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Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to three government investigations, the assassinmarker of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who was fatally shot on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texasmarker.

A United States Marine who defected to the Soviet Unionmarker and later returned, Oswald was arrested on suspicion of killing Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit and later connected to the assassination of President Kennedy. Oswald denied any responsibility for the murders. Two days later on November 24, 1963, while being transferred under police custody from the city jail to the county jail, Oswald was shot and mortally wounded by Jack Ruby on live television.

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated President Kennedy single-handedly, a conclusion also reached by prior investigations of the FBI and the Dallas Police Department.

Biography

Childhood

Lee Harvey Oswald was born in New Orleans, Louisianamarker, and was of English, German, French and Irish ancestry. His father, Robert Edward Lee Oswald, Sr. (New Orleans, March 4, 1896 – New Orleans, August 19, 1939), who had previously been married before marrying Oswald's mother on July 20, 1933, died two months before Lee was born. Mostly on her own, his mother, Marguerite Frances Claverie (New Orleans, July 19, 1907 – Fort Worth, Texas, January 17, 1981), raised Lee and his two older siblings (his brother, Robert, Jr.; and their half-brother, John Pic (1932–2000), Marguerite's son from a previous marriage). Oswald had a stepfather, Edwin Adolph Ekdahl (1888–1965), from 1945 to 1948.

Lee's youth was characterized by extreme mobility; before the age of 18, Oswald had lived in 22 different homes. Because of the short-lived stay in each location, he had attended 12 different schools, mostly around New Orleansmarker; Covington, Louisianamarker; and Dallasmarker, but also in New York City. His mother placed him in a foster home for 13 months in 1942–1943, when she was too poor to take care of him and his brothers.As a child, Oswald was withdrawn and temperamental. After moving in with his half-brother, who had joined the Coast Guard and was stationed in New York City, Oswald and Pic were asked to leave after an incident in which Oswald allegedly threatened Pic's wife with a knife, and struck his mother. Following charges of truancy, he was put under a three week court-ordered stay for psychiatric assessment in a juvenile reformatory called Youth House. Dr. Renatus Hartogs described Oswald as having a "vivid fantasy life, turning around the topics of omnipotence and power, through which he tries to compensate for his present shortcomings and frustrations," and diagnosed the 14-year-old Oswald as having a "personality pattern disturbance with schizoid features and passive-aggressive tendencies" and recommended continued psychiatric intervention.

Oswald's behavior at school appeared to improve during his last months in New York. In January 1954, his mother Marguerite decided to return to New Orleans with Lee, which prevented him from receiving the care the psychiatrist had recommended. There was still an open question pending before a New York judge whether or not he should be taken from the care of his mother to finish his schooling.

Oswald dropped out of school twice. Oswald left school after one month of 10th grade while in New Orleans. Afterwards, the family moved back to Fort Worth and he started the 10th grade again. After 23 days, he quit and joined the United States Marines. He never received a high school diploma. A dyslexic, he had trouble with spelling and writing coherently. Yet Oswald read voraciously and, by age 15, claimed to be a Marxist from his reading on the topic. He wrote in his diary, "I was looking for a key to my environment, and then I discovered socialist literature. I had to dig for my books in the back dusty shelves of libraries". At 16, Oswald wrote to the Socialist Party of America, stating that he was a Marxist who had been studying socialist principles for "well over fifteen months", and asked for information about their youth league.

However, Edward Voebel, "whom the Warren Commission had established was Oswald's closest friend during his teenage years in New Orleans ... said that reports that Oswald was already 'studying Communism' were a 'lot of baloney.'" Voebel said that "Oswald commonly read 'paperback trash.'"



Military service

Despite his avowed Marxist sympathies, Oswald enlisted in the US Marine Corps on October 24, 1956, one week after his seventeenth birthday. He idolized his older brother, Robert, and wore Robert's U.S. Marines ring. Joining the Marines may have also been a way to escape from his overbearing mother.

While in the Marines, Oswald was trained in the use of the M1 Garand rifle. Following that training, he was tested in December 1956, and obtained a score of 212, which was 2 points above the minimum for qualifications as a sharpshooter. In May 1959, on another range, Oswald scored 191, which was 1 point over the minimum for ranking as a marksman.

Oswald, however, was trained primarily as a radar operator, a job that required a security clearance. A May 1957 document states that he was "granted FINAL clearance to handle classified matter up to and including CONFIDENTIAL after careful check of local records had disclosed no derogatory data." Oswald took the Aircraft Control and Warning Operator Course and finished seventh in a class of thirty. The course "...included instruction in aircraft surveillance and the use of radar." He was assigned first to Marine Corps Air Station El Toromarker now in Irvinemarker, Californiamarker in July 1957, then to Naval Air Facility Atsugimarker in Japan in September 1957. Although Atsugi was a base for the top-secret CIA U-2 spy planes that flew over the Soviet Unionmarker, there is no evidence Oswald was involved in that operation.

Oswald was court-martialed twice: initially because of accidentally shooting himself in the elbow with an unauthorized handgun, and then later for starting a fight with a sergeant he thought responsible for the punishment he received from his first court-martial. He was demoted from private first class to private, and briefly served time in the brig. Later, he was punished for another incident: While on sentry duty one night in the Philippinesmarker, he inexplicably fired his rifle into the jungle.

Small compared with some other Marines, Oswald was nicknamed Ozzie Rabbit after the cartoon character. For his anti-American beliefs, he was also nicknamed Oswaldskovich. In December 1958, he transferred back to the Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. The function of Oswald's unit at El Toro "...was to serveil [sic] for aircraft, but basically to train both enlisted men and officers for later assignment overseas." One of Oswald's officers, Lieutenant John Donovan, said that Oswald was a "very competent" crew chief. Oswald subscribed to the Communist Party newspaper, The Worker, and claimed to have taught himself rudimentary Russian. At the El Toro base, in February 1959, he took the Marine proficiency exam in written and spoken Russian and his test results were rated "poor."

Life in the Soviet Union

Photo of Oswald taken in October 1959 shortly after his arrival in the Soviet Union.
In October 1959, Oswald emigrated to the Soviet Unionmarker. He was 19, and the trip was planned well in advance. Along with having taught himself rudimentary Russian, he had saved $1,500 of his Marine Corps salary, got an early "hardship" discharge by claiming he needed to care for his injured mother, got a passport, and submitted several fictional applications to foreign universities in order to obtain a student visa.

After spending two days with his mother in Fort Worthmarker, Oswald departed by ship from New Orleansmarker on September 20, 1959, to Le Havremarker, France. He left for England that same day, and arrived on October 9. He told customs officials in Southamptonmarker that he had $700 and planned to remain in the United Kingdom for one week before proceeding to a school in Switzerland. But on the same day, he flew on a Finnair flight to Helsinkimarker, Finland, where he stayed until October 15. Oswald probably applied for a visa at the Soviet consulate on October 12. The visa was issued on October 14. He left Helsinki by train on the following day, crossed the Finnish-Soviet border at Vainikkalamarker, and arrived in Moscow on October 16.

He almost immediately announced to his Intourist guide his intention to become a citizen of the Soviet Union. But when he was informed on October 21 that his application for citizenship had been refused, Oswald made a bloody but minor cut to his left wrist in his hotel room bathtub. After bandaging his superficial injury, the cautious Soviets kept him under psychiatric observation at a hospital.

When Oswald showed up unexpectedly at the United States embassy in Moscow on October 31, he said he wanted to renounce his U.S. citizenship. He told Soviet officials "...that he had been a radar operator in the Marine Corps and that he ... would make known to them such information concerning the Marine Corps and his speciality as he possessed. He intimated that he might know something of special interest." When the Navy Department learned of this, it changed Oswald's Marine Corps discharge from "hardship/honorable" to "undesirable".

John McVickar, one of the American consular officials at the Moscow embassy who was in contact with Oswald, said he felt that Oswald, "...was following a pattern of behavior in which he had been tutored by [a] person or persons unknown ... seemed to be using words which he had learned but did not fully understand ... in short, it seemed to me that there was a possibility that he had been in contact with others before or during his Marine Corps tour who had guided him and encouraged him in his actions."

Marina Prusakova, Minsk 1959
Although Oswald had wanted to remain in Moscow and attend Moscow Universitymarker, he was sent to Minskmarker, then the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and now the capital of Belarusmarker. He was given a job as a metal lathe operator at the Gorizont (Horizon) Electronics Factory in Minsk, a huge facility that produced radios and televisions along with military and space electronic components. He was given a rent-subsidized, fully furnished studio apartment in a prestigious building under Gorizont's administration and in addition to his factory pay received monetary subsidies from the Russian Red Cross Society. This represented an idyllic existence by Soviet-era working-class standards. Oswald was under constant surveillance by the KGBmarker during his thirty-month stay in Minsk.

Oswald gradually grew bored with the limited recreation available in Minsk. He wrote in his diary in January 1961: "I am starting to reconsider my desire about staying. The work is drab, the money I get has nowhere to be spent. No nightclubs or bowling alleys, no places of recreation except the trade union dances. I have had enough." Shortly afterwards, Oswald opened negotiations with the U.S. Embassy in Moscow over his proposed return to the United States.

At a dance in early 1961 Oswald met Marina Prusakova, a 19-year-old pharmacology student from a broken family in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburgmarker) who was then living with her aunt and uncle in Minsk. Lee and Marina married on April 30, 1961, less than six weeks after they met. Their first child, June, was born on February 15, 1962.

After nearly a year of paperwork and waiting, on June 1, 1962 the young family left the Soviet Unionmarker for the United States. Even before November 22, 1963, Oswald received a small measure of national notoriety in the U.S. press as an American who had defected to the U.S.S.R. and returned.

In 1964, Oswald's mother, Marguerite, recorded and released an album on Folkways Records reading and commenting on his letters from his time in Soviet Union. It was entitled, The Oswald Case: Mrs. Marguerite Oswald Reads Lee Harvey Oswald's Letters from Russia.

Dallas

Back in the United States, the Oswalds settled in the Dallas/Fort Worth area, where his mother and brother lived, and Lee attempted to write his memoir and commentary on Soviet life, a small manuscript called The Collective. He soon gave up the idea but his search for literary feedback put him in touch with the area's close-knit community of anti-Communist Russian émigrés. While merely tolerating the belligerent and arrogant Lee Oswald, they sympathized with Marina, partly because she was in a foreign country with no knowledge of English (which her husband refused to teach her, saying he didn't want to forget Russian) and because Oswald had begun to beat her.

Although the Russian émigrés eventually abandoned Marina when she made no sign of leaving him, Oswald had found an unlikely friend in the well-educated and worldly petroleum geologist George de Mohrenschildt. A native Russian-speaker himself, de Mohrenschildt wrote that Oswald spoke Russian "very well, with only a little accent." Marina meanwhile befriended a married couple: Ruth Paine, who was trying to learn Russian, and her husband Michael.

In Dallas in July 1962, Oswald got a job with the Leslie Welding Company, but disliked the work and quit after three months. He then found a position in October 1962 at the graphic arts firm of Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall as a photoprint trainee. He may have used photographic and typesetting equipment in the unsecured area to create falsified identification documents, including some in the name of an alias he created, Alek James Hidell. His co-workers and supervisors eventually grew frustrated with his inefficiency, lack of precision, inattention, and rudeness to others, to the point where fights had threatened to break out. He had also been seen reading a Russian publication, Krokodil (Russian: 'Крокодил', 'crocodile'), in the cafeteria. He lost his job in May 1963 due to incompetence.

Attempted assassination of General Walker

The Warren Commission concluded that on April 10, 1963, Oswald attempted to assassinate retired Major General Edwin Walker, and that Oswald probably used the rifle shown in his backyard pose photos of March 31. (The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations stated that the "evidence strongly suggested" that Oswald did the shooting.)

General Edwin Walker was an outspoken anti-communist, segregationist and member of the John Birch Society who had been commanding officer of the Army's 24th Infantry Division based in West Germany under NATOmarker supreme command until he was relieved of his command in 1961 by JFK for distributing right-wing literature to his troops. Walker resigned from the service and returned to his native Texasmarker. He became involved in the movement to resist the use of federal troops for securing racial integration at the University of Mississippimarker, resistance that led to a riot on October 1, 1962 in which two people were killed. He was arrested for insurrection, seditious conspiracy, and other charges, but a local federal grand jury refused to indict Walker.

Oswald considered Walker a "fascist" and the leader of a "fascist organization." In March 1963, Oswald purchased a 6.5 mm caliber Carcano rifle (also commonly but improperly called Mannlicher-Carcano) by mail order, using the alias "A. Hidell." He also purchased a revolver by the same method.

The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald attempted to shoot General Walker with his rifle, while Walker was sitting at a desk in his dining room. Oswald fired at him from less than one hundred feet (30 m) away. Walker survived only because the bullet struck the wooden frame of the window, which deflected its path, but was injured in the forearm by bullet fragments. Oswald returned home and told Marina what he had just done.

General Walker's brush with death was reported nationwide. The Dallas police had no suspects in the shooting.

Oswald's involvement in the attempt on Walker's life was suspected within hours of his arrest on November 22, 1963, following the Kennedy assassination. But a note Oswald left for Marina on the night of the attempt, telling her what to do if he did not return, was not found until early December 1963, after which Marina told authorities about Oswald and Walker. The bullet was too badly damaged to run conclusive ballistics studies on it, though neutron activation tests later showed that it was "extremely likely" that the Walker bullet was from the same cartridge manufacturer and for the same rifle make as the two bullets which later struck Kennedy.

New Orleans

Oswald's mugshot following his arrest in New Orleans


Oswald returned to New Orleans on April 25, 1963 and got a job as a machinery greaser with the Reily Coffee Company in May. Oswald's wife, Marina, joined him in New Orleans, after being driven there by family friend Ruth Paine. In July, Oswald was fired from Reily for malingering.

On May 26, 1963, Oswald, without any previous contact with the FPCC, and with no membership in the Communist Party USA, wrote a letter to the New York City headquarters of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, a pro-Castro organization, and proposed "...renting a small office at my own expense for the purpose of forming a FPCC branch here in New Orleans." The FPCC Chairman replied, rejecting Oswald's proposal and later commented on its suspicious nature. In that letter, Oswald also claimed to have had a public brawl with a Cuban refugee, although that fight would not occur for two weeks.

On August 5 and 6, according to Carlos Bringuier, Oswald visited him at a store he owned in New Orleans. Bringuier was the New Orleans delegate for the anti-Castro Cuban Student Directorate. Bringuier told the Warren Commission that he believed Oswald's visits were an attempt by Oswald to infiltrate his anti-Castro group. Three days later, on August 9, Oswald turned up in downtown New Orleans handing out pro-Castro fliers. Bringuier confronted Oswald, claiming he was tipped off about Oswald's leafleting by a friend. During an ensuing scuffle, Oswald, along with Bringuier and two of his friends, was arrested and charged with disturbing the peace.

The arrest got news media attention and Oswald was interviewed afterwards. He was also filmed passing out fliers in front of the International Trade Mart with two 'volunteers' he had hired (hired, because Oswald was not a member of the Communist Party USA so he had no regular volunteers). Oswald's political work in New Orleans came to an end after a WDSUmarker radio debate between Bringuier and Oswald arranged by journalist Bill Stuckey. During the course of the debate, Oswald was confronted with accusations about his past in the Soviet Unionmarker and his activities in New Orleans.

Oswald's activities in New Orleans in mid-1963 were investigated by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison during his prosecution of Clay Shaw in 1969. Garrison was particularly interested in investigating David Ferrie's connections to Oswald, which Ferrie himself denied. Ferrie died before he could be brought to trial. In 1993, the PBS television program Frontline obtained a group photograph, taken eight years before the assassination, that showed Oswald and Ferrie at a cookout with other Civil Air Patrol cadets.

Ron Lewis claimed that he briefly met David Ferrie and Guy Banister, and Lewis could have substantiated many claims proposed by Jim Garrison, but Lewis decided not to risk personal danger by coming forward with his testimony during the trial of Clay Shaw.

Mexico

While Ruth Paine drove Marina back to Dallas in late September 1963, Oswald lingered in New Orleans for two more days waiting to collect a $33 unemployment check. It has never been conclusively established precisely when Oswald left New Orleans, or what mode of transportation he took. He is next known to have boarded a bus in Houstonmarker, but instead of heading north to Dallas, he took a bus southwest towards Laredomarker and the U.S.-Mexico border. Once in Mexico he hoped to continue to Cuba, a plan he openly shared with other passengers on the bus. Arriving in Mexico Citymarker, he completed a transit visa application at the Cuban Embassy, claiming he wanted to visit the country on his way back to the Soviet Unionmarker. The Cubans insisted the Soviet Union would have to approve his journey to the USSR before he could get a Cuban visa, but he was unable to get speedy co-operation from the Soviet embassy.

After shuttling back and forth between consulates for five days, getting into a heated argument with the Cuban consul, making impassioned pleas to KGBmarker agents, and coming under at least some CIA interest, Oswald was told by the Cuban consul that "as far as [he] was concerned [he] would not give him a visa" and that "a person like him [Oswald] in place of aiding the Cuban Revolution, was doing it harm." However, less than three weeks later, on October 18 the Cuban embassy in Mexico City finally approved the visa, and 11 days before the assassination Oswald wrote a letter to the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C.marker, which said, "Had I been able to reach the Soviet Embassy in Havanamarker as planned, the embassy there would have had time to complete our business."

Return to Dallas

Oswald left Mexico City on October 3, and returned by bus to Dallas, where he looked for employment. Through Ruth Paine he found a job filling book orders at the Texas School Book Depositorymarker, where he started work on October 16. During the week, he lived in a rooming house on Beckley Street in Dallas (under the pseudonym O.H. Lee), and spent the weekends with his wife at the Paine home in Irving, Texasmarker, about 15 miles (24 km) from central Dallas. On October 20, the Oswalds' second daughter was born. During this period, the FBImarker was aware of Oswald's whereabouts in Texas, and agents from the Dallas office twice visited the Paine home in early November when Oswald was not present, hoping to get more information about Marina Oswald, whom the FBI suspected of being a Soviet agent.

On November 16, a local newspaper reported that President Kennedy's motorcade would be going through central Dallas on November 22, "probably on Main Street" one block from the Texas School Book Depository, which it would have to pass to get onto the freeway to the President's luncheon site. This was confirmed by exact descriptions of the motorcade route published on November 19. On Thursday, November 21, Oswald asked Buell Wesley Frazier, a co-worker, for a ride to Irving, saying he had to pick up some curtain rods. The next morning, after leaving $170 and his wedding ring, he returned to Dallas with Frazier, carrying a long paper bag with him.

Oswald was last seen by a co-worker alone on the sixth floor of the depository about 30 minutes before the assassination.

Assassination of JFK

According to Government investigations, Oswald shot John F. Kennedy and two other people at 12:30 pm on November 22, 1963, resulting in the death of Kennedy. The 1964 Warren Commission report on the John F. Kennedy assassination concluded that those bullets came from a 6.5 millimeter Italian carbine with a four-power scope that Oswald fired from a window on the sixth floor of the book depository warehouse, where he was an employee, as the President's motorcade passed through Dallas's Dealey Plazamarker.

Texas Governor John Connally was also seriously wounded along with assassination witness James Tague who received a minor facial injury.

Oswald's flight and the murder of Officer J. D. Tippit

Dallas PD color mugshot November 23, 1963
According to the Warren Commission report, immediately after he shot President Kennedy, Oswald hid the rifle behind some boxes and descended via the depository's rear stairwell. On the second floor he encountered Dallas police officer Marion Baker and Roy Truly, Oswald's supervisor, who identified Oswald as an employee, and Baker let Oswald pass. This encounter occurred in the second floor lunch room approximately 90 seconds after the shooting. Subsequently, Oswald crossed the floor to the front staircase, descended and left the building through the front entrance on Elm Street, just before the police sealed off the building. Oswald was the only employee of the Depository who permanently left the building after the assassination; his supervisor later noticed Oswald missing and reported his name and address to the Dallas police in the building.

At about 12:40 p.m. (CST), Oswald boarded a city bus, but due to heavy traffic, he requested a bus transfer from the driver and exited the bus two blocks later. He took a taxicab to his rooming house, which he entered about 1:00 p.m. His housekeeper, Earlene Roberts, testified that "he was walking pretty fast — he was all but running." He went into his room briefly, put on a jacket, and left. Oswald was last seen by Roberts standing by a bus stop across the street.

About four-fifths of a mile (about 1.3 km) away, Patrolman J. D. Tippit encountered Oswald on a residential street in the neighborhood of Oak Cliff. He pulled up next to Oswald and spoke to him through a passenger side window. When Tippit exited his squad car, he was shot four times with a .38 caliber revolver, killing him in view of two eyewitnesses. Seven other witnesses heard the shots and saw the gunman flee the scene with the revolver in his hand. Four cartridge cases were found at the scene by eyewitnesses. It was the unanimous testimony of expert witnesses before the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations that these used cartridge cases were fired from the revolver in Oswald's possession to the exclusion of all other weapons.
Oswald's Seat In The Texas Theater


A few minutes later, Oswald ducked into the entrance alcove of a shoe store and appeared to be avoiding passing police cars. Johnny Brewer, the shoe store's manager, had been listening to the day's events on the radio, and felt that Oswald was acting suspiciously. After Oswald walked away, Brewer went outside his shop and saw Oswald slip into the nearby Texas Theatermarker without paying. Brewer alerted the ticket clerk, who had also been listening to radio coverage of the assassination, and she phoned the police.

The police quickly arrived en masse and entered the theater as the lights were turned on. Brewer identified Oswald sitting near the rear, and Officer Maurice N. McDonald approached him and ordered him to stand up. Oswald said, "Well, it is all over now" and appeared to raise his hands in surrender, when he then struck the officer. A scuffle ensued where McDonald reported that Oswald pulled the trigger on his revolver, but the hammer came down on the web of skin between the thumb and forefinger of the officer's hand, which prevented the revolver from firing. Oswald was eventually subdued. As he was led past an angry crowd of people who had gathered outside the theater, Oswald shouted that he was a victim of police brutality.

At about 2 p.m., Oswald arrived at the Dallas Police Department building, where he was held on suspicion of the shooting of Officer Tippit and was questioned by Detective Jim Leavelle. Captain J. W. Fritz was told that the name of the suspect in the Tippit shooting was Lee Harvey Oswald, the same name that Fritz had received at the Texas School Book Depository as a missing employee who had last been seen in the building shortly after the assassination. "That is the suspect we are looking for in the President's killing," Fritz said. Oswald was then booked on suspicion of murdering both President Kennedy and Officer Tippit. By the end of the night he had been arraigned before Justice of the Peace David L. Johnston for both murders.

In the hallway of the police station, early in his custody, Oswald had an impromptu, face-to-face brush with reporters and photographers, in which he declared "I didn't shoot anyone" and "They're taking me in because of the fact I lived in the Soviet Union. I'm just a patsy!" Later, just after midnight, at a brief arranged appearance before the press, a reporter asked him "Did you kill the President?" and Oswald, who had been advised at 7:10 p.m. of the charge of murdering Tippit, but was not arraigned for Kennedy's murder until 1:30 a.m., answered "No, I have not been charged with that. In fact, nobody has said that to me yet. The first thing I heard about it was when the newspaper reporters in the hall asked me that question." Before any more questions were asked and answered, police officers began leading Oswald out of the room, during which two more questions came: "What did you do in Russia?" and "How did you hurt your eye?" Oswald answered the latter, stating "A policeman hit me."

Police interrogation

Oswald was interrogated several times during his two days of detention at Dallas Police Headquarters. He denied killing President Kennedy and Officer Tippit, denied owning a rifle, said two photographs of him holding a rifle and a pistol were fakes, denied knowing anything about the forged Selective Service card with the name "Alex J. Hidell" in his wallet, denied telling his co-worker he wanted a ride to Irving to get curtain rods for his apartment, and denied he had been seen carrying a long heavy package to work the morning of the assassination.

During his first interrogation on Friday, November 22, Oswald was asked to account for himself at the time the President was shot. Oswald said that he ate lunch in the first-floor lunchroom of the Texas School Book Depository and then went up to the second floor for a Coke, during which he encountered the police officer. During his last interrogation on Sunday, November 24, Oswald was asked again where he was at the time of the shooting. Oswald said he was working on one of the upper floors of the Depository when it occurred, and that he then went downstairs, where he encountered the police officer.

Oswald asked for legal representation several times during his interrogations and when passing by reporters. But when representatives of the Dallas Bar Association met with Oswald in his cell on Saturday afternoon, he declined their services and said he wanted to be represented by John Abt, who was chief counsel to the Communist Party USA, or by lawyers who were members of the American Civil Liberties Union. Oswald and Ruth Paine tried to reach Abt by telephone several times on Saturday and Sunday, but Abt had gone away for the weekend and did not return the calls. Oswald also declined his brother Robert's offer on Saturday afternoon to get him a local attorney.

Oswald's death

Oswald is shot by Jack Ruby.


At 11:21 am Sunday, November 24, 1963, while he was handcuffed to Detective Leavelle and as he was about to be taken to the Dallas County Jail, Oswald was shot and fatally wounded before live television cameras in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters by Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub operator who said that he had been distraught over the Kennedy assassination.

Unconscious, Oswald was put into an ambulance and rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same hospital where President Kennedy had died two days earlier. Doctors operated on Oswald, but Ruby's single bullet had severed major abdominal blood vessels, and the doctors were unable to repair the massive trauma. Oswald was pronounced dead at 1:07 pm. After a full autopsy, Oswald's body was returned to his family. Oswald's grave is in Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park in Fort Worthmarker. The original tombstone, which included Oswald's full name and dates of birth and death, was stolen; today, the grave is marked by a stone which reads simply, Oswald.

His wife Marina was sequestered by federal agents the day after the assassination and later released. However, she had Secret Service protection until she concluded her testimony before the Warren Commission.

Investigations

The Warren Commission created by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963, to investigate the assassination concluded that Oswald assassinated Kennedy and that he acted alone (also known as the lone gunman theory). The proceedings of the commission were closed, but not secret, and about 3% of its files have yet to be released to the public, which has continued to provoke speculation among researchers.

In 1968, the Ramsey Clark Panel met in Washington, D.C., to examine various photographs, X-ray films, documents, and other evidence pertaining to the death of President Kennedy. It concluded that President Kennedy was struck by two bullets fired from above and behind him, one of which traversed the base of the neck on the right side without striking bone and the other of which entered the skull from behind and destroyed its right side.

In 1979, an investigation by the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that Oswald assassinated President Kennedy "probably [...] as the result of a conspiracy." The HSCA prepared an initial report concluding that Oswald acted alone, until a Dictabelt recording purportedly of the assassination surfaced and the Committee revised its conclusion. The new conclusion was that Oswald had fired three shots, of which the last two struck the president and were the only shots to have done so. However, on the basis of the new acoustic evidence, the committee believed that a second gunman had fired a fourth shot, which missed the president. The inferred existence of second gunman automatically made the assassination a conspiracy.

The acoustic evidence which the HCSA used for its conclusion has since been called into question, and some believe it is not a recording of the assassination at all. The staff director and chief counsel for the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, G. Robert Blakey, told ABC News that at least 20 persons heard a shot from the grassy knoll, and that the conclusion that a conspiracy existed in the assassination was established by both the witness testimony and acoustic evidence. In 2004, he expressed less confidence in the acoustic evidence. Officer H.B. McLain, from whose motorcycle radio the HSCA acoustic experts said the Dictabelt evidence came, has repeatedly stated that he was not yet in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination. McLain asked the Committee, "‘If it was my radio on my motorcycle, why did it not record the revving up at high speed plus my siren when we immediately took off for Parkland Hospital?’” The HSCA was unable to identify any other gunman or the extent of the conspiracy. It also had insufficient evidence to identify any group responsible.

In 1982, a group of twelve scientists appointed by the National Academy of Sciencesmarker (NAS), led by Professor Norman Ramsey of Harvardmarker, concluded that the acoustic evidence and the team behind its submission to the HSCA was "seriously flawed." While the NAS said that the HSCA acoustical evidence was flawed, a 2001 peer-reviewed article in Science and Justice, the journal of Britain's Forensic Science Society, said that the NAS investigation was itself flawed. The article's author, Dr. Donald B. Thomas, a government scientist and JFK assassination researcher, concluded, with a 96.3 percent certainty, that there were at least two gunmen firing at President Kennedy and that one of the shots came from the grassy knoll in front of Kennedy. Commenting on the British study, United States House Select Committee on Assassinations staff director and chief counsel G. Robert Blakey said: "This is an honest, careful scientific examination of everything we did, with all the appropriate statistical checks."

Possible motives

The Warren Commission could not ascribe any one motive or group of motives to Oswald's actions:

1981 exhumation

The grave of Lee Harvey Oswald


In October 1981 Oswald's body was exhumed at the behest of British writer Michael Eddowes, with Marina Oswald Porter's support. He sought to prove a thesis developed in a 1975 book, Khrushchev Killed Kennedy (re-published in 1976, in Britain as November 22: How They Killed Kennedy and in America a year later as The Oswald File). Eddowes' theory was that during Oswald's stay in the Soviet Unionmarker he was replaced with a Soviet double named Alek, who was a member of a KGB assassination squad. Eddowes' claim is that it was this look-alike who killed Kennedy, and not Oswald. Eddowes's support for his thesis was a claim that the corpse buried in 1963 in the Shannon Rose Hill Memorial Park cemetery in Fort Worthmarker, Texasmarker did not have a scar that resulted from surgery conducted on Oswald years before. When Oswald's body was exhumed it was found that the plain, mole skin-covered pine coffin had ruptured and was filled with water, leaving the body in an advanced state of decomposition with partial skeletonization. The examination positively identified Oswald's corpse through dental records, and also detected a mastoid scar from a childhood operation. Contrary to reports, the skull of Oswald had been autopsied and this was confirmed at the exhumation.

Kennedy assassination theories

Critics have not accepted the conclusions of the Warren Commission and have proposed a number of other theories, which assert that Oswald conspired with others or was not involved at all and was framed. One government investigation, the HSCA, ruled out many of these theories but concluded that, while Oswald was the assassin, Kennedy was "probably" killed as the result of a conspiracy. However, the HSCA report did not identify any probable co-conspirators and its conclusion has been criticised for its reliance upon acoustic evidence that has been called into question.

Fictional trials

Several films have fictionalized a trial of Oswald, including The Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald in 1964, another movie of the same name in 1977, and On Trial: Lee Harvey Oswald in 1986. In 1986, London Weekend Television hosted a 21 hour television special in which an unscripted trial was held with an actual judge and lawyers. U.S. prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi described the event in his book Reclaiming History. Real eyewitnesses from the assassination testified as to what they saw and the mock jury returned a verdict of guilty. Author Gerald Posner (whose book Case Closed surmises that the Warren Commission reached the correct conclusions) also participated in a shorter (5 hour) televised mock trial of Oswald which made use of actors rather than witnesses.

Carcano rifle

Lee Harvey Oswald's Carcano rifle, in the US National Archives


In March 1963, Oswald used his alias "Alek James Hidell" (which he would later use for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, and for which he was carrying an I.D. card when arrested after the Kennedy murder) to purchase the rifle later linked to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The Carcano Italian military surplus rifle was purchased from Klein's Sporting Goods in Chicago, with a coupon taken from an ad in the February issue of American Rifleman. FBI and Treasury Department experts later matched the handwriting on the coupon and the envelope to Oswald. The rifle was purchased under "A. Hidell" but sent to a Dallas post office box rented by Oswald under his own name.

Backyard photos

The "backyard photos," which were taken by Marina Oswald, probably around Sunday, March 31, 1963, show Oswald dressed all in black and holding two Marxist newspapers—The Militant and The Worker—in one hand, a rifle in the other, and carrying a pistol in its holster. The backyard photos were shot using a camera belonging to Oswald, an Imperial Reflex Duo-Lens 620. When shown the pictures at Dallas Police headquarters after his arrest, Oswald insisted they were fakes. However, Marina Oswald testified in 1964, 1969, 1977, and 1978, and reaffirmed in 2000 that she took the photographs at Oswald's request.These photos were labelled CE 133-A and CE 133-B. CE 133-A shows the rifle in Oswald's left hand and newsletters in front of his chest in the other, while the rifle is held with the right hand in CE 133-B. Oswald's mother testified that on the day after the assassination she and Marina destroyed another photograph with Oswald holding the rifle with both hands over his head, with "To my daughter June" written on it.

The HSCA obtained another first generation print (from CE 133-A) on April 1, 1977 from the widow of George de Mohrenschildt. The words "Hunter of fascists — ha ha ha!" written in block Russian were on the back. Also in English were added in script: "To my friend George, Lee Oswald, 5/IV/63 [April 5, 1963]" Handwriting experts consulted by the HSCA concluded the English inscription and signature were written by Lee Oswald. After two original photos, one negative and one first-generation copy had been found, the Senate Intelligence Committee located (in 1976) a third photograph of Oswald with a backyard pose that was different (CE 133-C, with newspapers held in his right hand away from his body). A test photo by the Dallas Police in the identical pose was released with the Warren Commission evidence in 1964, but it is not known why the photo itself was not publicly acknowledged until a print was found in 1975 amongst the belongings of deceased Dallas police officer Roscoe White.

These photos, widely recognized as some of the most significant evidence against Oswald, have been subjected to rigorous analysis. A panel of twenty-two photographic experts consulted by the HSCA examined the photographs and answered twenty-one points of contention raised by critics. The panel concluded the photographs were genuine. Marina Oswald has always maintained she took the photos herself, and the 1963 de Mohrenschildt print with Oswald's own signature clearly indicate they existed before the assassination. Despite such evidence, however some critics continue to contest the authenticity of the photographs. After digitally analyzing the photograph of Oswald holding the rifle and paper, Dartmouth computer scientist Hany Farid published his findings concluding that "the photo almost certainly was not altered."

References

  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1963), Warren Commission (1964), House Select Committee on Assassinations (1979).
  2. Lee Harvey Oswald: Texas death certificate #75778; filed 6 December 1963
  3. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 799, CE 1963, Schedule showing known addresses of Lee Harvey Oswald from the time of his birth.
  4. Peggy Caserta "Going Down With Janis", pages 85-86 She was in LHO's 7th grade class in Covington, La.
  5. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Edward Pic.
  6. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 687, CE 1382, Interview with Mrs. John Edward Pic.
  7. Report of Renatus Hartogs, May 1, 1953 at Acorn.net.
  8. Carro Exhibit No. 1 Continued at Kennedy Assassination Home Page.
  9. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of John Carro.
  10. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 123, CE 2223, Big Brothers of New York, Inc., Case file of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  11. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  12. Warren Commission Report, Chapt. 7, p. 383.
  13. Warren Commission Hearings, CE 2240, FBI transcript of letter from Lee Oswald to the Socialist Party of America, October 3, 1956.
  14. Oswald, David Ferrie and the Civil Air Patrol, United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Volume 9, 4, p. 107.
  15. Testimony of Edward Voebel, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 10, 12.
  16. Lee Oswald's brother, Harvey Oswald by His Brother, (New York: Coward-McCann, 1967), pp. 71-2. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  17. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7: Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motives, Return to New Orleans and Joining the Marine Corps.
  18. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Marine Training.
  19. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 665, Administrative Remarks.
  20. Marines Warren Commission Report, Appendix 13, page 682-683.
  21. Warren Commission Hearings, Marine Corps service record of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  22. Posner,Gerald "Case Closed" Random House, New York, 1993 pg. 28
  23. Testimony of John E. Donovan, Warren Commission Hearings, Volume 8, pp. 290, 298.
  24. Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 94, 99. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  25. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 22, p. 705, CE 1385, Notes of interview of Lee Harvey Oswald conducted by Aline Mosby in Moscow in November 1959. Oswald: "When I was working in the middle of the night on guard duty, I would think how long it would be and how much money I would have to save. It would be like being out of prison. I saved about $1500." During Oswald's 2 years and 10 months of service in the Marine Corps he received $3,452.20, after all taxes, allotments and other deductions. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 26, p. 709, CE 3099, Certified military pay records for Lee Harvey Oswald for the period October 24, 1956, to September 11, 1959.
  26. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, Folsom Exhibit No. 1, p. 85, Request for Dependency Discharge.
  27. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, The Journey From USA to USSR at Russian Books
  28. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 94, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of October 16, 1959.
  29. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 2 at Russian Books
  30. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 3 at Russian Books
  31. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Moscow Part 1 at Russian Books
  32. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 108, CE 912, Declaration of Lee Harvey Oswald, dated November 3, 1959, requesting that his U.S. citizenship be revoked.
  33. Foreign Service Despatch from the American Embassy in Moscow to the Department of State, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 98, CE 908
  34. Warren Commission Hearings, CE 780, Documents from Lee Harvey Oswald's Marine Corps file.
  35. State Department Memorandum from John A. McVickar to Thomas Ehrlich, dated November 27, 1963, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 155, CE 941
  36. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 3 at Russian Books
  37. Lee Harvey Oswald in Russia, Minsk Part 2 at Russian Books
  38. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 7
  39. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 16, p. 102, CE 24, Lee Harvey Oswald's "Historic Diary", entry of January 4–31, 1961.
  40. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 18, p. 131, CE 931, Undated letter from Lee Harvey Oswald to the American Embassy in Moscow.
  41. While later reports described her uncle as a colonel in the KGB, he was actually a lumber industry expert in the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) with a bureaucratic rank equivalent to colonel. Priscilla Johnson McMillan, Marina and Lee, Harper & Row, 1977, pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0060129538.
  42. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, vol. 2 p. 207, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, September 13, 1978.
  43. "Young Ex-Marine Asks To Be Russian Citizen", Oakland Tribune, October 31, 1959, p. 1. "Ex-Marine Requests Citizenship", New York Times, November 1, 1959, p. 3. "Texan in Russia: He Wants to Stay", Dallas Morning News, November 1, 1959, sec. 1, p. 9. "Brother Tries to Telephone, Halt Defector", Oakland Tribune November 2, 1959, p. 8. "U.S. Boy Prefers Russia", Syracuse Herald-Journal, December 11, 1959, p. 46. "Third Yank Said Quitting Soviet Union, San Mateo Times, June 8, 1962, p. 8. "Marine Returning", The Lima News, June 9, 1962, p. 1.
  44. Oswald Letters at Smithsonian Folkways
  45. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 123, Affidavit of Alexander Kleinlerer: "Anna Meller, Mrs. Hall, George Bouhe, and the deMohrenschildts, and all that group had pity for Marina and her child. None of us cared for Oswald because of his political philosophy, his criticism of the United States, his apparent lack of interest in anyone but himself, and because of his treatment of Marina."
  46. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 11, p. 298, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 307, Testimony of Mrs. Katherine Ford. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 252, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 238, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 266, Testimony of George de Mohrenschildt.
  47. George de Mohrenschildt. Staff Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations, 1979.
  48. George DeMorenschildt, "I'm a Patsy".
  49. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 2, p. 435, Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine.
  50. The company has been cited as doing classified work for the US government but this was limited to typesetting for maps and produced in a section to which Oswald had no access.
  51. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 288, Photograph of the face sides of a Selective Service System Notice of Classification. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, p. 201, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein.
  52. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Dennis Hyman Ofstein: 'I would say he didn't get along with people and that several people had words with him at times about the way he barged around the plant, and one of the fellows back in the photosetter department almost got in a fight with him one day, and I believe it was Mr. Graef that stepped in and broke it up before it got started…'
  53. This magazine was largely a satire of the performance of the Soviet system, not of the West; by this time Oswald had long become dissatisfied with the U.S.S.R., as noted.
  54. Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations, HSCA Final Report, p. 61.
  55. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 16, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  56. The Assassin, Warren Commission Report, p. 118-119.
  57. Questioned Documents, Warren Commission Report, Appendix 10, p. 567-571.
  58. HSCA Final Report: I. Findings - A. Lee Harvey Oswald Fired Three Shots
  59. "Officials Recall Sniper Shooting at Walker Home", Dallas Morning News, November 23, 1963, sec. 1, p. 15.
  60. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 23, p. 392–393, CE 1785, Secret Service report dated December 5, 1963, on questioning of Marina Oswald about note Oswald wrote before he attempted to kill General Walker.
  61. Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 9, p. 393–394.
  62. "Oswald Notes Reported Left Before Walker Was Shot At", Dallas Morning News, December 31, 1963, sec. 1, p. 6.
  63. "FBI Unable to Link Walker Slug, Rifle", Dallas Moring News, December 20, 1963, sec. 1, p. 7.
  64. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Testimony of Dr. Vincent P. Guinn: :Mr. WOLF. In your professional opinion, Dr. Guinn, is the fragment removed from General Walker's house a fragment from a WCC (Western Cartridge Company) Mannlicher-Carcano bullet? :Dr. GUINN. I would say that it is extremely likely that it is, because there are very few, very few other ammunitions that would be in this range. I don't know of any that are specifically this close as these numbers indicate, but somewhere near them there are a few others, but essentially this is in the range that is rather characteristic of WCC Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead.
  65. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 10, pp. 34–37, Testimony of Carlos Bringuier.
  66. Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), p. 211. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  67. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 21, p. 633, Stuckey Exhibit 3, Literal transcript of an audio-tape recording of a debate among Lee Harvey Oswald, Carlos Bringuier, and Ed Butler on August 21, 1963, Radio station WDSU, New Orleans.
  68. PBS Frontline "Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald", broadcast on PBS stations, November 1993 (various dates).
  69. Warren Commission Hearings, volume 11, pp. 214-215, Affidavit of John Bryan McFarland and Meryl McFarland.
  70. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 25, p. 418, CE 2564, Cuban visa application of Lee Harvey Oswald, September 27, 1963.
  71. (undated) Oswald's Foreign Activities (Coleman and Slawson to Rankin) (page 94) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center
  72. Warren Commission Report, p. 413
  73. Oswald: Myth, Mystery, and Meaning, FRONTLINE, November 20, 2003
  74. HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 8, p. 358, Letter from Lee Oswald to Embassy of the U.S.S.R., Washington, D.C., November 9, 1963. CIA Report on Oswald's Stay in Mexico, December 13, 1963. (page 19) at The Assassination Archives and Research Center.
  75. Warren Commission Report, p. 739.
  76. Dallas Morning News, November 19, 1963. Dallas Times Herald, November 19, 1963, p. A-13.
  77. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. I, p. 72-73, Testimony of Marina Oswald.
  78. Magen Knuth, The Long Brown Bag.
  79. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Charles Givens. An FBI report from November 26, 1963 said that Depository employee Carolyn Arnold, as she left the building to watch the motorcade, thought she caught a fleeting glimpse of Oswald standing in the first floor hallway of the building, a few minutes before 12:15 pm. In 1978, she told author Anthony Summers that the FBI report misquoted her, and that she "clearly" saw Oswald sitting in the second floor lunchroom at 12:15 pm or slightly after. In either case, no other depository employee reported seeing Oswald on the first or second floors between 12 noon and 12:30 pm (e.g., Mrs. Pauline Sanders, who left the second floor lunchroom at "approximately 12:20 pm," did not see Oswald any time that day). The two Depository employees with whom Oswald said he ate lunch on the first floor both denied it.
  80. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Roy Sansom Truly.
  81. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of J.W. Fritz.
  82. Bus transfer (.gif) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  83. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Earlene Roberts.
  84. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Oswald's Movements After Leaving Depository Building.
  85. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 19, p. 113, Barnes Exhibit A, Right side of Tippit squad car, showing open wing vent window.
  86. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, The Killing of Patrolman J.D. Tippit.
  87. Warren Commission Report, Chaper 4: The Assassin, Description of Shooting.
  88. By the evening of November 22, five of them (Helen Markham, Barbara Jeanette Davis, Virginia Davis, Ted Callaway, Sam Guinyard) had identified Lee Harvey Oswald in police lineups as the man they saw. A sixth (William Scoggins) did so the next day. Three others (Harold Russell, Pat Patterson, Warren Reynolds) subsequently identified Oswald from a photograph. Two witnesses (Domingo Benavides, William Arthur Smith) testified that Oswald resembled the man they had seen. One witness (L.J. Lewis) felt he was too distant from the gunman to make a positive identification. Warren Commission Hearings, CE 1968, Location of Eyewitnesses to the Movements of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Vicinity of the Tippit Killing.
  89. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, pp. 466–473, Testimony of Cortlandt Cunningham. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3, p. 511, Testimony of Jospeh D. Nicol.
  90. Tippit Murder: Findings and Conclusions, 7 HSCA 376.
  91. Testimony of Johnny Calvin Brewer, 7 H 3–5.
  92. Testimony of Julia Postal, 7 H 11.
  93. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of M. N. McDonald.
  94. Copy of an undated statement made by Richard M. Sims and E. L. Boyd concerning the events surrounding the assassination, 21 H 512–514.
  95. Testimony of J.W. Fritz, 4 H 206.
  96. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 5: Detention and Death of Oswald, Chronology. Tippit murder affidavit: text, cover. Kennedy murder affidavit: text, cover.
  97. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 20, p. 366, Kantor Exhibit No. 3 — Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination.
  98. Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film), YouTube.com.
  99. Lee Oswald's Midnight Press Conference, YouTube.com.
  100. Warren Commission Report, pp. 180-182.
  101. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 4, Testimony of James P. Hosty, Jr., p. 467-468; Testimony of J.W. Fritz, p. 213-214; Commission Exhibit 2003, Dallas Police Department file on investigation of the assassination of the President, "Interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald", vol. 4, p. 265.
  102. Warren Commission Hearings, Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, vol. 7, p. 302.
  103. Testimony of H. Louis Nichols, 7 H 328–329.
  104. Testimony of Harry D. Holmes, 7 H 299–300.
  105. Jesse E. Curry, Retired Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry Reveals His Personal JFK Assassination File, Self-published, 1969, p. 74, affidavit of Dallas police officer Thurber T. Lord on August 20, 1964.
  106. Testimony of Ruth Hyde Paine, 3 H 88–89.
  107. Testimony of John J. Abt, 10 H 116.
  108. Robert L. Oswald, Lee: A Portrait of Lee Harvey Oswald by His Brother, Coward-McCann, 1967, p. 145.
  109. Directions to Lee Harvey Oswald's Grave at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  110. [1]Photos of Gravesite
  111. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oswald/cron/
  112. "Two misconceptions about the Warren Commission hearing need to be clarified...hearings were closed to the public unless the witness appearing before the Commission requested an open hearing. No witness except one...requested an open hearing...Second, although the hearings (except one) were conducted in private, they were not secret. In a secret hearing, the witness is instructed not to disclose his testimony to any third party, and the hearing testimony is not published for public consumption. The witnesses who appeared before the Commission were free to repeat what they said to anyone they pleased, and all of their testimony was subsequently published in the first fifteen volumes put out by the Warren Commission." (Bugliosi, p. 332)
  113. 1968 Panel Review of Photographs, X-Ray Films, Documents and Other Evidence Pertaining to the Fatal Wounding of President John E Kennedy on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas (.txt) at Kennedy Assassination Home Page
  114. Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations HSCA Final Report, pp. 3-4.
  115. Holland, Max. The JFK Lawyers' Conspiracy Published in The Nation on unknown date, reposted by George Mason University's History News Network, February 6, 2006
  116. Testimony of Mark Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, 5 HSCA 617.
  117. G. Robert Blakey and Richard N. Billings, The Plot to Kill the President, Times Books, 1981, p. 103. ISBN 978-0812909296.
  118. Greg Jaynes, The Scene of the Crime, Afterward.
  119. " Separate Views of Hons. Samuel L. Devine and Robert W. Edgar", HSCA Report, pp. 492–493.
  120. Donald B. Thomas, "Echo Correlation Analysis and the Acoustic Evidence in the Kennedy Assassination Revisited", Science and Justice, Volume 41(1), 2001
  121. George Lardner Jr., "Study Backs Theory of 'Grassy Knoll'", Washington Post, March 26, 2001
  122. W. Tracy Parnell, The Exhumation of Lee Harvey Oswald.
  123. W. Tracy Parnell, My Interview With Dr. Vincent J.M. Di Maio.
  124. Posner,Gerald "Case Closed" Random House, New York, 1993
  125. http://www.copweb.be/Imperial_Camera.htm
  126. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Photograph of Oswald With Rifle
  127. Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin, Denial of Rifle Ownership.
  128. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 15, Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald.
  129. Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter, Trial of Clay Shaw, Criminal District Court, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, Feb. 21, 1969.
  130. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Deposition of Marina Oswald Porter: :Q. I want to mark these two photographs. On the back of the first one, which I would ask be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1, it says in the bottom right-hand corner copy from the National Archives, records group No. 272, under that it says CE-133B. I will ask that be marked JFK exhibit No. 1. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 1 for identification.) :Q. New, this second picture that I will ask to be marked says copy from the National Archives, record group No. 272, CE-133. I would ask that this be marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2. (The above referred to photograph was marked JFK committee exhibit No. 2 for identification.) :By Mr. KLEIN: :Q. I will show you those two photographs which are marked JFK exhibit No. 1 and exhibit No. 2, do you recognize those two photographs? :A. I sure do. I have seen them many times. :Q. What are they? :A. That is the pictures that I took.
  131. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, vol. 2 p. 239, Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter: :Mr. McDONALD. Mrs. Porter, I have got two exhibits to show you, if the clerk would procure them from the representatives of the National Archives. We have two photographs to show you. They are Warren Commission Exhibits C-133-A and B, which have been given JFK Nos. F-378 and F-379. If the clerk would please hand them to you, and also if we could now have for display purposes JFK Exhibit F-179, which is a blowup of the two photographs placed in front of you. Mrs. Porter, do you recognize the photographs placed in front of you? :Mrs. PORTER. Yes, I do. :Mr. McDONALD. And how do you recognize them? :Mrs. PORTER. That is the photograph that I made of Lee on his persistent request of taking a picture of him dressed like that with rifle.
  132. Marina Oswald Porter, interview with author Vincent Bugliosi and lawyer Jack Duffy, Dallas, Texas, November 30, 2000, reported in Bugliosi, Reclaiming History, p. 794.
  133. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 1, p. 146, Testimony of Mrs. Marguerite Oswald.
  134. HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, p. 151, Figure IV-21.
  135. Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 17, p. 497, CE 712, Photographs taken by the Dallas Police Department on November 29, 1963, showing backyard of home on Neely Street in Dallas, where Oswald once lived.
  136. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Appendix to Hearings, p. 141, The Oswald Backyard Photographs.
  137. HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 6, "The Oswald Backyard Photographs".
  138. United States House Select Committee on Assassinations, Hearings, Testimony of Jack D. White.
  139. Dartmouth Professor finds that iconic Oswald photo was not faked. 11/05/09.


Further reading

  • Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Norton, 2007, 1632 p. ISBN 0393045250.
  • Eddowes, Michael. Khrushchev Killed Kennedy, self-published, (1975), paperback (republished as November 22, How They Killed Kennedy, Neville Spearman (1976), hardback, ISBN 0-85978-019-8 and as The Oswald File, Potter (1977), hardcover, ISBN 0-517-53055-4)
  • Groden, Robert J.. The Search of Lee Harvey Oswald: A Comprehensive Photographic Record, New York: Penguin Studio Books, 1995. ISBN 0-670-85867-6
  • La Fontaine, Ray and Mary, "Oswald Talked: The New Evidence in the JFK Assassination", Gretna: Pelican Publishing Co., 1996. ISBN 1-56554-029-8
  • Lambert, Patricia. False Witness: The Real Story of Jim Garrison's Investigation and Oliver Stone's Film JFK, New York: M. Evans & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-87131-920-9
  • Lifton, David S., Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the. Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Carroll & Graf Publishers, NYC, 1988, softcover, ISBN 0-88184-438-1
  • Mailer, Norman. Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery, New York: Ballantine Books, (1995) ISBN 0-345-40437-8
  • Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1990, ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  • McMillan, Priscilla Johnson. Marina and Lee, New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Melanson, Philip H. Spy Saga: Lee Harvey Oswald And U. S. Intelligence, Praeger Publishing, 1990, ISBN 0-275-93571-X
  • Newman, John. Oswald and the CIA, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1995, ISBN 0-7867-0131-5
  • Nechiporenko, Oleg M. Passport to Assassination: The Never-Before Told Story of Lee Harvey Oswald by the KGB Colonel Who Knew Him, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1993, ISBN 1-559-72210-X
  • Posner, Gerald. Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, Random House, 1993, hardcover, ISBN 0-679-41825-3
  • Smith, Matthew. JFK: Say Goodbye to America, Mainstream Publishing, 2004.
  • Smith, Matthew, JFK: The Second Plot. Mainstream Publishing.Edinburgh and London. 2000. ISBN 1-84018-501-5
  • Summers, Anthony. Conspiracy, London: Fontana Books, 1980.
  • Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998, ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  • Douglass, James W. (2008). JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books. pp. 544. ISBN 9781570757556. http://www.maryknollmall.org/description.cfm?ISBN=978-1-57075-755-6.
  • Wilkes, Jr., Donald E. "Lee Harvey Oswald at Age 62." Flagpole Magazine, p. 6 (November 21, 2001).
  • Wilkes, Jr., Donald E. "The Rosetta Stone of the JFK Assassination?" Flagpole Magazine, p. 8 (November 20, 2002).


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