oxford Calculators
challenged the work of
Aristotle. Buridan developed the theory of impetus
cause of the motion of projectiles, which was an important step
towards the modern concept of inertia
works of these scholars anticipated the heliocentric
worldview of Nicolaus Copernicus
technological inventions of the period – whether of Arab or Chinese origin, or unique European innovations – were
to have great influence on political and social developments, in
particular gunpowder, the printing press and the compass.
The introduction of gunpowder to the
field of battle affected not only military organisation, but helped
advance the nation state. Gutenberg
type printing press
not only the Reformation
also a dissemination of knowledge that would lead to a gradually
more egalitarian society. The compass
with other innovations such as the cross-staff
, the mariner's astrolabe
, and advances in
shipbuilding, enabled the navigation of the World Oceans
, and the early phases of colonialism
. Other inventions had a greater
impact on everyday life, such as eyeglasses
and the weight-driven clock
Visual arts and architecture
A precursor to Renaissance
art can be
seen already in the early fourteenth-century works of Giotto
. Giotto was the first painter since
antiquity to attempt the representation of a three-dimensional
reality, and to endow his characters with true human emotions. The
most important developments, however, came in fifteenth-century
Florence. The affluence of the merchant class allowed extensive
patronage of the arts, and foremost among the patrons were the
Medici. The period saw several important technical innovations,
like the principle of linear
found in the work of Masaccio
, and later described by Brunelleschi
. Greater realism was also
achieved through the scientific study of anatomy, championed by
artists like Donatello
. This can be seen
particularly well in his sculptures, inspired by the study of
classical models. As the centre of the movement shifted to Rome,
the period culminated in the High
masters da Vinci
The ideas of the Italian Renaissance were slow to cross the Alps
into northern Europe, but important artistic innovations were made
also in the Low Countries. Though not – as previously
believed – the inventor of oil painting, Jan van Eyck
was a champion of the new medium,
and used it to create works of great realism and minute detail. The
two cultures influenced each other and learned from each other, but
painting in the Netherlands remained more focused on textures and
surfaces than the idealised compositions of Italy.
In northern European countries gothic architecture
remained the norm,
and the gothic cathedral was further elaborated. In Italy, on the
other hand, architecture took a different direction, also here
inspired by classical ideals. The crowning work of the period was the
del Fiore in Florence, with Giotto's clock tower, Ghiberti's baptistery gates, and Brunelleschi's cathedral dome of unprecedented proportions.
The most important development of late medieval literature was the
ascendancy of the vernacular
The vernacular had been in use in France and England since the
eleventh century, where the most popular genres had been the
chanson de geste
, troubadour lyrics
and romantic epics, or the romance
Though Italy was later in evolving a native literature in the
vernacular language, it was here that the most important
developments of the period were to come. Dante Alighieri
's Divine Comedy
, written in the early
fourteenth century, merged a medieval world view with classical
ideals. Another promoter of the Italian language was Boccaccio
with his Decameron
. The application of the
vernacular did not entail a rejection of Latin
, and both Dante and Boccaccio wrote prolifically
in Latin as well as Italian, as would Petrarch
later (whose Canzoniere
also promoted the vernacular
and whose contents are considered the first modern lyric poems
). Together the three poets
established the Tuscan dialect
norm for the modern Italian
The new literary style spread rapidly, and in France influenced
such writers as Eustache
and Guillaume de
. In England Geoffrey
helped establish English
as a literary language with his
which tales of everyday life were heavily influenced by Boccaccio.
The spread of vernacular literature eventually reached as far as
Bohemia, and the Baltic, Slavic and Byzantine worlds.
Music was an important part of both secular and spiritual culture,
and in the universities it made up part of the quadrivium
of the liberal arts. From the
early thirteenth century, the dominant sacred musical form had been
; a composition with text in several
parts. From the 1330s and onwards, emerged the polyphonic
style, which was a more complex fusion
of independent voices. Polyphony had been common in the secular
music of the Provençal troubadours
. Many of these had fallen victim to
the thirteenth-century Albigensian
, but their influence reached the papal court at
Avignon. The main representatives of the new style, often referred
to as ars nova
as opposed to the
, were the composers
Philippe de Vitry
and Guillaume de Machaut
. In Italy, where
the Provençal troubadours had also found refuge, the corresponding
period goes under the name of trecento
, and the leading composers
were Giovanni da Cascia
, Jacopo da Bologna
and Francesco Landini
For eighteenth-century historians studying the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance
, with its rediscovery of ancient
learning and the emergence of an individual spirit. This was a process
centred on Italy, where, in
the words of Jacob Burckhardt: "Man
became a spiritual individual and recognized himself as such"
Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860).
This proposition was later challenged, and it was argued that the
twelfth century was a period of greater cultural achievement. As
economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of
history, the trend was increasingly to see the late Middle Ages as
a period of recession and crisis. Belgian historian Henri
Pirenne introduced the now common subdivision of Early, High and Late Middle Ages in the years
around World War I. Yet it was his
Johan Huizinga who was primarily
responsible for popularising the pessimistic view of the Late
Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of the Middle
Ages (1919). To Huizinga, whose research focused on
France and the Low Countries
rather than Italy, despair and decline were the main themes, not
Modern historiography on the period has reached a consensus between
the two extremes of innovation and crisis. It is now generally
acknowledged that conditions were vastly different north and south
of the Alps, and "Late Middle Ages" is often avoided entirely
within Italian historiography. The term "Renaissance" is still
considered useful for describing certain intellectual, cultural or
artistic developments, but not as the defining feature of an entire
European historical epoch. The period from the early fourteenth
century up until – sometimes including – the sixteenth
century, is rather seen as characterised by other trends:
demographic and economic decline followed by recovery, the end of
western religious unity and the subsequent emergence of the
, and the expansion of
European influence onto the rest of the world.
- Cantor, p. 480.
- Cantor, p. 594.
- For references, see below.
- Allmand (1998), p. 3; Holmes, p. 294; Koenigsberger, pp.
- Brady et al., p. xvii; Jones, p. 21.
- Allmand (1998), p. 29; Cantor, p. 514; Koenigsberger, pp.
- Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4.
- Hollister, p. 366; Jones, p. 722.
- Allmand (1998), p. 703
- Allmand (1998), p. 673.
- Allmand (1998), p. 193.
- Jones, pp. 348–9.
- Jones, pp. 350–1; Koenigsberger, p. 232; McKisack, p. 40.
- Jones, p. 351.
- Allmand (1998), p. 458; Koenigsberger, p. 309.
- Allmand (1998), p. 458; Nicholas, pp. 32–3.
- Hollister, p. 353; Jones, pp. 488–92.
- McKisack, pp. 228–9.
- Hollister, p. 355; Holmes, pp. 288-9; Koenigsberger, p.
- Duby, p. 288-93; Holmes, p. 300.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 450-5; Jones, pp. 528-9.
- Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 355; Koenigsberger, p.
- Allmand (1998), p. 455; Hollister, p. 363; Koenigsberger, pp.
- Holmes, p. 311–2; Wandycz, p. 40
- Hollister, p. 362; Holmes, p. 280.
- Cantor, p. 507; Hollister, p. 362.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 152–153; Cantor, p. 508; Koenigsberger, p.
- Wandycz, p. 38.
- Wandycz, p. 40.
- Jones, p. 737.
- Koenigsberger, p. 318; Wandycz, p. 41.
- Jones, p. 7.
- Martin, pp. 100–1.
- Koenigsberger, p. 322; Jones, p. 793; Martin, pp. 236–7.
- Martin, p. 239.
- Allmand (1998), p. 754; Koenigsberger, p. 323.
- Allmand, p. 769; Hollister, p. 368.
- Hollister, p. 49.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 771–4; Mango, p. 248.
- Hollister, p. 99; Koenigsberger, p. 340.
- Jones, pp. 796–7.
- Jones, p. 875.
- Hollister, p. 360; Koenigsberger, p. 339.
- Hollister, p. 360; Koenigsberger, p. 339.
- Hollister, p. 338.
- Allmand (1998), p. 586; Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260.
- Allmand, pp. 150, 155; Cantor, p. 544; Hollister, p. 326.
- Allmand (1998), p. 547; Hollister, p. 363; Holmes, p. 258.
- Cantor, p. 511; Hollister, p. 264; Koenigsberger, p. 255.
- Allmand (1998), p. 577.
- Hollister, p. 356; Koenigsberger, p. 314; Reilly, p. 209.
- Allmand (1998), p. 162; Hollister, p. 99; Holmes, p. 265.
- Allmand (1998), p. 192; Cantor, 513.
- Cantor, 513; Holmes, pp. 266–7.
- Jones, p. 88.
- Jones, pp. 136–8;Cantor, p. 482.
- Herlihy (1997), p. 17; Jones, p. 9.
- Hollister, p. 347.
- Duby, p. 270; Koenigsberger, p. 284; McKisack, p. 334.
- Koenigsberger, p. 285.
- Cantor, p. 484; Hollister, p. 332; Holmes, p. 303.
- Cantor, p. 564; Hollister, pp. 332–3; Koenigsberger, p.
- Hollister, pp. 332–3; Jones, p. 15.
- Hollister, p. 323; Holmes, p. 304.
- Jones, p. 164; Koenigsberger, p. 343.
- Allmand (1998), p. 125
- Chazan, p. 194.
- Hollister, p. 330; Holmes, p. 255.
- Brady et al., pp. 266–7; Chazan, pp. 166, 232; Koenigsberger,
- Klapisch-Zuber, p. 268.
- Jones, p. 350; McKisack, p. 39; Verbruggen, p. 111.
- Allmand (1988), p. 59; Cantor, p. 467.
- McKisack, p. 240, Verbruggen, pp. 171–2
- Contamine, pp. 139–40; Jones, pp. 11–2.
- Contamine, pp. 198–200.
- Allmand (1998), p. 169; Contamine, pp. 200–7.
- Cantor, p. 515.
- Contamine, pp. 150–65; Holmes, p. 261; McKisack, p. 234.
- Contamine, pp. 124, 135.
- Contamine, pp. 165–72; Holmes, p. 300.
- Cantor, p. 349; Holmes, pp. 319–20.
- Hollister, p. 336.
- Cantor, p. 537; Jones, p. 209; McKisack, p. 251.
- Cantor, p. 496.
- Cantor, p. 497; Hollister, p. 338; Holmes, p. 309.
- Hollister, p. 338; Koenigsberger, p. 326; Ozment, p. 158.
- Cantor, p. 498; Ozment, p. 164.
- Koenigsberger, pp. 327–8; MacCulloch, p. 34.
- Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260; Koenigsberger, pp.
- A famous account of the nature of, and suppression of a heretic
movement, is Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's
- MacCulloch, p. 34–5.
- Allmand (1998), p. 15; Cantor, pp. 499–500; Koenigsberger, p.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 15–6; MacCulloch, p. 35.
- Holmes, p. 312; MacCulloch, pp. 35–6; Ozment, p. 165.
- Allmand (1998), p. 16; Cantor, p. 500.
- Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332.
- Koenigsberger, p. 332; MacCulloch, p. 36.
- Allmand (1998), p. 353; Hollister, p. 344; Koenigsberger, p.
- MacCulloch, p. 115.
- MacCulloch, pp. 70, 117.
- MacCulloch, p. 127; Ozment, p. 245.
- MacCulloch, p. 128.
- Ozment, p. 246.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 16–7; Cantor, pp. 500–1.
- MacCulloch, p. 107; Ozment, p. 397.
- MacCulloch, p. 266; Ozment, pp. 259–60.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 159–60; Pounds, pp. 467–8.
- Hollister, pp. 334–5.
- Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Koenigsberger, p. 295; Pounds, p.
- Cipolla (1976), p. 283; Koenigsberger, p. 297; Pounds, pp.
- Cipolla (1976), p. 275; Cipolla (1994), p. 203, 234; Pounds,
- Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, p. 407.
- Cipolla (1976), pp. 318–29; Cipolla (1994), pp. 160–4; Holmes,
p. 235; Jones, pp. 176–81; Koenigsberger, p. 226; Pounds, pp.
- Jones, p. 121; Pearl, pp. 299–300; Koenigsberger, pp. 286,
- Allmand (1998), pp. 150–3; Holmes, p. 304; Koenigsberger, p.
299; McKisack, p. 160.
- Pounds, p. 483.
- Pounds, pp. 484–5.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 243–54; Cantor, p. 594; Nicholas, p.
- Jones, p. 42; Koenigsberger, p. 242.
- Grant, p. 142; Nicholas, p. 134.
- Grant, pp. 100–3, 149, 164–5.
- Grant, pp. 95–7.
- Grant, pp. 112–3.
- Jones, pp. 11–2; Koenigsberger, pp. 297–8; Nicholas, p.
- Grant, p. 160; Koenigsberger, p. 297.
- Cantor, p. 433; Koenigsberger, p. 363.
- Allmand (1998), p. 155; Brotton, p. 27.
- Burke, p. 24; Koenigsberger, p. 363; Nicholas, p. 161.
- Allmand (1998), p. 253; Cantor, p. 556.
- Cantor, p. 554; Nichols, pp. 159–60.
- Brotton, p. 67; Burke, p. 69.
- Allmand (1998), p. 269; Koenigsberger, p. 376.
- Allmand (1998), p. 302; Cantor, p. 539.
- Burke, p. 250; Nicholas, p. 161.
- Allmand (1998), pp. 300–1, Hollister, p. 375.
- Allmand (1998), p. 305; Cantor, p. 371.
- Jones, p. 8.
- Cantor, p. 346.
- Curtius, p. 387; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
- Cantor, p. 546; Curtius, pp. 351, 378.
- Curtius, p. 396; Koenigsberger, p. 368; Jones, p. 258.
- Curtius, p. 26; Jones, p. 258; Koenigsberger, p. 368.
- Koenigsberger, p. 369.
- Jones, p. 264.
- Curtius, p. 35; Jones. p. 264.
- Jones, p. 9.
- Allmand, p. 319; Grant, p. 14; Koenigsberger, p. 382.
- Allmand, p. 322; Wilson, p. 229.
- Wilson, pp. 229, 289–90, 327.
- Koenigsberger, p. 381; Wilson, p. 329.
- Koenigsberger, p. 383; Wilson, p. 329.
- Wilson, pp. 357–8, 361–2.
- Brady et al., p. xiv; Cantor, p. 529.
- "Les periodes de l'historie du capitalism", Academie Royale
de Belgique. Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres, 1914.
- Allmand, p. 299; Cantor, p. 530.
- Le Goff, p. 154. See e.g.
- Brady et al., p. xvii.
- The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 6:
c. 1300 - c. 1415, (2000). Michael Jones
(ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521362903.
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c. 1415 - c. 1500, (1998). Christopher Allmand (ed.), Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521382963.