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Leigh (pop. 43,000) is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wiganmarker, in Greater Manchestermarker, England. It is southeast of Wiganmarker, and west of Manchestermarker. Leigh is situated on low lying land to the north west of Chat Mossmarker.

Historically a part of Lancashiremarker, Leigh was originally the centre of a large ecclesiastical parish coveringsix vills or townships. When the three townships of Pennington, Westleigh and Bedford merged in 1875 forming the Leigh Local Board District, Leigh became the official name for the town although it had been applied to the area of Pennington and Westleigh around the parish church for many centuries.The town became an Urban District in 1894 when part of Atherton was added. In 1899 Leigh became a municipal borough. The first Town Hall was built inKing Street and replaced by the present building in 1907.

Originally an agricultural area noted for dairy farming, domestic spinning and weaving led to aconsiderable silk and, in the 20th century, cotton industry. Leigh also exploited the underlyingcoal measures particulary after the town was connected to the canal andrailways. Leigh also had an important engineering base. The legacy of Leigh's industrial pastcan be seen in the remaining red brick mills – some of which are listed buildings – although it is now a mainly residential town, with Edwardian and Victorian terraced housing packed around the town centre. Leigh's present-day economy is based largely on the retail sector.

History

Toponymy

Leigh is derived from Old English leah which meant a place at the wood or woodland clearing, a glade andlater a pasture or meadow, it was spelt Legh in 1276. Other spellings include Leech, 1264; Leeche, 1268; Leghthe, 1305; Leght, 1417; Lech, 1451; Legh, 16th century. As its name denotes it was a district rich in meadow and pasture land, and the produce of its dairies, the Leigh cheese, was formerly noted for its excellence.Westleigh, the west clearing, has been named Westeley in 1237, Westlegh in 1238 and also Westlay in Legh in 1292.Pennington has been spelt Pininton and Pynynton in 1246 and 1360, Penynton in 1305, Pynyngton in 1351 and 1442 and Penyngton in 1443, the ending ton or tun denotes an enclosure, farmstead or manor in Old English.Bedford, the ford of Beda, probably through Pennington Brook gave its name to this part of Leigh. Spellings include Beneford from 1200–21 and Bedeford in 1200 and 1296.

Early history

The earliest signs of human activity in Leigh are evidenced by a Neolithic stone axe found in Pennington and a bronze spearhead from south of Gas Street. A single Roman coin was found at Butts in Bedford. After the Roman departure from Britain, and into the history of Anglo-Saxon England, nothing was written about Leigh. However evidence for the presence of Saxons in what was a sparsely populated and isolated part of the country is provided by local township place names that incorporate the Old English suffix of leah, such as Leigh, Tyldesley, Shakerley, and Astley.

Townships

In the 12th century the ancient parish of Leigh was made up of six townships, including Pennington, Bedford, Westleigh,Athertonmarker, Astleymarker, and Tyldesleymarker cum Shakerleymarker. Weekly markets were held by the parish church and a cattle fair held twice-yearly.

Bedford manor was mentioned in documents in 1202 when it was held by Sir Henry de Kighley whose family held it until the 16th century, but never actually lived there.The Shuttleworths, landowners from the 14th century, were another prominent Bedford family. Richard Shuttleworth married a daughter of the Urmstons from Westleigh and brought part ofthe Westleigh inheritance to Bedford. This family lived at Shuttleworth House, or Sandypool Farm as it is also known, which is south of the Bridgewater Canal near to the old manor house, Bedford Hall, which survives today as a Grade II listed building. Another prominent Bedford family, the Sales of Hope Carr Hall, had a great deal of influence in Bedford for over 400 years, and owned more land than the Shuttleworths. The family were recusants and secretly kept the "old faith" when Roman Catholicism was subject to civil or criminal penalties. Hope Carr Hall was moated as was nearby Brick House.

The manor house of Westleigh was at Higher Hall and existed in Richard I's time (1189–1199). In 1292 Sigreda, the heiress of the manor, married Richard de Urmston, and the manor passed to the Urmston family and remained there until the last of the male Urmstons died in 1659. It was later abandoned because of mining subsidence and Westleigh Old Hall became the manor by repute. The Ranicars and the Marsh families lived here. Westleigh Old Hall was another Leigh hall that had a moat.

The Pennington family owned Pennington Hall from about 1200 until they were replaced by the family of Bradshaw or Bradshaigh in 1312. The Bradshaws held the manor until 1703 when John, the last of the male line died. Pennington Hall was rebuilt in 1748 by the then owner Samuel Hilton and in 1807 sold to the Gaskell family of Thornes, Wakefield, who let it to a succession of tenants. Around 1840 James Pownall, one of the founder members of the silk manufacturing firm of Bickam and Pownall was tenant. Later occupants were Charles Jackson, cotton manufacturer, Jabez Johnson, and F. W. Bouth founder of Bouth’s Mill in 1862, The last resident was brewer, George Shaw who in 1920 offered the Hall and grounds to the Leigh Corporation. The hall was converted to a museum and art gallery in 1928 but was demolished in 1963. The grounds are now Pennington Park.

Civil War

Leigh was divided in its allegiance during the English Civil War, some of the population supporting the Royalist' cause while others supported the Parliamentarians. A battle was fought in the town on 2 December 1642, when a group of Chowbenters, men from neighbouring Atherton, beat back and then routed Cavalier troops under the command of James Stanley, the 7th Earl of Derby.Sir Thomas Tyldesley of Myerscough and Morleys Hall, Astleymarker, was killed on 25 August 1651 at the Battle of Wigan Lanemarker and is buried in the Tyldesley Chapel in Leigh Parish Church.The Earl of Derby passed through Leigh again in 1651, when he spent his last night in the King's Arms, before going on to his execution outside Ye Olde Man & Scythemarker Inn in Boltonmarker.

Industrial Revolution

Butts Mill
At the end of the 16th century, although agriculture and the dairy industry, particularly the production of Leigh cheese, sometimes known as Leigh Toaster, were important,spinning and weaving began to develop as a cottage industry. Work was brought from Manchester by agents who brought work weekly often to an inn, and where they collected the finished cloth. At first this work was done to supplement the income of local farmers and their families. The cloth woven in Leigh was fustian, a sort of rough corduroy, and by the end of the 17th century middlemen, fustian masters, were dealing directly with weavers and selling the finished cloth in Manchester.It is a tradition in the town that a local man, Thomas Highs, was the inventor of a spinning jenny and the water frame in the 1760s, the latter invention being pirated by Richard Arkwright, who subsequently made a fortune from the patent royalties.These 18th-century improvements to the spinning process meant that weavers were in great demand. but as power looms were introduced in factories in Manchester there was less work for the handloom weavers and there was serious unemployment in the town. In 1827 silk weaving began in Leigh, either as the result of a dispute or a labour shortage in the Middletonmarker silk industry. William Walker was a middleman who opened the first silk mill in Leigh in 1828, and others quickly followed, including James Pownall and Henry Hilton, whose mill survived until 1926.Several cotton mills were built in Leigh after the mid 1830s and some silk mills converted to cotton after 1870. The large multi-storey spinning mills came later and five survive today. There were mill complexes at Kirkhall Lane and Firs Lane in Westleigh, Pennington and Bedford. Leigh Mill, otherwise known as Leigh Spinners
is a Grade II* listed building. Mather Lane Mill close to the Bridgewater Canal is a Grade II listed building. Over 6,000 people were employed in textiles in Leigh in 1911.


Coal mining

Parsonage Colliery in 1980
There had been drift mines in Westleigh since the 12th century but during the second half of the 19th century it became possible to mine the deeper seams and coal began to be an important industry and coal mining became the largest user of labour after the textile industry in Leigh. Parsonage Colliery, the last mine to be sunk in Leigh, was one of the deepest mines in the country, going down to over . The extent of the mining in Parsonage Colliery increased in the 1960s with the driving of a tunnel (the Horizon Tunnel), which accessed previously inaccessible seams around 6 ft (2 m) high that were easy to work on compared to the previous seams of coal of 3 ft (1 m) or less. The seams were wet, and a series of pumps was used to remove the water into underground canals before it was finally pumped into the canal at Leigh. The winding engine at Parsonage was a steam engine, fuelled by methane extracted from the mine, while the neighbouring Bickershaw mine had a superior electric system. In 1974, the two were linked underground, and all coal was wound up at Bickershaw, which had better winding facilities, while Parsonage was used for supplies. The entire Lancashire coalfield, including all of Leigh's collieries, is now closed to deep mining, although several open-cast mines are still in operation elsewhere in the county.

Mining disasters in Leigh included an explosion of firedamp which caused the deaths of 38 miners at Bedford Colliery on 13 August 1886. There were several accidents at Bickershaw Colliery, but the most serious was in 1932, when 19 men were drowned in the sump at the bottom of the shaft after an overwind of the cage.
List of coal mines operating in Leigh


Manufacturing

Other notable industry included the tractor factory of David Brown Limited, which was located in Leigh following the acquisition in 1955 of Harrison, McGregor and Guest's Albion range of farm machinery products. Rope-manufacture was another local industry: Mansley's Rope works on Twist Lane made rope by hand, using a rope walk. The factory burnt down in 1912. Anchor Cables had a large works close to the Bridgewater Canal. The company was bought by Callender's Cables, in 1903, later to become British Insulated Callender's Cables (BICC), and now part of Balfour Beatty. Another major 20th-century employer was Sutcliffe Speakman, which made activated carbon and brick-making equipment.

Governance

Leigh Town Hall
Leigh is covered by four electoral wards, Atherleigh, Leigh East, Leigh South and Leigh West, of the Metropolitan Borough of Wiganmarker. Each ward elects three councillors to the 75-member metropolitan borough council, Wigan's local authority. As of 2009, all twelve ward councillors for Leigh, including Leader of the Council, Lord Smith of Leigh, are members of the Labour Party who control the council.

Historically, Leigh's townships formed part of the Hundred of West Derbymarker, a judicial division of southwest Lancashire. Pennington, Westleigh and Bedford were three of the six townships or vills that made up the ancient parish of Leigh. The townships existed before the parish.

Under the terms of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 the townships formed part of the Leigh Poor Law Union, which was established on 26 January 1837 and was responsible for an area covering the whole of the ancient parish of Leigh and part of Winwick. There were workhouses in in Pennington, Culcheth, Tyldesley, and Lowton, but they were replaced by a central workhouse at Atherleigh in the 1850s.In 1875 Leigh Local Board of Health was established, covering the areas of the former Bedford, Pennington, and Westleigh Local Boards of Health. In 1894 the area of the Local Board, together with part of Atherton township, became Leigh Urban District, and in 1899 the Urban District became a Municipal Borough. In 1969 there was an exchange of very small areas with Golborne Urban District. In 1974 the Borough became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wiganmarker, Greater Manchester. In 1998, an area (Lately Common) was further ceded to the Warringtonmarker borough – one of the few parts of England to have been in three different counties in the last 35 years: Lancashire, then Greater Manchester, then Cheshiremarker.

Leigh's MP is Andy Burnham who has represented the parliamentary seat for Leigh for the Labour Party since the 2001 General Election. Since 10  June 2009 he has been Secretary of State at the Department of Health.

Geography

Leigh is low lying; land to the south and east, close to Chat Mossmarker, is above mean sea level. The highest land, to the north and west, rises gently to . The land is situated in the River Merseymarker Basin; it is drained into the Mersey by several streams, including the Westleigh and Pennington Brooks that join others flowing through Bedford to form the Glaze Brook. The southeast of the town has alluvial and peaty soils, but the rest is loam overlaying sandstone, or coal measures in the north. There is magnesian limestone in Bedford and neighbouring Astley. Mining subsidence and flooding have caused the formation of "flashes" to the south and west of the town, the largest of which is south of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Pennington. Pennington Flash Country Parkmarker is a country park and nature reserve with a flash or lake.

Leigh is crossed by the Bolton to St Helens Road high road, an old packhorse route that became a Turnpike Trust in 1762. The A579 road bypasses the town centre using the line of the Bolton and Leigh Railway. The Bridgewater Canal and the Leigh Branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canalmarker cross the town west to east, the canals meeting at Leigh Bridge just south of the town centre.In the 1930s the A580 "East Lancashire" Road was built crossing to the south of the town.

Demography

Leigh Compared
2001 Census Leigh Wigan MBmarker GM Urban Areamarker England
Total population 43,006 301,415 2,240,230 49,138,831
White 98.3% 98.7% 90.3% 90.9%
Asian 0.8% 0.4% 6.2% 4.6%
Black 0.2% 0.2% 1.3% 2.3%
Source: Office for National Statistics
At the time of the United Kingdom Census 2001, according to the Office for National Statistics, the Urban Subdivision of Leigh was part of the Greater Manchester Urban Areamarker and had a total resident population of 43,006, of which 20,990 (48.8%) were male and 22,016 (51.2%) were female, with 18,270 households. The settlement occupied , compared with in the 1991 census. Its population density was 48.65 people per hectare compared with an average of 40.20 across the Greater Manchester Urban Area. The median age of the population was 37, compared with 36 within the Greater Manchester Urban Area and 37 across England and Wales.

The majority of the population of Leigh were born in England (95.92%); 2.10% were born elsewhere within the United Kingdom, 0.95% within the rest of the European Union, and 1.47% elsewhere in the world.

Data on religious beliefs across the town in the 2001 census show that 85.5% declared themselves to be Christian, 7.6% said they held no religion, and 0.6% reported themselves as Muslim.

The majority of Leigh is within the Warringtonmarker & Wiganmarker Travel to Work Area (TTWA), whilst part of the eastern side of the town is within the Manchestermarker TTWA. The entire town is within the Manchester Larger Urban Zone.

At the time of the 2001 Census, there were 19,051 people (44.3%) in employment who were resident within Leigh. Of these, 18.36% worked within the wholsesale and retail trade, including repair of motor vehicles; 21.60% worked within manufacturing industry; and 11.99% worked within the health and social work sector. 45.16% of households owned a single car or van, with 30.77% owning none. The average car ownership per household was 0.98, compared with 0.93 across the Greater Manchester Urban Area.

Population change

Population growth in Leigh from 1801–2001
Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
Population no data no data 18,372 20,083 28,568 5,206 10,621 no data no data 28,708
Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
Population 40,001 44,103 45,532 45,317 45,458 48,728 46,174 no data 42,929 43,150 43,006
Parish 1821-1861
 Urban Sanitary District 1891   Urban District 1901-1961   Urban Subdivision 1981-2001 



Economy

Leigh Library, [1971], also houses Turnpike Gallery & Derby Room
Leigh has a traditional town centre with daily outdoor and indoor markets. Part of the town centre is pedestrianised and there are local independent and multiple retailers. The Spinning Gate Centre in the centre of town has about thirty retail units.A retail park developed on the old Parsonage Colliery site is within walking distance of the town centre.

The new Leigh Sports Villagemarker, includes a 10,000-capacity stadium shared by Leigh Genesis and Leigh Centurions, a new athletics arena for Leigh Harriers, new facilities for Leigh East Rugby League Club, a new college campus, hotel, leisure and business facilities for the community.Another large regeneration project is taking place on the site the Bickershaw Colliery complex, which closed in 1992 and is set for a new lease of life as part of a plan to redevelop the site and canal side with a large country park and housing.

Landmarks

Major landmarks in Leigh are the red sandstone Parish Church and across the civic square, the Town Hall and associated shops on Market Street. The Grade II listed Obelisk that replaced the original market cross is also situated here. Many town centre buildings incuding the Boar's Head Public House are in red Ruabonmarker or Accringtonmarker bricks, often with gables and terracotta dressings. There are several large multi-storey cotton mills built along the Bridgewater Canal that are a reminder of Leigh's textile industry but most are now underused and deteriorating despite listed building status. Leigh's War Memorial by local architect J. C. Prestwich is at the junction of Church Street and Silk Street and is a Grade II listed structure.St Joseph's Church and St Thomas's Church on opposite sides of Chapel Street are both imposing churches using different materials and styles.

Transport

Historically Leigh was well connected to the local transport infrastructure, but with the closure of the railway this is no longer the case. Public transport today is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. There are bus services operated by South Lancs Travel of Atherton and First Manchester from Leigh Bus Station to many local destinations and other places including, Boltonmarker, Warringtonmarker, Manchestermarker and St Helens. There have been suggestions to reopen the railway via Tyldesley to Manchester, the latest proposal is for a guided busway but this not universally popular.

Canals

The Bridgewater Canal was extended from Worsleymarker to the middle of Leigh in 1795. In 1819 the fifth Leeds and Liverpool Canal Act was passed for the construction of the Leigh Branch and by 1820 the Leigh branch canal was cut from the Leeds-Liverpool Canalmarker at Poolstock, Wigan to meet the Bridgewater at Leigh Bridge, giving access from Leigh to all parts of Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Midlands.

Railways

Leigh was the southern terminus of the long Bolton and Leigh Railway. George Stephenson carried out the survey for the line. It opened between Bolton and William Hulton's coal mines at Chequerbent for freight on 1 August 1828 and to the terminus at the Leeds-Liverpool Canal at Leigh in March 1830. Passengers were carried from 13 June 1831. The first locomotive on the line was an 0-4-0 called The Lancashire Witch. The town station was at West Leigh. Later the line was extended southwards to Pennington. The line was closed to passenger traffic on 29 March 1954, and later closed completely.

In 1861 the London and North Western Railway revived powers granted to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway to build a railway from Manchestermarker via Ecclesmarker and Tyldesleymarker to Wiganmarker with a branch to Kenyon Junction on the Liverpool to Manchester Line via Leigh and Pennington. There was a station, originally named West Leigh and Bedford to serve the town. The railway crossed the town on a viaduct which has since been demolished. It was closed in May 1969, leaving the town without a passenger railway: after the reopening of Mansfield and Corby stations, Leigh is now regarded as one of the largest towns in Great Britain without a railway station. Numerous colliery lines crossed the town, but with the closure of the collieries these were no longer required.

Today the nearest railway station is at Athertonmarker, miles to the north, with trains to Wiganmarker and Manchestermarker operated by Northern Rail, leaving the large bus station as the town's only public transport link.

Trams and trolley buses

Leigh bus station
In 1900, a Bill authorising the South Lancashire Tramways Company to construct over of tramway in southern Lancashire was given Royal Assent.However, by November 1900 the South Lancashire Electric Traction and Power Company had acquired the shares. The first section of tramway opened on 20 October 1902 between Lowtonmarker and Four Lanes Ends via Leigh and Atherton. This company got into financial difficulty and in turn became Lancashire United Tramways later Lancashire United Transport. On 16 December 1933, the last tram service ran from Leigh to Four Lane Ends. The following day trolley buses took over.

An Act of 4 August 1920 authorised the Borough of Leigh to run its own buses. A garage was built on Windermere Road which was soon outgrown and replaced by one on Holden Road. The corporation had a fleet of 70 vehicles during world War II.

Education

Former Leigh Grammar School for Girls
Leigh Grammar School existed in 1655 but its foundation is unclear. The building was next to the churchyard, but the school moved to Manchester Road in 1931. A Girls Grammar School was established in 1921, but both schools were abolished by the then Secretary of State for Education, Shirley Williams, in the 1976 Education Act. Leigh High Schools include Bedford High School, which now has specialist Business and Enterprise College status, and Westleigh High School. Students also attend schools in Atherton, Lowton, Golbourne, and Astley. Wigan and Leigh College provides post-16 education.

Religion

The Church of St Mary the Virgin, Leighmarker has been in existence since the 12th century and probably much earlier. It was once known as the Church of St Peter at Westleigh in Leigh, and straddles the boundary between the old townships of Westleigh and Pennington, the nave and churchyard being in Westleigh and the chancel in Pennington. Its early history is tied up with the Westleigh and Urmston families. The dedication changed to St Mary the Virgin in the 14th century. The church tower, said to have been built in 1516, is all that remains of the medieval structure, which was replaced by the present church after becoming unsafe. Paley and Austin of Lancaster designed the present church, the foundation stone was laid in 1871 and the church consecrated in 1873. The church is built in red sandstone it is a Grade II listed building.

There are now parish churches in each of the old townships. The first St Thomas church in Bedford was consecrated in 1840 and replaced by the present church in 1909. The church is built of Accrington red brick with Runcorn red sandstone facings, it was designed by J. S. Crowther. Pennington Christ Church, designed by architect E. H. Shellard, was built in Yorkshire stone and was consecrated in 1854. The site to the south of the canal was a rapidly growing area at this time. It is Grade II listed. Westleigh St Paul, founded in 1847 is on Westleigh Lane. Westleigh St Peter, a Grade II* listed building by Paley and Austin, built in brick with red sandstone dressings, was founded 1881 is on Firs Lane.

The first Catholic Chapel was built in Bedford on the corner of Mather Lane and Chapel St in 1778 and this lasted until it was replaced in 1855 by the present church dedicated to St Joseph by architect Joseph Hansom. A growing Catholic population in the area led to the building of Our Lady of the Rosary in Plank Lane in 1879, Twelve Apostles in 1879, and Sacred Heart in 1929. Other denominations catered for include Wesleyan, Independent, Primitive, Welsh and United Methodists.There are also Unitarian, Baptist, and Jehovah's Witness places of worship in the town.

Sport

Leigh Sports Village stadium under construction in May 2008
Leigh has a professional rugby league team – Leigh Centurions – whose main claim to fame is beating Leeds 24–7 in the 1971 Challenge Cup final. They played in the Super League in the 2005 season. Leigh also has several amateur clubs, including Leigh East and Leigh Miners Rangers.

The town has a semi-professional football team, Leigh Genesis (formerly Leigh RMI), which plays in the Unibond Premier League as of the 2008–2009 season, sharing the town's Leigh Sports Village stadiummarker with Leigh Centurions. The most successful amateur club is Leigh Athletic, which currently plays in the Manchester Football League.

Leigh also has an athletics club, Leigh Harriers AC, founded in 1909, and a Rugby Union club, Leigh RUFC, based at Round Ash Park, which gained promotion in 2007, to RFU league North 2 (West), and is current holder of the Lancashire Trophy which it won in May 2008 for the third consecutive year. Attached to the club is a crown green bowling section which runs several teams in local bowling leagues. Leigh has two cricket clubs, Leigh Cricket Club play in the ECB Premier League Liverpool Competition. Westleigh Cricket Club, play in Division 1 of the Manchester Association.

Culture

Leigh's wealth as an industrial town resulted in many outlets for the entertainment of its population, including theatres, cinemas and public houses. In 1908 the Hippodrome Theatre on Leigh Road was built on the site of Walker's silk mill of 1827, this subsequently became a cinema, first the Odeon, later the Classic. Another theatre, the Theatre Royal, was built on Lord Street,this later became the Leigh Casino Club. The Palace Cinema was built in 1913 on Railway Road and the assembly rooms above the Conservative Club, were converted to a cinema known as the Sems in 1908. Brewery Lane is a reminder that there was once a brewery in Bedford belonging to George Shaw & Co.Lilford Park and woodland was a gift to Leigh from Lord Lilford in 1914. Pennington Parkon St Helens Road was the grounds of Pennington Hall which was demolished in 1963 after being used as a museum. The old Leigh College and Library on Railway Road was built between 1894 and 1986 by the Leigh Literary Society to designs by J. C. Prestwich and J. H. Stephen. The present library was built in 1971 between the Parish Church and Town Hall.

Notable people

Sir Peter Maxwell Davies and Pete Shelley were both old pupils of Leigh Grammar School. Jazz musician Georgie Fame was born in Leigh in 1943. Thomas Burke tenor and opera singer was born in 1890 and attended St Joseph's School. The author of "Goodbye, Mr Chips", James Hilton was also born in Leigh and Hilton Park, the former home of Leigh RLFC was named in his honour.

References

  1. Mills (1998), p. 218.
  2. Mills (1998), p. 405.
  3. Ackers (1978), p. 3.
  4. Ackers (1978), p. 4.
  5. Ackers (1978), p. 8.
  6. Holcroft (1998), p. 10.
  7. Ackers (1978), p. 11.
  8. Morgan, R. M. (1982). Callender's 1888-1945. Prescott: BICC plc, Chapter 7; "Anchor Works".
  9. Ackers (1978), p. 4.
  10. Sweeney (1996), p.7
  11. Sweeney (1996), p. 63.
  12. Ashmore (1982), p. 103.
  13. Leigh Corporation (1949), p.59
  14. Leigh Corporation (1949), p. 96.
  15. Leigh Corporation (1949), p. 96.
  16. Bond (1981), p.8.
  17. Bond (1981), p.24.
  18. Bond (1981), p.15.
  19. Bond (1981), p.23.
  20. Bond (1981), p.7.
  21. Bond (1981), p.19.
  22. Bond (1981), p.10.
  23. Bond (1981), p.3.

Bibliography



External links

  • History of Leigh: 1 2



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