Lee Harvey Oswald (October
18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to three government
investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who was fatally shot on
November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.
A United States Marine who defected to the Soviet Union and later returned, Oswald was arrested on
suspicion of killing Dallas police officer J. D.
and later connected to the
assassination of President Kennedy. Oswald denied any
responsibility for the murders. Two days later on November 24,
1963, while being transferred under police custody from the city
jail to the county jail, Oswald was shot and mortally wounded by
on live television.
In 1964, the Warren Commission
concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President Kennedy
single-handedly, a conclusion also reached by prior investigations
of the FBI and the Dallas Police Department.
Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and was of English,
and Irish ancestry.
Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. (New Orleans, March 4, 1896 – New
Orleans, August 19, 1939), who had previously been married before
marrying Oswald's mother on July 20, 1933, died two months before
Lee was born. Mostly on her own, his mother, Marguerite Frances
Claverie (New Orleans, July 19, 1907 – Fort Worth, Texas, January
17, 1981), raised Lee and his two older siblings (his brother,
Robert, Jr.; and their half-brother, John Pic (1932–2000),
Marguerite's son from a previous marriage). Oswald had a
stepfather, Edwin Adolph Ekdahl (1888–1965), from 1945 to
Lee's youth was characterized by extreme mobility; before the age
of 18, Oswald had lived in 22 different homes. Because of the
short-lived stay in each location, he had attended 12 different
schools, mostly around New Orleans; Covington, Louisiana; and Dallas, but also in
New York City.
His mother placed him in a foster home
for 13 months in 1942–1943, when she
was too poor to take care of him and his brothers.As a child,
Oswald was withdrawn and temperamental. After moving in with his
half-brother, who had joined the Coast Guard
and was stationed in
New York City, Oswald and Pic were asked to leave after an incident
in which Oswald allegedly threatened Pic's wife with a knife, and
struck his mother. Following charges of truancy
, he was put under a three week court-ordered
stay for psychiatric assessment in a juvenile reformatory
called Youth House. Dr.
Renatus Hartogs described Oswald as having a "vivid fantasy life,
turning around the topics of omnipotence and power, through which
he tries to compensate for his present shortcomings and
frustrations," and diagnosed the 14-year-old Oswald as having a
"personality pattern disturbance with schizoid
features and passive-aggressive
recommended continued psychiatric intervention.
Oswald's behavior at school appeared to improve during his last
months in New York. In January 1954, his mother Marguerite decided
to return to New Orleans with Lee, which prevented him from
receiving the care the psychiatrist had recommended. There was
still an open question pending before a New York judge whether or
not he should be taken from the care of his mother to finish his
Oswald dropped out of school twice. Oswald left school after one
month of 10th grade while in New Orleans. Afterwards, the family
moved back to Fort Worth and he started the 10th grade again. After
23 days, he quit and joined the United States Marines. He never
received a high school diploma
. A dyslexic
, he had
trouble with spelling and writing coherently. Yet Oswald read
voraciously and, by age 15, claimed to be a Marxist
from his reading on the topic. He wrote in
his diary, "I was looking for a key to my environment, and then I
discovered socialist literature. I had to dig for my books in the
back dusty shelves of libraries". At 16, Oswald wrote to the
Socialist Party of
, stating that he was a Marxist who had been studying
socialist principles for "well over fifteen months", and asked for
information about their youth league
However, Edward Voebel, "whom the Warren Commission had established
was Oswald's closest friend during his teenage years in New Orleans
... said that reports that Oswald was already 'studying Communism'
were a 'lot of baloney.'" Voebel said that "Oswald commonly read
Despite his avowed Marxist sympathies, Oswald enlisted in the
US Marine Corps
October 24, 1956, one week after his seventeenth birthday. He
idolized his older brother, Robert, and wore Robert's U.S. Marines
ring. Joining the Marines may have also been a way to escape from
his overbearing mother.
While in the Marines, Oswald was trained in the use of the M1 Garand rifle
. Following that training, he
was tested in December 1956, and obtained a score of 212, which was
2 points above the minimum for qualifications as a sharpshooter
. In May 1959, on
another range, Oswald scored 191, which was 1 point over the
minimum for ranking as a marksman
Oswald, however, was trained primarily as a radar operator, a job
that required a security clearance. A May 1957 document states that
he was "granted FINAL clearance to handle classified matter up to
and including CONFIDENTIAL after careful check of local records had
disclosed no derogatory data." Oswald took the Aircraft Control and
Warning Operator Course and finished seventh in a class of thirty.
The course "...included instruction in aircraft surveillance and
the use of radar." He was assigned first to Marine Corps Air
Station El Toro now in Irvine, California in July 1957, then to Naval Air
Facility Atsugi in Japan in September 1957. Although Atsugi was a
base for the top-secret CIA U-2 spy
planes that flew over the Soviet Union, there is no evidence Oswald was involved in that
Oswald was court-martialed
initially because of accidentally shooting himself in the elbow
with an unauthorized handgun, and then later for starting a fight
with a sergeant
responsible for the punishment he received from his first
court-martial. He was demoted from private first class
, and briefly served time in the
. Later, he was punished
for another incident: While on sentry duty one night in the
Philippines, he inexplicably fired his rifle into the
Small compared with some other Marines, Oswald was nicknamed
. For his
anti-American beliefs, he was also nicknamed
. In December 1958, he transferred back to
the Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. The function of Oswald's unit
at El Toro "...was to serveil [sic] for aircraft, but basically to
train both enlisted men and officers for later assignment
overseas." One of Oswald's officers, Lieutenant John Donovan, said
that Oswald was a "very competent" crew chief. Oswald subscribed to
the Communist Party newspaper, The
, and claimed to have taught himself rudimentary
Russian. At the El Toro base, in February 1959, he took the Marine
proficiency exam in written and spoken Russian and his test results
were rated "poor."
Life in the Soviet Union
1959, Oswald emigrated to the Soviet Union.
Photo of Oswald taken in October 1959
shortly after his arrival in the Soviet Union.
He was 19, and the trip was planned well in
advance. Along with having taught himself rudimentary Russian, he
had saved $1,500 of his Marine Corps salary, got an early "hardship" discharge
by claiming he
needed to care for his injured mother, got a passport
, and submitted several fictional
applications to foreign universities in order to obtain a student visa
spending two days with his mother in Fort Worth, Oswald departed by ship from New Orleans on September 20, 1959, to Le Havre, France.
He left for England that same day,
and arrived on October 9. He told customs officials in Southampton that he had $700 and planned to remain in the
United Kingdom for one week before proceeding to a school in
Switzerland. But on the same day, he flew on a Finnair flight to Helsinki, Finland, where he stayed until October 15.
Oswald probably applied for a visa at the Soviet consulate on
October 12. The visa was issued on October 14. He left Helsinki by
train on the following day, crossed the Finnish-Soviet border at
Vainikkala, and arrived in Moscow on October 16.
He almost immediately announced to his Intourist
guide his intention to become a citizen
of the Soviet Union. But when he was informed on October 21 that
his application for citizenship had been refused, Oswald made a
bloody but minor cut to his left wrist in his hotel room bathtub
. After bandaging his superficial injury, the
cautious Soviets kept him under psychiatric observation at a
When Oswald showed up unexpectedly at the United States embassy in
Moscow on October 31, he said he wanted to renounce his U.S.
. He told Soviet officials
"...that he had been a radar operator in the Marine Corps and that
he ... would make known to them such information concerning the
Marine Corps and his speciality as he possessed. He intimated that
he might know something of special interest." When the Navy
Department learned of this, it changed Oswald's Marine Corps
discharge from "hardship/honorable" to "undesirable
John McVickar, one of the American consular officials at the Moscow
embassy who was in contact with Oswald, said he felt that Oswald,
"...was following a pattern of behavior in which he had been
tutored by [a] person or persons unknown ... seemed to be using
words which he had learned but did not fully understand ... in
short, it seemed to me that there was a possibility that he had
been in contact with others before or during his Marine Corps tour
who had guided him and encouraged him in his actions."
Oswald had wanted to remain in Moscow and attend Moscow
University, he was sent to Minsk, then the
capital of the Byelorussian Soviet
Socialist Republic and now the capital of Belarus.
Marina Prusakova, Minsk 1959
He was given a job as a metal lathe
operator at the Gorizont (Horizon)
Electronics Factory in Minsk, a huge facility that produced radios
and televisions along with military and space electronic
components. He was given a rent-subsidized
, fully furnished studio
apartment in a prestigious building under Gorizont's administration
and in addition to his factory pay received monetary subsidies from
the Russian Red Cross Society
This represented an idyllic existence by Soviet-era working-class
standards. Oswald was under constant surveillance by the KGB during his
thirty-month stay in Minsk.
Oswald gradually grew bored with the limited recreation available
in Minsk. He wrote in his diary in January 1961: "I am starting to
reconsider my desire about staying. The work is drab, the money I
get has nowhere to be spent. No nightclubs or bowling alleys, no
places of recreation except the trade union dances. I have had
enough." Shortly afterwards, Oswald opened negotiations with the
U.S. Embassy in Moscow over his proposed return to the United
dance in early 1961 Oswald met Marina Prusakova, a 19-year-old
pharmacology student from a broken
family in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) who was then living with her aunt and uncle in
Lee and Marina married on April 30, 1961, less than
six weeks after they met. Their first child, June, was born on
February 15, 1962.
nearly a year of paperwork and waiting, on June 1, 1962 the young
family left the Soviet
Union for the United States.
Even before November
22, 1963, Oswald received a small measure of national notoriety in
the U.S. press as an American who had defected to the U.S.S.R. and
In 1964, Oswald's mother, Marguerite, recorded and released an
album on Folkways Records
and commenting on his letters from his time in Soviet Union. It was
entitled, The Oswald Case: Mrs. Marguerite Oswald Reads Lee
Harvey Oswald's Letters from Russia.
Back in the United States, the Oswalds settled in the Dallas/Fort Worth
his mother and brother lived, and Lee attempted to write his
and commentary on Soviet life, a small
manuscript called The Collective
. He soon gave up the idea
but his search for literary feedback put him in touch with the
area's close-knit community of anti-Communist
. While merely tolerating the
belligerent and arrogant Lee Oswald, they sympathized with Marina,
partly because she was in a foreign country with no knowledge of
English (which her husband refused to teach her, saying he didn't
want to forget Russian) and because Oswald had begun to beat
Although the Russian émigrés eventually abandoned Marina when she
made no sign of leaving him, Oswald had found an unlikely friend in
the well-educated and worldly petroleum
geologist George de Mohrenschildt
. A native
Russian-speaker himself, de Mohrenschildt wrote that Oswald spoke
Russian "very well, with only a little accent." Marina meanwhile
befriended a married couple: Ruth Paine
who was trying to learn Russian, and her husband Michael.
In Dallas in July 1962, Oswald got a job with the Leslie Welding
Company, but disliked the work and quit after three months. He then
found a position in October 1962 at the graphic arts
firm of Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall as a
photoprint trainee. He may have used photographic and typesetting
equipment in the unsecured area to create falsified identification
, including some in the name of an alias
he created, Alek James Hidell
co-workers and supervisors eventually grew frustrated with his
inefficiency, lack of precision, inattention, and rudeness to
others, to the point where fights had threatened to break out. He
had also been seen reading a Russian publication, Krokodil
(Russian: 'Крокодил', 'crocodile
'), in the cafeteria. He lost his job in
May 1963 due to incompetence.
Attempted assassination of General Walker
The Warren Commission concluded that on April 10, 1963, Oswald
attempted to assassinate retired Major General Edwin Walker
, and that Oswald probably used the
rifle shown in his backyard pose photos of March 31. (The United
States House Select Committee on Assassinations
stated that the
"evidence strongly suggested" that Oswald did the shooting.)
Edwin Walker was an outspoken anti-communist, segregationist and member of the John Birch Society who had been
commanding officer of the Army's 24th Infantry
Division based in West Germany under NATO supreme
command until he was relieved of his command in 1961 by JFK for
distributing right-wing literature to his
troops. Walker resigned from the service and
returned to his native Texas.
involved in the movement to resist the use of federal troops for securing
racial integration at the
of Mississippi, resistance that led to a riot on October 1, 1962
in which two people were killed.
He was arrested for
conspiracy, and other charges, but a
local federal grand jury
Oswald considered Walker a "fascist
" and the
leader of a "fascist organization." In March 1963, Oswald purchased
a 6.5 mm caliber Carcano rifle
(also commonly but improperly called Mannlicher-Carcano
) by mail order
, using the alias "A. Hidell." He also
purchased a revolver
by the same
The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald attempted to shoot
General Walker with his rifle, while Walker was sitting at a desk
in his dining room. Oswald fired at him from less than one hundred
feet (30 m) away. Walker survived only because the bullet struck
the wooden frame of the window, which deflected its path, but was
injured in the forearm by bullet fragments. Oswald returned home
and told Marina what he had just done.
General Walker's brush with death was reported nationwide. The
Dallas police had no suspects in the shooting.
Oswald's involvement in the attempt on Walker's life was suspected
within hours of his arrest on November 22, 1963, following the
Kennedy assassination. But a note Oswald left for Marina on the
night of the attempt, telling her what to do if he did not return,
was not found until early December 1963, after which Marina told
authorities about Oswald and Walker. The bullet was too badly
damaged to run conclusive ballistics studies on it, though neutron activation
tests later showed
that it was "extremely likely" that the Walker bullet was from the
same cartridge manufacturer and for the same rifle make as the two
bullets which later struck Kennedy.
Oswald's mugshot following his arrest
in New Orleans
Oswald returned to New Orleans on April 25, 1963 and got a job as a
machinery greaser with the Reily
in May. Oswald's wife, Marina, joined him in New
Orleans, after being driven there by family friend Ruth Paine
. In July, Oswald was fired from Reily
On May 26, 1963, Oswald, without any previous contact with the
FPCC, and with no membership in the Communist Party USA, wrote a
letter to the New York City headquarters of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee
pro-Castro organization, and proposed "...renting a small office at
my own expense for the purpose of forming a FPCC branch here in New
Orleans." The FPCC Chairman replied, rejecting Oswald's proposal
and later commented on its suspicious nature. In that letter,
Oswald also claimed to have had a public brawl with a Cuban
refugee, although that fight would not occur for two weeks.
On August 5 and 6, according to Carlos
, Oswald visited him at a store he owned in New
Orleans. Bringuier was the New Orleans delegate for the anti-Castro
Cuban Student Directorate. Bringuier told the Warren Commission
that he believed Oswald's visits were an attempt by Oswald to
infiltrate his anti-Castro group. Three days later, on August 9,
Oswald turned up in downtown New Orleans handing out pro-Castro
fliers. Bringuier confronted Oswald, claiming he was tipped off
about Oswald's leafleting by a friend. During an ensuing scuffle,
Oswald, along with Bringuier and two of his friends, was arrested
and charged with disturbing the peace.
The arrest got news media attention and Oswald was interviewed
afterwards. He was also filmed passing out fliers in front of the
International Trade Mart
with two 'volunteers' he had hired (hired, because Oswald was not a
member of the Communist Party USA so he had no regular volunteers).
political work in New Orleans came to an end after a WDSU radio debate
between Bringuier and Oswald arranged by journalist Bill
Stuckey. During the course of the debate, Oswald was
confronted with accusations about his past in the Soviet Union and his activities in New Orleans.
Oswald's activities in New Orleans in mid-1963 were investigated by
New Orleans District Attorney Jim
during his prosecution
of Clay Shaw
in 1969. Garrison was particularly interested in
investigating David Ferrie
connections to Oswald, which Ferrie himself denied. Ferrie died
before he could be brought to trial. In 1993, the PBS television
obtained a group photograph, taken eight
years before the assassination, that showed Oswald and Ferrie at a
cookout with other Civil Air Patrol
Ron Lewis claimed that he briefly met David
and Guy Banister
, and Lewis
could have substantiated many claims proposed by Jim Garrison
, but Lewis decided not to risk
personal danger by coming forward with his testimony during the
trial of Clay Shaw
While Ruth Paine drove Marina back to Dallas in late September
1963, Oswald lingered in New Orleans for two more days waiting to
collect a $33 unemployment check. It has never been conclusively
established precisely when Oswald left New Orleans, or what mode of
transportation he took. He is next known to have boarded a bus in
Houston, but instead of heading north to Dallas, he took a
bus southwest towards Laredo and the
in Mexico he hoped to continue to Cuba, a plan he openly shared
with other passengers on the bus. Arriving in Mexico City, he completed a transit visa application at the
Cuban Embassy, claiming he wanted to visit the country on his way
back to the Soviet
The Cubans insisted the Soviet Union would
have to approve his journey to the USSR before he could get a Cuban
visa, but he was unable to get speedy co-operation from the Soviet
shuttling back and forth between consulates for five days, getting
into a heated argument with the Cuban consul, making impassioned
pleas to KGB agents, and
coming under at least some CIA interest, Oswald
was told by the Cuban consul that "as far as [he] was concerned
[he] would not give him a visa" and that "a person like him
[Oswald] in place of aiding the Cuban Revolution, was doing it
harm." However, less than three weeks later, on
October 18 the Cuban embassy in Mexico City finally approved the
visa, and 11 days before the assassination Oswald wrote a letter to
the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C., which said, "Had I been able to reach the Soviet
Embassy in Havana as planned,
the embassy there would have had time to complete our
Return to Dallas
Oswald left Mexico City on October 3, and returned by bus to
Dallas, where he looked for employment. Through Ruth Paine he
found a job filling book orders at the Texas School
Book Depository, where he started work on October 16.
the week, he lived in a rooming house
on Beckley Street in Dallas (under the pseudonym O.H. Lee), and spent the
weekends with his wife at the Paine home in Irving, Texas, about 15 miles (24 km) from central
On October 20, the Oswalds' second daughter was
born. During this period, the FBI was aware of
Oswald's whereabouts in Texas, and agents from the Dallas office
twice visited the Paine home in early November when Oswald was not
present, hoping to get more information about Marina Oswald, whom
the FBI suspected of being a Soviet agent.
On November 16, a local newspaper reported that President Kennedy's
would be going through central
Dallas on November 22, "probably on Main Street" one block from the
Texas School Book Depository, which it would have to pass to get
onto the freeway to the President's luncheon site. This was
confirmed by exact descriptions of the motorcade route published on
November 19. On Thursday, November 21, Oswald asked Buell Wesley
Frazier, a co-worker, for a ride to Irving, saying he had to pick
up some curtain rods. The next morning, after leaving $170 and his
wedding ring, he returned to Dallas with Frazier, carrying a long
paper bag with him.
Oswald was last seen by a co-worker alone on the sixth floor of the
depository about 30 minutes before the assassination.
Assassination of JFK
According to Government investigations, Oswald shot John F. Kennedy
and two other people at
12:30 pm on November 22, 1963, resulting in the death of Kennedy.
Warren Commission report on the
John F. Kennedy assassination concluded that those bullets came
from a 6.5 millimeter Italian carbine with a four-power scope that
Oswald fired from a window on the sixth floor of the book
depository warehouse, where he was an employee, as the President's
motorcade passed through Dallas's Dealey Plaza.
Texas Governor John Connally
seriously wounded along with assassination witness James Tague
who received a minor facial
Oswald's flight and the murder of Officer J. D. Tippit
Dallas PD color mugshot November 23,
According to the Warren Commission report, immediately after he
shot President Kennedy, Oswald hid the rifle behind some boxes and
descended via the depository's rear stairwell. On the second floor
he encountered Dallas police officer Marion Baker and Roy Truly,
Oswald's supervisor, who identified Oswald as an employee, and
Baker let Oswald pass. This encounter occurred in the second floor
lunch room approximately 90 seconds after the shooting.
Subsequently, Oswald crossed the floor to the front staircase,
descended and left the building through the front entrance on Elm
Street, just before the police sealed off the building. Oswald was
the only employee of the Depository who permanently left the
building after the assassination; his supervisor later noticed
Oswald missing and reported his name and address to the Dallas
police in the building.
At about 12:40 p.m. (CST), Oswald boarded a city bus, but due to
heavy traffic, he requested a bus transfer from the driver and
exited the bus two blocks later. He took a taxicab
to his rooming house, which he entered about
1:00 p.m. His housekeeper, Earlene Roberts, testified that "he was
walking pretty fast — he was all but running." He went into his
room briefly, put on a jacket, and left. Oswald was last seen by
Roberts standing by a bus stop across the street.
About four-fifths of a mile (about 1.3 km) away, Patrolman
encountered Oswald on a
residential street in the neighborhood of Oak
. He pulled up next to Oswald and spoke to him through a
passenger side window. When Tippit exited his squad car, he was
shot four times with a .38 caliber revolver, killing him in view of
two eyewitnesses. Seven other witnesses heard the shots and saw the
gunman flee the scene with the revolver in his hand. Four cartridge
cases were found at the scene by eyewitnesses. It was the unanimous
testimony of expert witnesses
the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on
Assassinations that these used cartridge cases were fired from the
revolver in Oswald's possession to the exclusion of all other
Oswald's Seat In The Texas
A few minutes later, Oswald ducked into the entrance alcove of a
shoe store and appeared to be avoiding passing police cars. Johnny
Brewer, the shoe store's manager, had been listening to the day's
events on the radio, and felt that Oswald was acting suspiciously.
Oswald walked away, Brewer went outside his shop and saw Oswald
slip into the nearby Texas Theater without paying.
Brewer alerted the ticket
clerk, who had also been listening to radio coverage of the
assassination, and she phoned the police.
The police quickly arrived en masse
and entered the
theater as the lights were turned on. Brewer identified Oswald
sitting near the rear, and Officer Maurice N. McDonald approached
him and ordered him to stand up. Oswald said, "Well, it is all over
now" and appeared to raise his hands in surrender, when he then
struck the officer. A scuffle ensued where McDonald reported that
Oswald pulled the trigger on his revolver, but the hammer came down
on the web of skin between the thumb and forefinger of the
officer's hand, which prevented the revolver from firing. Oswald
was eventually subdued. As he was led past an angry crowd of people
who had gathered outside the theater, Oswald shouted that he was a
victim of police brutality.
At about 2 p.m., Oswald arrived at the Dallas Police Department
building, where he was held on suspicion of the shooting of Officer
Tippit and was questioned by Detective Jim
. Captain J. W. Fritz was told that the name of the
suspect in the Tippit shooting was Lee Harvey Oswald, the same name
that Fritz had received at the Texas School Book Depository as a
missing employee who had last been seen in the building shortly
after the assassination. "That is the suspect we are looking for in
the President's killing," Fritz said. Oswald was then booked on
suspicion of murdering both President Kennedy and Officer Tippit.
By the end of the night he had been arraigned
before Justice of the Peace David L.
Johnston for both murders.
In the hallway of the police station, early in his custody, Oswald
had an impromptu, face-to-face brush with reporters and
photographers, in which he declared "I didn't shoot anyone" and
"They're taking me in because of the fact I lived in the Soviet
Union. I'm just a patsy!" Later, just after midnight, at a brief
arranged appearance before the press, a reporter asked him "Did you
kill the President?" and Oswald, who had been advised at 7:10 p.m.
of the charge of murdering Tippit, but was not arraigned for
Kennedy's murder until 1:30 a.m., answered "No, I have not been
charged with that. In fact, nobody has said that to me yet. The
first thing I heard about it was when the newspaper reporters in
the hall asked me that question." Before any more questions were
asked and answered, police officers began leading Oswald out of the
room, during which two more questions came: "What did you do in
Russia?" and "How did you hurt your eye?" Oswald answered the
latter, stating "A policeman hit me."
Oswald was interrogated several times during his two days of
detention at Dallas Police Headquarters. He denied killing
President Kennedy and Officer Tippit, denied owning a rifle, said
two photographs of him holding a rifle and a pistol were fakes,
denied knowing anything about the forged Selective Service
card with the
name "Alex J. Hidell" in his wallet, denied telling his co-worker
he wanted a ride to Irving to get curtain rods for his apartment,
and denied he had been seen carrying a long heavy package to work
the morning of the assassination.
During his first interrogation on Friday, November 22, Oswald was
asked to account for himself at the time the President was shot.
Oswald said that he ate lunch in the first-floor lunchroom of the
Texas School Book Depository and then went up to the second floor
for a Coke
, during which he encountered
the police officer. During his last interrogation on Sunday,
November 24, Oswald was asked again where he was at the time of the
shooting. Oswald said he was working on one of the upper floors of
the Depository when it occurred, and that he then went downstairs,
where he encountered the police officer.
Oswald asked for legal representation several times during his
interrogations and when passing by reporters. But when
representatives of the Dallas Bar
met with Oswald in his cell on Saturday afternoon,
he declined their services and said he wanted to be represented by
, who was chief counsel to the
Communist Party USA
, or by
lawyers who were members of the American Civil Liberties
. Oswald and Ruth Paine tried to reach Abt by telephone
several times on Saturday and Sunday, but Abt had gone away for the
weekend and did not return the calls. Oswald also declined his
brother Robert's offer on Saturday afternoon to get him a local
Oswald is shot by Jack Ruby.
At 11:21 am Sunday, November 24, 1963, while he was handcuffed to
Detective Leavelle and as he was about to be taken to the Dallas
County Jail, Oswald was shot and fatally wounded before live
television cameras in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by
, a Dallas nightclub operator who
said that he had been distraught over the Kennedy
Unconscious, Oswald was put into an ambulance and rushed to
, the same hospital where President Kennedy had died
two days earlier. Doctors operated on Oswald, but Ruby's single
bullet had severed major abdominal blood vessels, and the doctors
were unable to repair the massive trauma. Oswald was pronounced
dead at 1:07 pm. After a full autopsy
Oswald's body was returned to his family. Oswald's grave is in
Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park in Fort Worth.
The original tombstone, which included
Oswald's full name and dates of birth and death, was stolen; today,
the grave is marked by a stone which reads simply,
His wife Marina was sequestered by federal agents the day after the
assassination and later released. However, she had Secret Service
protection until she concluded her testimony before the Warren
The Warren Commission
President Lyndon B. Johnson
on November 29, 1963, to
investigate the assassination concluded that Oswald assassinated
Kennedy and that he acted alone (also known as the lone gunman theory
). The proceedings of
the commission were closed, but not secret, and about 3% of its
files have yet to be released to the public, which has continued to
provoke speculation among researchers.
In 1968, the Ramsey Clark
Panel met in
Washington, D.C., to examine various photographs, X-ray films,
documents, and other evidence pertaining to the death of President
Kennedy. It concluded that President Kennedy was struck by two
bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the
base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the
other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its
In 1979, an investigation by the United
States House Select Committee on Assassinations
Oswald assassinated President Kennedy "probably [...] as the result
of a conspiracy
." The HSCA
prepared an initial report concluding that Oswald acted alone,
purportedly of the assassination surfaced
and the Committee revised its conclusion. The new conclusion was
that Oswald had fired three shots, of which the last two struck the
president and were the only shots to have done so. However, on the
basis of the new acoustic evidence, the committee believed that a
second gunman had fired a fourth shot, which missed the president.
The inferred existence of second gunman automatically made the
assassination a conspiracy.
The acoustic evidence which the HCSA used for its conclusion has
since been called into question, and some believe it is not a
recording of the assassination at all. The staff director and chief
counsel for the United States House Select Committee on
Assassinations, G. Robert Blakey
, told ABC News that at least
20 persons heard a shot from the grassy
, and that the conclusion that a conspiracy existed in the
assassination was established by both the witness testimony and
acoustic evidence. In 2004, he expressed less confidence in the
acoustic evidence. Officer H.B. McLain, from whose motorcycle radio
the HSCA acoustic experts said the Dictabelt evidence came, has
repeatedly stated that he was not yet in Dealey Plaza at the time
of the assassination. McLain asked the Committee, "‘If it was my
radio on my motorcycle, why did it not record the revving up at
high speed plus my siren when we immediately took off for Parkland
Hospital?’” The HSCA was unable to identify any other gunman or the
extent of the conspiracy. It also had insufficient evidence to
identify any group responsible.
a group of twelve scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), led by Professor Norman Ramsey of Harvard, concluded that the acoustic evidence and the team
behind its submission to the HSCA was "seriously flawed."
While the NAS said that the HSCA acoustical evidence was flawed, a
2001 peer-reviewed article in Science and Justice
journal of Britain's Forensic Science Society, said that the NAS
investigation was itself flawed. The article's author, Dr. Donald
B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK assassination researcher,
concluded, with a 96.3 percent certainty, that there were at least
two gunmen firing at President Kennedy and that one of the shots
came from the grassy knoll
in front of
Kennedy. Commenting on the British study, United
States House Select Committee on Assassinations
and chief counsel G. Robert Blakey
said: "This is an honest,
careful scientific examination of everything we did, with all the
appropriate statistical checks."
The Warren Commission could not ascribe any one motive or group of
motives to Oswald's actions:
The grave of Lee Harvey Oswald
In October 1981 Oswald's body was exhumed
at the behest of British writer Michael Eddowes, with Marina Oswald Porter
's support. He
sought to prove a thesis developed in a 1975 book, Khrushchev
(re-published in 1976, in Britain as
November 22: How They Killed Kennedy
and in America a year
later as The Oswald File
). Eddowes' theory was that during Oswald's
stay in the Soviet
Union he was replaced with a Soviet double named Alek, who was a member of a
KGB assassination squad.
Eddowes' claim is that it was this
look-alike who killed Kennedy, and not Oswald. Eddowes's support for
his thesis was a claim that the corpse buried in 1963 in the
Shannon Rose Hill Memorial Park cemetery in Fort
Worth, Texas did not have
a scar that resulted from surgery conducted on Oswald years
When Oswald's body was exhumed it was found that the
plain, mole skin-covered pine coffin had ruptured and was filled
with water, leaving the body in an advanced state of decomposition
with partial skeletonization
. The examination
positively identified Oswald's corpse through dental records
, and also detected a mastoid
scar from a childhood operation. Contrary to
reports, the skull of Oswald had been autopsied and this was
confirmed at the exhumation.
Kennedy assassination theories
Critics have not accepted the conclusions of the Warren Commission
and have proposed a number of other theories
, which assert
that Oswald conspired with others or was not involved at all and
was framed. One government investigation, the HSCA, ruled out many
of these theories but concluded that, while Oswald was the
assassin, Kennedy was "probably" killed as the result of a
conspiracy. However, the HSCA report did not identify any probable
co-conspirators and its conclusion has been criticised for its
that has been called into question.
Several films have fictionalized a trial of Oswald, including
The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald
in 1964, another movie of
the same name in 1977, and On Trial: Lee Harvey Oswald
1986. In 1986, London Weekend
hosted a 21 hour television special in which an
unscripted trial was held with an actual judge and lawyers. U.S.
prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi
described the event in his book Reclaiming History
eyewitnesses from the assassination testified as to what they saw
and the mock jury returned a verdict of guilty. Author Gerald Posner
(whose book Case Closed
surmises that the Warren Commission reached the correct
conclusions) also participated in a shorter (5 hour) televised mock
trial of Oswald which made use of actors rather than
Lee Harvey Oswald's Carcano rifle, in
the US National Archives
In March 1963, Oswald used his alias "Alek James Hidell" (which he
would later use for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee
and for which he was carrying an I.D. card when arrested after the
Kennedy murder) to purchase the rifle
later linked to
the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The Carcano
Italian military surplus rifle was purchased
from Klein's Sporting Goods in Chicago, with a coupon taken from an
ad in the February issue of American Rifleman
. FBI and Treasury
Department experts later matched the handwriting on the coupon and
the envelope to Oswald. The rifle was purchased under "A. Hidell"
but sent to a Dallas post office box rented by Oswald under his own
The "backyard photos," which were taken by Marina Oswald
, probably around Sunday,
March 31, 1963, show Oswald dressed all in black and holding two
—in one hand, a rifle in the other, and carrying a
pistol in its holster. The backyard photos were shot using a camera
belonging to Oswald, an Imperial Reflex Duo-Lens 620. When shown
the pictures at Dallas Police headquarters after his arrest, Oswald
insisted they were fakes. However, Marina Oswald testified in 1964,
1969, 1977, and 1978, and reaffirmed in 2000 that she took the
photographs at Oswald's request.These photos were labelled CE 133-A
and CE 133-B. CE 133-A shows the rifle in Oswald's left hand and
newsletters in front of his chest in the other, while the rifle is
held with the right hand in CE 133-B. Oswald's mother testified
that on the day after the assassination she and Marina destroyed
another photograph with Oswald holding the rifle with both hands
over his head, with "To my daughter June" written on it.
obtained another first generation
print (from CE 133-A) on April 1, 1977 from the widow of George de Mohrenschildt
. The words
"Hunter of fascists — ha ha ha!" written in block Russian were on
the back. Also in English were added in script: "To my friend
George, Lee Oswald, 5/IV/63 [April 5, 1963]" Handwriting experts
consulted by the HSCA concluded the English inscription and
signature were written by Lee Oswald. After two original photos,
one negative and one first-generation copy had been found, the
Senate Intelligence Committee located (in 1976) a third photograph
of Oswald with a backyard pose that was different (CE 133-C, with
newspapers held in his right hand away from his body). A test photo
by the Dallas Police in the identical pose was released with the
Warren Commission evidence in 1964, but it is not known why the
photo itself was not publicly acknowledged until a print was found
in 1975 amongst the belongings of deceased Dallas police officer
These photos, widely recognized as some of the most significant
evidence against Oswald, have been subjected to rigorous analysis.
A panel of twenty-two photographic experts consulted by the HSCA
examined the photographs and answered twenty-one points of
contention raised by critics. The panel concluded the photographs
were genuine. Marina Oswald has always maintained she took the
photos herself, and the 1963 de Mohrenschildt print with Oswald's
own signature clearly indicate they existed before the
assassination. Despite such evidence, however some critics continue
to contest the authenticity of the photographs. After digitally
analyzing the photograph of Oswald holding the rifle and paper,
Dartmouth computer scientist Hany Farid published his findings
concluding that "the photo almost certainly was not altered."
- Federal Bureau of
Investigation (1963), Warren Commission (1964), House Select Committee
on Assassinations (1979).
- Lee Harvey Oswald: Texas death certificate
#75778; filed 6 December 1963
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 799, CE 1963, Schedule showing known addresses of Lee Harvey
Oswald from the time of his birth.
Caserta "Going Down With Janis", pages 85-86 She was in LHO's
7th grade class in Covington, La.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Edward Pic.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 687, CE 1382, Interview with Mrs. John Edward Pic.
- Report of Renatus Hartogs, May 1, 1953 at
- Carro Exhibit No. 1 Continued at Kennedy
Assassination Home Page.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Carro.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 123, CE 2223, Big
Brothers of New York, Inc., Case file of Lee Harvey Oswald.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapt. 7, p.
- Warren Commission Hearings, CE 2240, FBI transcript of letter from Lee Oswald to the
Socialist Party of America, October 3, 1956.
- Oswald, David Ferrie and the Civil Air Patrol,
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Volume 9, 4,
- Testimony of Edward Voebel, Warren Commission
Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 10, 12.
- Lee Oswald's brother, Harvey Oswald by His Brother, (New York:
Coward-McCann, 1967), pp. 71-2. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald:
Background and Possible Motives, Return to New Orleans and Joining the Marine
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Marine Training.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p.
665, Administrative Remarks.
- Marines Warren Commission Report, Appendix 13,
- Warren Commission Hearings, Marine Corps service record of Lee Harvey
- Posner,Gerald "Case Closed" Random House, New York, 1993 pg.
- Testimony of John E. Donovan, Warren Commission
Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 290, 298.
- Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York:
Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 94, 99. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 705, CE 1385, Notes of interview of Lee Harvey Oswald conducted
by Aline Mosby in Moscow in November 1959. Oswald: "When I was
working in the middle of the night on guard duty, I would think how
long it would be and how much money I would have to save. It would
be like being out of prison. I saved about $1500." During Oswald's
2 years and 10 months of service in the Marine Corps he received
$3,452.20, after all taxes, allotments and other deductions. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 26, p. 709, CE 3099, Certified military pay records for Lee Harvey
Oswald for the period October 24, 1956, to September 11,
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p.
85, Request for Dependency Discharge.
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, The Journey From USA to USSR at Russian
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 94, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of
October 16, 1959.
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 2 at Russian Books
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 3 at Russian Books
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 1 at Russian Books
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 108, CE 912, Declaration of Lee Harvey Oswald, dated November 3,
1959, requesting that his U.S. citizenship be revoked.
- Foreign Service Despatch from the American Embassy
in Moscow to the Department of State, Warren Commission
Hearings, vol. 18, p. 98, CE 908
- Warren Commission Hearings, CE 780, Documents from Lee Harvey Oswald's Marine Corps
- State Department Memorandum from John A. McVickar
to Thomas Ehrlich, dated November 27, 1963, Warren Commission
Hearings, vol. 18, p. 155, CE 941
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 3 at Russian Books
- Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 2 at Russian Books
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 102, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of
January 4–31, 1961.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 131, CE 931, Undated letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to the
American Embassy in Moscow.
- While later reports described her uncle as a colonel in the KGB, he was actually a lumber industry expert in
the Russian Ministry of
Internal Affairs (MVD) with a bureaucratic rank equivalent to
Johnson McMillan, Marina and Lee, Harper & Row, 1977,
pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0060129538.
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, vol.
2 p. 207, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, September
- "Young Ex-Marine Asks To Be Russian Citizen", Oakland
Tribune, October 31, 1959, p. 1. "Ex-Marine Requests
Citizenship", New York Times, November 1, 1959, p. 3.
"Texan in Russia: He Wants to Stay", Dallas Morning News,
November 1, 1959, sec. 1, p. 9. "Brother Tries to Telephone, Halt
Defector", Oakland Tribune November 2, 1959, p. 8. "U.S.
Boy Prefers Russia", Syracuse Herald-Journal, December
11, 1959, p. 46. "Third Yank Said Quitting Soviet Union,
San Mateo Times, June 8, 1962, p.
8. "Marine Returning", The Lima News, June 9, 1962, p. 1.
- Oswald Letters at Smithsonian Folkways
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 123, Affidavit of Alexander Kleinlerer: "Anna
Meller, Mrs. Hall, George Bouhe, and the deMohrenschildts, and all
that group had pity for Marina and her child. None of us cared for
Oswald because of his political philosophy, his criticism of the
United States, his apparent lack of interest in anyone but himself,
and because of his treatment of Marina."
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 298, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 307, Testimony of Mrs. Katherine Ford. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 252, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 238, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 266, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt.
- George de Mohrenschildt. Staff Report of
the Select Committee on Assassinations, 1979.
- George DeMorenschildt, "I'm a Patsy".
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 435, Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine.
- The company has been cited as doing classified work for the US government
but this was limited to typesetting for maps and produced in a section
to which Oswald had no access.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 288, Photograph of the face sides of a Selective Service
System Notice of Classification. Warren Commission Hearings,
vol. 10, p. 201, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein: 'I would say he
didn't get along with people and that several people had words with
him at times about the way he barged around the plant, and one of
the fellows back in the photosetter department almost got in a
fight with him one day, and I believe it was Mr. Graef that stepped
in and broke it up before it got started…'
- This magazine was largely a satire of the performance of the
Soviet system, not of the West; by this time Oswald had long become
dissatisfied with the U.S.S.R., as noted.
- Findings of the Select Committee on
Assassinations, HSCA Final Report, p. 61.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 16, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
- The Assassin, Warren Commission Report, p.
- Questioned Documents, Warren Commission Report,
Appendix 10, p. 567-571.
- HSCA Final Report: I. Findings - A. Lee Harvey
Oswald Fired Three Shots
- "Officials Recall Sniper Shooting at Walker Home", Dallas
Morning News, November 23, 1963, sec. 1, p. 15.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 392–393, CE 1785,
Secret Service report dated December 5, 1963, on
questioning of Marina Oswald about note Oswald wrote before he
attempted to kill General Walker.
- Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, Warren Commission
Hearings, vol. 9, p. 393–394.
- "Oswald Notes Reported Left Before Walker Was Shot At",
Dallas Morning News, December 31, 1963, sec. 1, p. 6.
- "FBI Unable to Link Walker Slug, Rifle", Dallas Moring
News, December 20, 1963, sec. 1, p. 7.
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Testimony of Dr. Vincent P. Guinn: :Mr. WOLF. In your
professional opinion, Dr. Guinn, is the fragment removed from
General Walker's house a fragment from a WCC (Western Cartridge Company)
Mannlicher-Carcano bullet? :Dr. GUINN. I would say that it is
extremely likely that it is, because there are very few, very few
other ammunitions that would be in this range. I don't know of any
that are specifically this close as these numbers indicate, but
somewhere near them there are a few others, but essentially this is
in the range that is rather characteristic of WCC
Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, pp. 34–37, Testimony of Carlos Bringuier.
- Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York:
Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 211. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 21, p. 633, Stuckey Exhibit 3,
Literal transcript of an audio-tape recording of a
debate among Lee Harvey Oswald, Carlos Bringuier, and Ed Butler on
August 21, 1963, Radio station WDSU, New Orleans.
- PBS Frontline "Who Was Lee Harvey
Oswald", broadcast on PBS stations, November 1993 (various
- Warren Commission Hearings, volume 11, pp. 214-215, Affidavit of John Bryan McFarland and Meryl
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 418, CE 2564, Cuban visa application of Lee Harvey Oswald,
September 27, 1963.
- (undated) Oswald's Foreign Activities (Coleman and
Slawson to Rankin) (page 94) at The Assassination Archives
and Research Center
- Warren Commission Report, p. 413
- Oswald: Myth, Mystery, and Meaning,
FRONTLINE, November 20, 2003
- HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 8, p. 358, Letter from Lee Oswald to Embassy of the U.S.S.R.,
Washington, D.C., November 9, 1963. CIA Report on Oswald's Stay in Mexico, December
13, 1963. (page 19) at The Assassination Archives and Research
- Warren Commission Report, p. 739.
- Dallas Morning News, November 19, 1963. Dallas
Times Herald, November 19, 1963, p. A-13.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. I, p. 72-73,
Testimony of Marina Oswald.
- Magen Knuth, The Long Brown Bag.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Charles Givens. An FBI report from
November 26, 1963 said that Depository employee Carolyn Arnold, as
she left the building to watch the motorcade, thought she caught a
fleeting glimpse of Oswald standing in the first floor hallway of
the building, a few minutes before 12:15 pm. In 1978, she told
author Anthony Summers that the FBI report misquoted her, and that
she "clearly" saw Oswald sitting in the second floor lunchroom at
12:15 pm or slightly after. In either case, no other depository
employee reported seeing Oswald on the first or second floors
between 12 noon and 12:30 pm (e.g., Mrs. Pauline Sanders, who left the second floor
lunchroom at "approximately 12:20 pm," did not see Oswald any time
that day). The two Depository employees with whom Oswald said he
ate lunch on the first floor both denied it.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Roy Sansom Truly.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz.
- Bus transfer (.gif) at Kennedy Assassination Home
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Earlene Roberts.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Movements After Leaving Depository
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 113, Barnes Exhibit A,
Right side of Tippit squad car, showing open
wing vent window.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, The Killing of Patrolman J.D. Tippit.
- Warren Commission Report, Chaper 4: The Assassin, Description of Shooting.
- By the evening of November 22, five of them (Helen Markham,
Barbara Jeanette Davis, Virginia Davis, Ted Callaway, Sam Guinyard)
had identified Lee Harvey Oswald in police lineups as the man they
saw. A sixth (William Scoggins) did so the next day. Three others
(Harold Russell, Pat Patterson, Warren Reynolds) subsequently
identified Oswald from a photograph. Two witnesses (Domingo
Benavides, William Arthur Smith) testified that Oswald resembled
the man they had seen. One witness (L.J. Lewis) felt he was too
distant from the gunman to make a positive identification. Warren
Commission Hearings, CE 1968, Location of Eyewitnesses to the Movements of Lee
Harvey Oswald in the Vicinity of the Tippit Killing.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, pp. 466–473, Testimony of Cortlandt Cunningham. Warren
Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 511, Testimony of Jospeh D. Nicol.
- Tippit Murder: Findings and Conclusions, 7 HSCA
- Testimony of Johnny Calvin Brewer, 7 H
- Testimony of Julia Postal, 7 H 11.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of M. N. McDonald.
- Copy of an undated statement made by Richard M.
Sims and E. L. Boyd concerning the events surrounding the
assassination, 21 H 512–514.
- Testimony of J.W. Fritz, 4 H 206.
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 5: Detention and Death of
Oswald, Chronology. Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3 — Handwritten notes made by
Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the
- Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film),
- Lee Oswald's Midnight Press Conference,
- Warren Commission Report, pp. 180-182.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 4, Testimony of James P. Hosty, Jr., p. 467-468;
Testimony of J.W. Fritz, p. 213-214; Commission
Exhibit 2003, Dallas Police Department file on investigation of
the assassination of the President, "Interrogation of Lee
Harvey Oswald", vol. 4, p. 265.
- Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, vol. 7, p.
- Testimony of H. Louis Nichols, 7 H
- Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, 7 H 299–300.
- Jesse E. Curry, Retired Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry Reveals His
Personal JFK Assassination File, Self-published, 1969, p.
74, affidavit of Dallas police officer Thurber T. Lord on August
- Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, 3 H 88–89.
- Testimony of John J. Abt, 10 H 116.
- Robert L. Oswald, Lee: A Portrait of Lee Harvey Oswald by His
Brother, Coward-McCann, 1967, p. 145.
- Directions to Lee Harvey Oswald's Grave at Kennedy
Assassination Home Page
- Photos of Gravesite
- "Two misconceptions about the Warren Commission hearing need to
be clarified...hearings were closed to the public unless the
witness appearing before the Commission requested an open hearing.
No witness except one...requested an open hearing...Second,
although the hearings (except one) were conducted in private, they
were not secret. In a secret hearing, the witness is instructed not
to disclose his testimony to any third party, and the hearing
testimony is not published for public consumption. The witnesses
who appeared before the Commission were free to repeat what they
said to anyone they pleased, and all of their testimony
was subsequently published in the first fifteen volumes put out by
the Warren Commission." (Bugliosi, p. 332)
- 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents
and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President
John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas (.txt) at
Kennedy Assassination Home Page
- Findings of the Select Committee on
Assassinations HSCA Final Report, pp. 3-4.
- Holland, Max. The JFK Lawyers' Conspiracy Published in
The Nation on unknown date, reposted by George Mason
University's History News Network, February 6, 2006
- Testimony of Mark Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy,
5 HSCA 617.
- G. Robert Blakey and Richard N. Billings, The Plot to Kill
the President, Times Books, 1981, p. 103. ISBN
- Greg Jaynes, The Scene of the Crime, Afterward.
- " Separate Views of Hons. Samuel L. Devine and Robert
W. Edgar", HSCA Report, pp. 492–493.
- Donald B. Thomas, "Echo Correlation Analysis and the Acoustic Evidence in
the Kennedy Assassination Revisited", Science and
Justice, Volume 41(1), 2001
- George Lardner Jr., "Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll'",
Washington Post, March 26, 2001
- W. Tracy Parnell, The
Exhumation of Lee Harvey Oswald.
- W. Tracy Parnell, My
Interview With Dr. Vincent J.M. Di Maio.
- Posner,Gerald "Case Closed" Random House, New York, 1993
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Photograph of Oswald With Rifle
- Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Denial of Rifle Ownership.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 15, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
- Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, Trial of Clay
Shaw, Criminal District Court, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, Feb.
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Deposition of Marina Oswald Porter: :Q. I want
to mark these two photographs. On the back of the first one, which
I would ask be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1, it says in the
bottom right-hand corner copy from the National Archives, records
group No. 272, under that it says CE-133B. I will ask that be
marked JFK exhibit No. 1. (The above referred to photograph was
marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1 for identification.) :Q. New,
this second picture that I will ask to be marked says copy from the
National Archives, record group No. 272, CE-133. I would ask that
this be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2. (The above referred to
photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2 for
identification.) :By Mr. KLEIN: :Q. I will show you those two
photographs which are marked JFK exhibit No. 1 and exhibit No. 2,
do you recognize those two photographs? :A. I sure do. I have seen
them many times. :Q. What are they? :A. That is the pictures that I
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, vol.
2 p. 239, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter: :Mr.
McDONALD. Mrs. Porter, I have got two exhibits to show you, if the
clerk would procure them from the representatives of the National
Archives. We have two photographs to show you. They are Warren Commission Exhibits C-133-A and B, which
have been given JFK Nos. F-378 and F-379. If the clerk would please
hand them to you, and also if we could now have for display
purposes JFK Exhibit F-179, which is a blowup of the two
photographs placed in front of you. Mrs. Porter, do you recognize
the photographs placed in front of you? :Mrs. PORTER. Yes, I do.
:Mr. McDONALD. And how do you recognize them? :Mrs. PORTER. That is
the photograph that I made of Lee on his persistent request of
taking a picture of him dressed like that with rifle.
- Marina Oswald Porter, interview with author Vincent Bugliosi
and lawyer Jack Duffy, Dallas, Texas, November 30, 2000, reported
in Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, p. 794.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 146, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
- HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, p. 151, Figure IV-21.
- Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 497, CE 712, Photographs taken by the Dallas Police Department
on November 29, 1963, showing backyard of home on Neely Street in
Dallas, where Oswald once lived.
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Appendix to
Hearings, p. 141, The Oswald Backyard Photographs.
- HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, "The Oswald Backyard Photographs".
States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings,
Testimony of Jack D. White.
- Dartmouth Professor finds that iconic Oswald photo was not
- Bugliosi, Vincent.
Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F.
Kennedy. Norton, 2007, 1632 p. ISBN 0393045250.
- Eddowes, Michael. Khrushchev
Killed Kennedy, self-published, (1975), paperback (republished
as November 22, How They Killed Kennedy, Neville Spearman
(1976), hardback, ISBN 0-85978-019-8 and as The Oswald
File, Potter (1977), hardcover, ISBN 0-517-53055-4)
- Groden, Robert J.. The
Search of Lee Harvey Oswald: A Comprehensive Photographic
Record, New York: Penguin Studio Books, 1995. ISBN
- La Fontaine, Ray and Mary, "Oswald Talked: The New Evidence in
the JFK Assassination", Gretna: Pelican Publishing Co., 1996. ISBN
- Lambert, Patricia. False Witness: The Real Story of Jim
Garrison's Investigation and Oliver Stone's Film JFK, New
York: M. Evans & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-87131-920-9
- Lifton, David S., Best
Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the. Assassination of
John F. Kennedy, Carroll & Graf Publishers, NYC, 1988,
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