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Map showing the Lenapehoking region.
Lenapehoking is a term for the lands historically inhabited by the Native American people known as the Lenape (named Delaware by early European settlers) in what is now the Northeastern United States. Though it is sometimes said to be a word in the Delaware languages for this area, like much of the toponymy involving languages in the Algonquian lingustic group, there is some confusion about the meaning and history of the name.

At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th and 17th century, the Lenape homeland generally encompassed the territory adjacent to the Delaware and lower Hudson river valleys, as well the territory between them. It stretched from modern-day Delawaremarker to western Connecticutmarker and Long Islandmarker and included parts of eastern Pennsylvaniamarker all of present day New Jerseymarker, New York Bay, and the southern counties of New York Statemarker, including New York Harbor, Nassau Countymarker, and the five boroughs of New York Citymarker. Along with New York City, Philadelphiamarker, Trentonmarker, Princetonmarker, Wilmington, Delawaremarker, Atlantic Citymarker, Newarkmarker, and numerous other urban and suburban areas are in Lenapehoking today, as are the Pine Barrens, the Sourland Mountains, the Delaware River, and perhaps some parts of the Catskills, Poconos, and the Pennsylvania Dutch Country.

According to some people, who have misunderstood the origin of this word, the Lenape called this territory "Lenapehoking" (lenape hacki-ink), meaning "in the land of the Lenape." This assertion has gained widespread acceptance and is found widely in recent literature on the Lenape, including in the websites of purported Lenape people. Ray Whritenour, a philologist, says that the term does not appear in any sources from the 18th century, but is a modern name coined by Nora Thompson Dean ("Touching Leaves Woman") in 1984, in order to provide the archaeologist/author, Herbert C. Kraft, with a convenient term for the area once inhabited by ancestors of the Lenape people.

Other Lenape place names

Lenape place names within the region included:
  • Manhattanmarker
    • Manhattan itself is derived from "Manna-hata", a Dutch version of a Lenape place-name.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name Manahata twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language. The Encyclopedia of New York City offers other derivations, including from the Munsee dialect of Lenape: manahachtanienk ("place of general inebriation"), manahatouh ("place where timber is procured for bows and arrows"), or menatay ("island").

  • Staten Islandmarker
    • Aquehonga - name for Staten Island
    • Manacknong - name for Staten Island
    • Shawkopoke - habitation site and cultivated area along Great Kills Harbor






  • New Jerseymarker
    • Manalapanmarker - municipality's name is said to have come from Lenape and is said to mean "land of good bread"
    • Abseconmarker - meaning: "place of swans"
    • Assunpink Creek - meaning: "Stony Creek"
    • Communipaw (in downtown Jersey Citymarker) - "riverside landing place"
    • Hackensackmarker - "stream flowing into another on a plain/ in a swamp/ in a lowland"
    • Hobokenmarker - "where pipes are traded"
    • Hohokusmarker - "red cedars"
    • Hopatcongmarker - "pipe stone" (NOT "honey waters of many coves" as early 20th-century boosters would have it)
    • Mahwahmarker - "meeting place"
    • Manahawkinmarker - "place where there is good land"
    • Mantolokingmarker -
    • Mantuamarker - said to have come from the "Munsees", North Jersey Lenapes, but the township is in South Jersey.
    • Matawanmarker - "hill on either side"
    • Metuchenmarker - "dry firewood"
    • Minisink - "from the rocky land", is the old name for the Munsee, and the name of an ancient Lenape trade route that ran along a good part of what is now US Highway 46 in Northern New Jersey
    • Musconetcong
    • Netcongmarker - Abbreviation of "Musconetcong".
    • Passaicmarker - "valley" or "river flowing through a valley"
    • Peapackmarker - "place of water roots"
    • Raritan - original form was Naraticong - may have meant "river behind the island" or "forked river".
    • Scheyichbi. Meaning of name varies. notes two possible meanings: the land that the Lenapes called their country, or "land of the shell money (wampum)".
    • Secaucusmarker - "black snakes".
    • Weehawkenmarker - "place of gulls".




Order of the Arrow Lodge IX

Lenapehoking is also the name of an Order of the Arrow lodge, number IX, in the Northern New Jersey Council of the Boy Scouts of America.

Lenapehoking Lodge IX was chartered in 1999 in the Northern NJ Council. It was born of the merger of Mantowagan Lodge #14, Meechgalanne Lodge #178, Oratam Lodge #286 and Aquaninocke Lodge #359.

Lodge IX can trace its history to co-founder of the Order of the Arrow, Carroll A. Edson. Mr. Edson founded Achtu Lodge #37 during his tenure as Scout Executive of Jersey City, NJ. He was also the first Vigil Honor member of Achtu Lodge #37. Achtu was merged with Chinchewunska Lodge #440 in 1969. Ultimately, Achtu #37 and Chinchewunska #440 merged to form Elauwit #37. As the result of the merge of Hudson Hamilton Council and Bayonne Council, Pamrapaugh Lodge #14 merged with Elauwit #37 in 1994 to form Mantowagan Lodge #14. Pamrapaugh #14 is known to have been represented at the Grand Lodge organizational meeting held on October 7, 1921. However, there is some confusion as to the original date of Pamrapaugh's charter; as of that meeting there were only 10 chartered lodges in operation, yet in 1926, Pamrapaugh was assigned a lodge number of 14. There is some evidence that Pamrapaugh Lodge may have existed prior to Minsi Lodge #5.

Meechgalanne Lodge #178 was chartered in 1976 in the Essex Council located in Newark, New Jersey. In 1976, Meechgalanne Lodge was formed from the merger of Mohican Lodge #178, Ken Etiwa Pec Lodge #362, and Oleleu Lodge #515.

Oratam Lodge #286 was chartered in 1996 in the Bergen Council located in River Edge, New Jersey. This lodge was formed when Oratam #484 merged with Iaopaugh #286 during Bergen Council's acquisition of Ridgewood-Glen Rock Council.

Aquaninocke Lodge #359 was chartered in 1974 in the Passaic Valley Council located in Wayne, New Jersey. In 1974, Aquaninocke Lodge was formed from the merger of Aheka Lodge #359 and Minisi Lodge #449.

See also

Sticker


References

  1. Full Text of Robert Juet's Journal: From the collections of the New York Historical Society, Second Series, 1841 log book, Newsday. Accessed 2007-05-16.
  2. Holloway, Marguerite. "Urban tactics; I'll Take Mannahatta", The New York Times, May 16, 2004, accessed 2007-04-30. "He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant island of many hills.'
  3. "More on the names behind the roads we ride", The Record , April 21, 2002. Accessed 2007-10-26. "The origin of Manhattan probably is from the language of the Munsee Indians, according to the Encyclopedia of New York City. It could have come from manahachtanienk, meaning place of general inebriation, or manahatouh, meaning place where timber is procured for bows and arrows, or menatay, meaning island."
  4. http://www.rootsweb.com/~njmorris/indian.htm
  5. http://www.hopatcong.org/1d.htm



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