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Libertarianism is a term adopted by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which advocate the maximization of individual liberty and the minimization or even abolition of the state. Libertarians embrace viewpoints across that spectrum, ranging from minarchist to openly anarchist.

All schools of libertarianism support strong personal rights to life and liberty, though some disagree on the subject of private property. The most commonly known formulation of libertarianism supports free market capitalism by advocating a right to private property, including property in the means of production, minimal government regulation of that property, minimal taxation, and rejection of the welfare state, all within the context of the rule of law.Carl H. Botan, Vincent Hazleton, Public relations theory II, p. 262, 2006 ISBN 0805833854, 9780805833850 “Worldwide, libertarianism has been as much the hallmark of media struggles for political and economic independence as it has been for nonmedia enterprises seeking liberalized investment policies; it has also been a rationale for establishing privately owned media.”David Boaz, Preface for the Japanese Edition of Libertarianism: A Primer, reprinted at, November 21, 1998.”The largest trends in the world reflect libertarian values. Communism is virtually gone, and few people still defend state socialism. Eastern Europe is struggling to achieve societies based on property rights, markets, and the rule of law.” Some pro-property libertarians are anarchists who call for the elimination of the state. Some call the pro-property view propertarian, and some pro-property libertarians believe a "propertarian philosophy" is a weak basis for libertarian morality. A number of countries have libertarian parties which run candidates for political office.

Libertarian socialists—the first political activists to adopt the term libertarian in the mid-19th century—are usually anarchists or left communists, opposed to arbitrary structures of authority and hierarchy in personal relations and the larger social order. Most notably they are opposed to state power and forms of private property such as capital, but also oppose patriarchy and racism. These libertarians often believe in the abolition of private property and may be called non-propertarian or anti-propertarian. They do not seek state solutions, instead looking to voluntary and popularly controlled associations.


The term libertarian in a metaphysical or philosophical sense was first used by late-Enlightenment free-thinkers to refer to those who believed in free will, as opposed to determinism. Libertarianism in this sense is still encountered in metaphysics in discussions of free will. The first recorded use was in 1789 by William Belsham in a discussion of free will and in opposition to "necessitarian" (or determinist) views. Metaphysical and philosophical contrasts between philosophies of necessity and libertarianism continued in the early 19th century.

Usage by anti-property movements

The French anarchist communist Joseph Déjacque was the first to employ the term libertarian in a political sense in May 1857, in an 11-page pamphlet De l'Etre Humain mâle et femelle (Concerning the Human Male and Female), an open letter criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon published while its author was in exile in New Orleansmarker. From 1858 until his return to France in 1861 Déjacque published in New York a journal called Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social.

According to the anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term libertarian communism was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. The French anarchist journalist Sébastien Faure, later founder and editor of the four-volume Anarchist Encyclopedia, started the weekly paper Le Libertaire (The Libertarian) in 1895.

Peter Kropotkin's The Great French Revolution (1909) asserts that the principles of anarchism had their origin in the directly democratic sections of Paris. According to the same author's 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article on anarchism, the economic and, in particular, the mutual banking ideas of Proudhon were applied by supporters in the United States. The article states that, "It would be impossible to represent here, in a short sketch, the penetration, on the one hand, of anarchist ideas into modern literature, and the influence, on the other hand, which the libertarian ideas of the best contemporary writers have exercised upon the development of anarchism." Writers he names include John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Jean-Marie Guyau, Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée, Multatuli, Richard Wagner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Lloyd Garrison and Henry David Thoreau.

Numerous left libertarian or libertarian socialists around the world have labeled themselves as such over the last 100 years. The most significant manifestations at a mass level of libertarian groups opposed to the property principle have been revolutionary socialist workers' movements. Examples repeatedly cited in the literature include the American Industrial Workers of the World, the Makhnovist movement in Ukrainemarker during the Russian revolution of 1917, the CNT and the FAI during the Spanish Civil War, and the Italian autonomist movement. The EZLN movement in Mexicomarker has maintained a significance within Mexican politics since the early 1990s.

Significant numbers of self-described libertarian socialists have been involved in the contemporary anti-globalisation movement, sometimes in aggressive formations such as the Black blocs or groups like the Tute Bianche. After the 1999 Seattle protests many libertarian socialists worldwide joined other "anti-capitalists" in adopting the policy of “diversity of tactics” at protests. According to George Lakey, diversity of tactics "implies that some protesters may choose to do actions that will be interpreted by the majority of people as ‘violent,’ like property destruction, attacks on police vehicles, fighting back if provoked by the police, and so on...”

Libertarian socialists such as Noam Chomsky or Colin Ward point out that the term libertarianism is considered throughout the world a synonym for anarchism, despite the fact that within the United States in recent decades it has become more usually associated with free market positions. Academics as well as proponents of the latter note that free market libertarianism has been successfully propagated beyond the US since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties to the extent that libertarianism is increasingly employed elsewhere to identify a free market pro-property stance.

Usage by pro-property movements

Enlightenment ideas of individual liberty, constitutionally limited government, and reliance on the institutions of civil society and a free market to promote social order and economic prosperity were the basis of what became known in the 19th century as liberalism. While it kept that meaning in most of the world, modern liberalism in the United States began to take a more statist approach to economic regulation. Some libertarians have argued it is closer to fascism than state socialism.

Over time, those who held to the earlier liberal views began to call themselves market liberals, classical liberals or libertarians. (Some limited government advocates still use the term "libertarianism" almost interchangeably with the term classical liberalism.) While conservatism in Europe continued to mean conserving hierarchical class structures through state control of society and the economy, some conservatives in the United States began to refer to conserving traditions of liberty. This was especially true of the Old Right, who opposed the New Deal and U.S. military interventions in World War I and World War II.

Later, the Austrian School of economics also had a powerful impact on both economic teaching and classical liberal and libertarian principles. It influenced economists and political philosophers and theorists including Henry Hazlitt, Israel Kirzner, Murray Rothbard, Walter Block and Richard M. Ebeling. The Austrian School was in turn influenced by Frederic Bastiat.

Starting in the 1930s and continuing until today, a group of central European economists led by Austriansmarker Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek identified the collectivist underpinnings to the various new socialist and fascist doctrines of government power as being different brands of totalitarianism.

In the 1940s, Leonard Read began calling himself libertarian. In 1955, Dean Russell wrote an article in the Foundation for Economic Education magazine pondering what to call those, such as himself, who subscribed to the classical liberal philosophy. He suggested: "Let those of us who love liberty trademark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word "libertarian.""

Ayn Rand's international best sellers The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957) and her books about her philosophy of Objectivism influenced modern libertarianism. For a number of years after the publication of her books, people promoting a libertarian philosophy continued to call it individualism. Two other women also published influential pro-freedom books in 1943, Rose Wilder Lane’s The Discovery of Freedom and Isabel Paterson’s The God of the Machine.

According to libertarian publisher Robert W. Poole, Arizonamarker United States Senator Barry Goldwater's message of individual liberty, economic freedom, and anti-communism also had a major impact on the libertarian movement, both with the publication of his book The Conscience of a Conservative and with his run for president in 1964. Goldwater's speech writer, Karl Hess, became a leading libertarian writer and activist.

The Cold War mentality of military interventionism, which had supplanted Old Right non-interventionism, was promoted by conservatives like William F. Buckley and accepted by many libertarians, with Murray Rothbard being a notable dissenter. However, the Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians, anarcho-libertarians, and more traditional conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and organisations such as Students for a Democratic Society. They began founding their own publications, like Murray Rothbard's The Libertarian Forum and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance.

The split was aggravated at the 1969 Young Americans for Freedom convention, when more than 300 libertarians organized to take control of the organization from conservatives. The burning of a draft card in protest to a conservative proposal against draft resistance sparked physical confrontations among convention attendees, a walkout by a large number of libertarians, the creation of libertarian organizations like the Society for Individual Liberty, and efforts to recruit potential libertarians from conservative organizations. The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley, in a 1971 New York Times article, attempted to divorce libertarianism from the freedom movement. He wrote: "The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded."

In 1971, David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party. Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, it has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972, including John Hospers (1972), Ed Clark (1980), Ron Paul (1988), Harry Browne (1996 and 2000), Michael Badnarik (2004), and Bob Barr (2008). By 2006, polls showed that 15 percent of American voters identified themselves as libertarian. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s, and others have been created since then.

Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard Universitymarker professor Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book won a National Book Award in 1975. According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, "Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia."

Libertarian principles

According to the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Libertarians are committed to the belief that individuals, and not states or groups of any other kind, are both ontologically and normatively primary; that individuals have rights against certain kinds of forcible interference on the part of others; that liberty, understood as non-interference, is the only thing that can be legitimately demanded of others as a matter of legal or political right; that robust property rights and the economic liberty that follows from their consistent recognition are of central importance in respecting individual liberty; that social order is not at odds with but develops out of individual liberty; that the only proper use of coercion is defensive or to rectify an error; that governments are bound by essentially the same moral principles as individuals; and that most existing and historical governments have acted improperly insofar as they have utilized coercion for plunder, aggression, redistribution, and other purposes beyond the protection of individual liberty.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states "libertarianism holds that agents initially fully own themselves and have moral powers to acquire property rights in external things under certain conditions." It notes that libertarianism is not a “right-wing” doctrine because of its opposition to laws restricting adult consensual sexual relationships and drug use, and its opposition to imposing religious views or practices and compulsory military service. However, it notes that there is a version known as “left-libertarianism” which also endorses full self-ownership, but "differs on unappropriated natural resources (land, air, water, etc.)." "Right-libertarianism" holds that such resources may be appropriated by individuals. "Left-libertarianism" holds that they belong to everyone and must be distributed in some egalitarian manner.

Like many libertarians, Leonard Read rejected the concepts of "left" and "right" libertarianism, calling them "authoritarian." Libertarian author and politician Harry Browne wrote: "We should never define Libertarian positions in terms coined by liberals or conservatives nor as some variant of their positions. We are not fiscally conservative and socially liberal. We are Libertarians, who believe in individual liberty and personal responsibility on all issues at all times. You can depend on us to treat government as the problem, not the solution."

Isaiah Berlin's 1958 essay "Two Concepts of Liberty" described a difference between negative liberty which limits the power of the state to interfere and positive liberty in which a paternalistic state helps individuals achieve self-realization and self-determination. He believed these were rival and incompatible interpretations of liberty and held that demands for positive liberty lead to authoritarianism. This view has been adopted by many libertarians including Robert Nozick and Murray Rothbard.

Libertarians contrast two ethical views: consequentialist libertarianism, which is the support for liberty because it leads to favorable consequences, such as prosperity or efficiency and deontological libertarianism (also known as "rights-theorist libertarianism," "natural rights libertarianism," or "libertarian moralism") which consider moral tenets to be the basis of libertarian philosophy. Others combine a hybrid of consequentialist and deontologist thinking.

Another view, contractarian libertarianism, holds that any legitimate authority of government derives not from the consent of the governed, but from contract or mutual agreement. Robert Nozick held a variation on this view, as does Jan Narveson as outlined in his 1988 work The Libertarian Idea and his 2002 work Respecting Persons in Theory and Practice. Other advocates of contractarian libertarianism include the Nobel Laureate and founder of the public choice school of economics James M. Buchanan, Canadian philosopher David Gauthier and Hungarian-French philosopher Anthony de Jasay.

Constitutionalism is commonly regarded as a form of contractarian libertarianism, especially in the United States, where many believe the Constitution expresses libertarian principles, and constitutionalist legal scholars may be identified as "libertarian".

Generally, pro-market libertarians focus on the rights of the individual to act in accordance with the individual's own subjective values, and argue that the coercive actions of the state are often (or even always) an impediment to the efficient realization of individual desires and values. Libertarians also maintain that what is immoral for the individual must necessarily be immoral for all state agents and that the state should not be above the law.

The Irish Workers Solidarity Movement strongly emphasises the principle of solidarity, or the union of associated interest, counter-posing it to sectarianism, or division over doctrinal belief.

Libertarianism and anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy encompassing many theories and traditions, all opposed to coercion of individuals, especially by government. Anarchism is usually considered a radical left-wing ideology, and much of anarchist economics and anarchist legal philosophy reflects anti-statist views such as anarcho-communism, collectivist anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism and participatory economics.

However, anarchism has always included an economic and legal individualist strain, with that strain supporting an anarchist free-market economy and private property (like classical mutualism or anarcho-capitalism and agorism). Anarcho-capitalist Murray Rothbard has stated that "Capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism."

Non-propertarian libertarianism

Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism aims to create a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or a society in which such coercive institutions and hierarchies were drastically reduced in scope.

This equality and freedom would be achieved through the abolition of authoritarian institutions such as an individual's right to own private property, in order that direct control of the means of production and resources will be gained by the working class and society as a whole.

Political philosophies commonly described as libertarian socialist include: most varieties of anarchism (especially anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism), social ecology, libertarian municipalism, and council communism.


Left-libertarianism is usually regarded as doctrine that has an egalitarian view concerning natural resources, believing that it is not legitimate for someone to claim private ownership of such resources to the detriment of others. Most left libertarians support some form of income redistribution on the grounds of a claim by each individual to be entitled to an equal share of natural resources. Left libertarianism is defended by contemporary theorists such as Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner, Michael Otsuka, and Noam Chomsky. The term is sometimes used as a synonym for libertarian socialism.


Geolibertarianism is a political movement that strives to reconcile libertarianism and Georgism (or "geoism"). The term was coined by Fred Foldvary. Geolibertarians are advocates of geoism, which is the position that all land is a common asset to which all individuals have an equal right to access, and therefore if individuals claim the land as their property they must pay rent to the community for doing so. Rent need not be paid for the mere use of land, but only for the right to exclude others from that land, and for the protection of one's title by government. They simultaneously agree with the libertarian position that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor as their private property, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community, and that "one's labor, wages, and the products of labor" should not be taxed. In agreement with traditional libertarians they advocate "full civil liberties, with no crimes unless there are victims who have been invaded." In the voluntary geolibertarianism described by Foldvary, rent would be collected by private associations with the opportunity to secede from a geocommunity if desired.


Mutualism, as a libertarian socialist free-market anarchist school of thought, can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon that envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor. Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual credit bank which would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate only high enough to cover the costs of administration. Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value which holds that when labor or its product is sold, it ought to receive in exchange, goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility" (receiving anything less is considered exploitation, theft of labor, or "usury").

Some mutualists believe that if the state did not intervene, economic law would ensure that individuals receive no more income than that in proportion to the amount of labor they exert.Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraphs 9, 10 & 22.

Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Meek & Oppenheimer). Mutualists oppose the idea of individuals receiving an income through loans, investments, and rent, as they believe these individuals are not laboring. Some of them hold that if state intervention ceased, these types of incomes would disappear.Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraph 19.

Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Ricardo, Dobb & Oppenheimer). Though Proudhon opposed this type of income, he expressed: "... I never meant to ... forbid or suppress, by sovereign decree, ground rent and interest on capital. I believe that all these forms of human activity should remain free and optional for all."

Propertarian libertarianism


Anarcho-capitalism is an individualist anarchist political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the state and the elevation of the sovereign individual in a free market. In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services are provided by voluntarily-funded competitors such as private defense agencies rather than through compulsory taxation. Because personal and economic activities are regulated by the natural laws of the market through private law rather than through politics, victimless crimes and crimes against the state would be rendered moot.

Anarcho-capitalists argue for a society based in voluntary trade of private property (including money, consumer goods, land, and capital goods) and services in order to maximize individual liberty and prosperity, but also recognize charity and communal arrangements as part of the same voluntary ethic. Though anarcho-capitalists are known for asserting a right to private (individualized or joint non-public) property, some propose that non-state public/community property can also exist in an anarcho-capitalist society. For them, what is important is that it is acquired and transferred without help or hindrance from the compulsory state. Market anarchists believe that the only just, and/or most economically-beneficial, way to acquire property is through voluntary trade, gift, or labor-based original appropriation, rather than through aggression or fraud.

Beyond their agreeing that security should be privately provided by market-based entities, proponents of free-market anarchism differ in other details and aspects of their philosophies, particularly justification, tactics and property rights.

Murray Rothbard and other natural rights theorists hold strongly to the central non-aggression axiom, while other free-market anarchists such as David D. Friedman utilize consequentialist theories such as utilitarianism. Agorists, anarcho-capitalists of the Rothbardian tradition, and voluntaryists are propertarian market anarchists who consider property rights to be natural rights deriving from the primary right of self-ownership.

Anarcho-capitalists have varying views on how to go about eliminating the state. Rothbard advocates the use of any non-immoral tactic available to bring about liberty. Agorists followers of the philosophy of Samuel Edward Konkin III propose to eliminate the state by practising tax resistance and by the use of illegal black market strategies called counter-economics until the security functions of the state can be replaced by free market competitors.


Some members of the U.S. libertarian movement, including the late Samuel Edward Konkin III, and such members of the Alliance of the Libertarian Left as Kevin Carson, Roderick T. Long, Charles Johnson, Shawn Wilbur, and Gary Chartier support property rights. They identify themselves with the political Left for a variety of reasons. They tend to oppose intellectual property, war, and state policies that make and keep people poor, and to support labor unions and non-violent challenges to exclusion, subordination, impoverishment, and workplace oppression. Some wish to revive voluntary cooperative ideas such as mutualism.


Minarchism refers to the belief in a state limited to police forces, courts, and a military. In minarchism, the state neither regulates nor intervenes in personal choices and business practices, except to protect against aggression, breach of contract, and fraud. Both market anarchists and minarchists oppose victimless crimes, the Drug War, compulsory education, and conscription at all levels of government.

However, minarchists often disagree on the level of government centralization. This ranges from the centralist minarchists who support the enforcement of laws at the global or national governments, to the middle-ground minarchists who advocate states' rights or increased autonomy at the state level, and to the decentralist minarchists who think that every city or town should have its own government. Such proponents of extreme decentralization include Albert Jay Nock and Jeffersonian republicans.

Libertarian conservatism

Libertarian conservatism, also known as conservative libertarianism (and sometimes called right-libertarianism), describes certain political ideologies which attempt to meld libertarian and conservative ideas, often called "fusionism". Anthony Gregory writes that right, or conservative, "libertarianism can refer to any number of varying and at times mutually exclusive political orientations" such as being "interested mainly in 'economic freedoms'"; following the "conservative lifestyle of right-libertarians"; seeking "others to embrace their own conservative lifestyle"; considering big business "as a great victim of the state"; favoring a "strong national defense"; and having "an Old Right opposition to empire."

Conservatives hold that shared values, morals, standards, and traditions are necessary for social order while libertarians consider individual liberty as the highest value. Laurence M. Vance writes: "Some libertarians consider libertarianism to be a lifestyle rather than a political philosophy... They apparently don’t know the difference between libertarianism and libertinism." However, Edward Feser emphasizes that libertarianism does not require individuals to reject traditional conservative values.

"Paleolibertarianism" is a school of thought devised by Lew Rockwell and late Murray Rothbard, though Rockwell no longer identifies as one. Closely associated with the Austrian School of economics, most paleolibertarians identify as anarcho-capitalist. Though they advocate the elimination of the state, paleolibertarians disagree with other libertarians on reforming the state, such as illegal immigration and the legitimacy of state property.

According to Jonathan Henke "neolibertarianism" is the philosophy of being a "pragmatic libertarian; Hawk or strong on defense; Hobbesian (or Lockean according to some) libertarian; Big-Tent libertarian". Domestically, neolibertarians embrace incrementalism to achieve libertarian small government goals. On foreign policy, neolibertarians usually have combined a generally neoconservative outlook with a more pragmatic method. Anthony Gregory criticizes neolibertarianism as "libertine conservatism" and "pro-war" libertarianism, noting neolibertarians "believe that the government, which supposedly can’t do anything right, can still wage war correctly."

Some "libertarian constitutionalists" like U.S. Representative Ron Paul believe liberty can be obtained through proper interpretation of the United States Constitution, something which would not allow federal incursions on the economy and civil liberties. Other libertarians critique constitutionalism for failure of its proponents to check the growth of government power.


Objectivism, the philosophy of novelist Ayn Rand has influenced libertarianism. However, some Objectivists, including Rand herself, have condemned libertarianism as a threat to freedom and capitalism. In particular, it has been claimed that libertarians use Objectivist ideas "with the teeth pulled out of them". Similarly some libertarians distance themselves from Objectivism. Reason editor Nick Gillespie, while noting Rand's importance to the movement, confesses that he is embarrassed by his magazine's association with her ideas. Cathy Young says libertarianism "is less an offspring than a rebel stepchild."

Libertarian transhumanism

Libertarian transhumanism asserts that the principle of self-ownership is fundamental to both libertarianism and transhumanism. The philosophy advocates free market individualism as the best vehicle for technological progress and the "right to human enhancement." Some criticize it as utopian, overly reliant as technology or biological fetishism.

Current libertarian movements


In France, Liberté chérie ("Cherished Liberty") is a pro-liberty think tank and activist association formed in 2003. Liberté chérie gained significant publicity when it managed to draw 30,000 Parisians into the streets to demonstrate against government employees who were striking. In Germany, a "Libertäre Plattform in der FDP" ("Liberty Caucus within the Free Democratic Party") was founded in 2005. In Norway, The Progress Party In Italy there is the Nonviolent Radical Party. In the Netherlands there is the Libertarische Partij, and a fast growing number of libertarians.

The Russian Libertarian Movement (Rossiyskoye Libertarianskoye Dvizhenie, RLD; 2003-2006) was a short-lived political party in the Russian Federation, formed by members of the Institute of Natiology , a libertarian think tank. After electoral failure and government failure, it disbanded. In Greece, the Liberal Alliance Party was founded in 2007. In Malta, Imperium Europa, founded in 2005, is affiliated with the London New Right, and is on the verge of merging with two other minor libertarian parties in the local sphere.

The Irish Workers Solidarity Movement is notable for its stability, the relatively large circulation of its free newspaper, and for its involvement in large scale tax strikes.


The Libertarian Society of Iceland (Frjálshyggjufélagið) is the only active propertarian libertarian organization in Iceland.


New Zealand

United Kingdom

The Libertarian Alliance was an early libertarian educational group still active today. The United Kingdom Libertarian Party was founded on January 1, 2008.

Jason Walsh, in an opinion piece, held that while the 1980s economic liberalism of Margaret Thatcher was "libertarianism-lite," compared to minimal state views of more modern libertarians, which were becoming more popular after ten years of New Labour's "increasingly authoritarian policies." The Austrian and British libertarian and classical liberal philosopher, Friedrich von Hayek, is considered by some to be one of the most important economists and political philosophers of the twentieth century..

The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is the oldest free-market think tank in the United Kingdom, and a progenitor of a large network of libertarian think tanks around the world, as well as greatly shaping the Thatcher government's economic policies. The Centre for Policy Studies was set up by Thatcher and Keith Joseph for the purpose of advancing classical liberalism. The Libertarian Alliance was an early libertarian educational group. It was followed by British think tanks such as the Society for Individual Freedom and Adam Smith Institute.

The Conservative Party libertarian advocacy group, the Conservative Way Forward, is lead by Alan Duncan. The Liberal Democrats, the third largest political party in the United Kingdom, promote social liberalism, seeking to minimise state intervention in personal affairs, opposing what they call the 'nanny state'. The party actively opposes the more authoritarian policy of both the Labour and Conservative party.

The conservative and Eurosceptic United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) have defined themselves as a libertarian party, construed as an attempt to outflank the Conservatives on economic issues. Under the leadership of Nigel Farage, Farage's stated intention was to broaden the public perception of UKIP beyond merely being a party seeking to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union, to one of being a free market party broadly standing for traditional conservative and libertarian values.


The Liberal Democratic Party is the main libertarian political party in Australia. It was founded in 2001, running in the 2001 and 2004 ACT elections, before registering as a federal political party and contesting the 2007 federal election. Australia also has a small Libertarian Party, but it is not registered with the Australian Electoral Commission. The Australian Libertarian Society runs a blog focused on Libertarianism in the Australian context. Australian think tanks such as the Centre for Independent Studies and the Institute of Public Affairs are sometimes regarded as having something of a libertarian leaning.

United States

Libertarian socialists, including Noam Chomsky and Colin Ward, argue that the term "libertarianism" is globally considered a synonym for anarchism and that the United States is unique in widely associating it with free market ideology.

Well-known libertarian organizations include the Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute, the Foundation for Economic Education , the International Society for Individual Liberty and the Ludwig von Mises Institute. The Libertarian Party of the United States is the world's first such party.

The activist Free State Project, formed in 2001, works to bring 20,000 libertarians to the state of New Hampshiremarker to influence state policy. In March 2009, the project website showed that more than 650 were resident there and more than 9,150 had pledged to move there. Less successful similar projects include the Free West Alliance and Free State Wyoming. (There is also a European Free State Project.)

Texas congressman Ron Paul's campaign for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination was largely oriented towards libertarianism. Paul is affiliated with the libertarian-leaning Republican Liberty Caucus and founded the Campaign for Liberty, a libertarian-leaning membership and lobbying organization.

Latin America

Brazilmarker's MST (Landless Workers' Movement) is a social movement that includes significant libertarian socialist (social anarchist) elements which struggles for communal control of land seized in opposition to large-scale ranching oligarchies. Brazilmarker's Partido Libertários is a nascent libertarian party.

Costa Ricamarker's Movimiento Libertario (Libertarian Movement) is a libertarian party that holds 9% of the seats in Costa Rica's national assembly.

Mexicomarker's EZLN (Zapatista Army of National Liberation) is a social movement of indigenous peoples that includes significant libertarian socialist (social anarchist) elements which struggles for communal control of land seized in opposition to large-scale ranching oligarchies.

There are the beginnings of a Libertarian movement in Mexico in a group called "Alianza Liberal" , for a few years they've had an online presence, though there's not as yet a formal Libertarian Party.

See also


  1. Peter Vallentyne, Libertarianism, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, July 24, 2006 version.
  2. Professor Brian Martin, Eliminating state crime by abolishing the state; Murray Rothbard, Do You Hate the State?, The Libertarian Forum, Vol. 10, No. 7, July 1977; Libertarian Does Not Equal Libertine; What Libertarianism Isn't; A Libertarian Cheat Sheet by Wilton D. Alston; Myth and Truth About Libertarianism Murrary Rothbard; Do You Consider Yourself a Libertarian?
  3. Sciabarra, Chris Mathew. Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. Penn State Press, 2000, p. 193
  4. Woodcock, George, Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements, Broadview Press, 2004.
  5. Hans-Hermann Hoppe's Anarcho-Capitalism: An Annotated Bibliography presents a long list of individuals who use both terms.
  6. Wolff, Johnathan. "Libertarianism." Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volume 4. Taylor & Francis, 1998. p. 617
  7. Allen E. Buchanan, Ethics, efficiency, and the market, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 65, 1985 ISBN 0847673960 “In libertarian theories generally, a very broad right to private property, including private ownership of the means of production, is morally fundamental and determines both the most basic principles of individual conduct and the legitimate role of the state.”
  8. for Capitalism (Book Review), New York Post, February 4, 2007. “Libertarians have helped bring about policy changes such as deregulation, tax cuts, privatization and an end to the military draft and have encouraged market-oriented reforms throughout the world.”
  9. Ronald Hamowy, The encyclopedia of libertarianism, Sage, 2008, p. 11, 13, 227, 243, ISBN 1412965802
  10. Sharon Presley and Robert Cooke , he Right to Abortion: A Libertarian Defense, paper published by Association of Libertarian Feminists, newsletter, 1979.
  11. Chomsky,Noam Perspectives on Power: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order, Black Rose Books, 1997, p.73..."They were also taken up, adapted, and developed within libertarian left currents. According to this anarchist vision, any structure of hierarchy and authority carries a heavy burden of justification, whether it involves personal relations or a larger social order...State power and private tyranny are prime examples at the outer limits, but the issues arise pretty much across the board: in relations among parents and children, teachers and students, men and women."
  12. Ehrlich, Howard J Reinventing Anarchy, Again AK Press, 1996, p.153..."Not only is anarchism inherently feminist. It also goes beyond feminism in its fundamental opposition to all forms of power, hierarchy, and domination."
  13. Mendes, Silva. ‘Socialismo Libertário ou Anarchismo’ Vol. 1 (1896): “Society should be free through mankind's spontaneous federative affiliation to life, based on the community of land and tools of the trade; meaning: Anarchy will be equality by abolition of private property and liberty by abolition of authority”
  14. John P. Reeder, Source, sanction, and salvation: religion and morality in Judaic and Christian traditions, p. 113, 1988. Reeder uses phrase "nonpropertarian" to describe Le Guin's views.
  15. Ellie Clement and Charles Oppenheim, Department of Information Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics Great Britain, Anarchism, Alternative Publishers and Copyright, Journal of Anarchist Studies, undated.
  16. Paul, Ellen Frankel et al. Problems of Market LiberalismCambridge University Press (1998) 305
  17. Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introductrion, Oxford University Press2004. Chaper 9: The Federalist Agenda, p.78- "A frequent criticism of anarchism is that it is a world of isolated villages, small enough to be self-governing entities...But in fact the major anarchist thinkers of the past: Proudhon, Bakunin and Kropotkin, had a federalist agenda that was a foretaste of modern debates on European unity."
  18. Bookchin, Murray. Anarchism, Marxism, and the Future of the Left. AK Press.1999. p.326 -"Social anarchism I believe, offers a plausible alternative to the claims made by the state- namely confederation, whereby interdependencies can be fostered in a libertarian manner. Libertarian municipalities would send deputies, mandated and recallable, to confederal council to execute the policies established by local assemblies. The decisions these councils make would be purely administrative ; indeed, they would be expressly prohibited from policy decisions, which would remain the exclusive province of the popular assemblies...Confederation is system not of representation but of coordination.
  19. David Boaz, Libertarianism: A Primer, Free Press, 1998, 22-25.
  20. William Belsham, "Essays", printed for C. Dilly, 1789; original from the University of Michigan, p. 11, digitized May 21, 2007.
  21. Oxford English Dictionary definition of libertarianism
  22. Jared Sparks, Collection of Essays and Tracts in Theology, from Various Authors, with Biographical and Critical Notices, published by Oliver Everett, 13 Cornhill, 1824.
  23. Pelosse, Valentin (1972). Joseph Déjacque and the Neologism Libertarian
  24. Le Libertaire—all editions online
  25. Peter Kropotkin, The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (Elephant Editions, 1986), vol. 1, pages 204 and 206
  26. Peter Kropotkin, Marshall Shatz, The conquest of bread and other writings, p. xv, Cambridge University Press, 1995 ISBN 0521459907, 9780521459907
  27. 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica, contributed by Peter Kropotkin.
  28. Skirda, Alexandre. Facing the Enemy: A History of Anarchist Organization from Proudhon to May 1968. AK Press 2002, p. 183
  29. Bufe, Charles. Heretic's Handbook of Quotations. See Sharp Press, 1992. p. iv.
  30. Gay, Kathlyn. Encyclopedia of political anarchy, University of Michigan, 2006, p. 126-127.
  31. Chris Hurl, and "Diversity of Tactics", Anarchist News, April 23, 2004.
  32. With the Black Block in Genoa, Black Flag .
  33. George Lakey, Diversity of Tactics and Democracy, Clamor magazine, March-April 2002.
  34. The Week Online Interviews Chomsky, Z Magazine, February 23, 2002. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. Socialist anarchism was libertarian socialism. In the US, which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the US don't say let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism. "
  35. Colin Ward, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers..."
  36. Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement, Sharp Press, 2001, p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term "libertarian" has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
  37. Steven Teles and Daniel A. Kenney, chapter “Spreading the Word: The diffusion of American Conservativsm in Europe and beyond,” (p. 136-169) in Growing apart?: America and Europe in the twenty-first century by Sven Steinmo, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 0521879310, 9780521879316 The chapter discusses how libertarian ideas have been more successful at spreading worldwide than social conservative ideas.
  38. Anthony Gregory, Real World Politics and Radical Libertarianism,, April 24, 2007.
  39. Carl H. Botan, Vincent Hazleton, Public relations theory II, p. 262, 2006 ISBN 0805833854, 9780805833850
  40. David Boaz, Preface for the Japanese Edition of Libertarianism: A Primer, reprinted at, November 21, 1998.
  41. Radicals for Capitalism (Book Review), New York Post, February 4, 2007.
  42. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  43. Roderick T. Long, Rothbard's "Left and Right": Forty Years Later, Ludwig von Mises Institute Daily, April 8, 2006.
  44. The Achievements of Nineteenth-Century Classical Liberalism, Cato Institute, Cato University home study course module 10.
  45. Raimondo Cubeddu, preface to "Perspectives of Libertarianism", Etica e Politica (Università di Trieste) V, no. 2 (2003). "It is often difficult to distinguish between 'Libertarianism' and 'Classical Liberalism.' Those two labels are used almost interchangeably by those whom we may call libertarians of a minarchist persuasion: scholars who, following Locke and Nozick, believe a state is needed in order to achieve effective protection of property rights."
  46. Steffen W. Schmidt, American Government and Politics Today (Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2004), 17.
  47. Murray Rothbard, The Libertarian Heritage: The American Revolution and Classical Liberalism, excerpted from the first chapter of For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, at
  48. Murray Rothbard, The Life and Death of the Old Right, first published in the September 1990 issue of The Rothbard-Rockwell Report, at
  49. What is Austrian Economics?, Ludwig Von Mises Institute.
  50. Richard M. Ebeling, Austrian Economics and the Political Economy of Freedom, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003, 163-179 ISBN 1840649402, 9781840649406.
  51. DiLorenzo, Thomas. "Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850): Between the French and Marginalist Revolutions."|
  52.|Thornton, Mark. "Frédéric Bastiat as an Austrian Economist."
  53. Russell, Dean. Who is a Libertarian?, Foundation for Economic Education, "Ideas on Liberty," May, 1955.
  54. Brian Doherty, Ayn Rand at 100: "Yours Is the Glory", Cato Institute Policy Report Vol. XXVII No. 2 (March/April 2005).
  55. Lee Edwards, Ph.D., The Conservative Consensus: Frank Meyer, Barry Goldwater, and the Politics of Fusionism, Heritage Foundation issue paper, January 22, 2007.
  56. Jude Blanchette, What Libertarians and Conservatives Say About Each Other: An Annotated Bibliography,, October 27, 2004.
  57. Robert Poole, In memoriam: Barry Goldwater - Obituary, Reason Magazine, August-Sept, 1998.
  58. Hess, Karl. The Death of Politics, Interview in Playboy, July 1976.
  59. Murray Rothbard, The Early 1960s: From Right to Left, excerpt from chapter 13 of Murray Rothbard The Betrayal of the American Right, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007.
  60. Rebecca E. Klatch, A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s, University of California Press, 1999 ISBN 0520217144, 215-237.
  61. Bill Winter, "1971–2001: The Libertarian Party's 30th Anniversary Year: Remembering the first three decades of America's 'Party of Principle'" LP News
  62. The Libertarian Vote, by David Boaz and David Kirby. Cato Institute policy analysis paper 580, October 18, 2006. The Libertarian Vote
  63. International Society for Individual Liberty Freedom Network list.
  64. David Lewis Schaefer, Robert Nozick and the Coast of Utopia, The New York Sun, April 30, 2008.
  65. The Advocates Robert Nozick page.
  66. Leonard E. Read, Neither Left Nor Right, The Freeman, February 1998, Vol. 48 No. 2.
  67. Harry Browne, The Libertarian stand on abortion, Harry Browne web site, December 21, 1998.
  68. Positive and Negative Liberty, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Oct 8, 2007.
  69. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on "Contractarianism", revised April 4, 2007.
  70. Anthony de Jasay, Hayek: Some Missing Pieces, The Review of Austrian Economics Vol. 9,NO.1 (1996): 107-18, ISSN0889-3047
  71. Hardy Bouillon, Hartmut Kliemt, Ordered AnarchyAshgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007, foreward, ISBN 075466113X, 9780754661139
  72. Chuck George. Libertarian Does Not Equal Libertine. 2006.
  73. Edward Feser What Libertarianism Isn't. 2001.
  74. Wilton D. Alston. A Libertarian Cheat Sheet 2006.
  75. Murray N. Rothbard. Myth and Truth About Libertarianism from a conference paper presented at Philadelphia Society in Chicago April 1979.
  76. Kenny Johnsson interviews Lew Rockwell for The Liberal Post Do You Consider Yourself a Libertarian? 2007.
  77. WSM National Conference. Policy statement: Relations with other left groups in Ireland. April 2006
  78. Brooks, Frank H. 1994. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty (1881–1908). Transaction Publishers. p. xi
  79. Narveson, Jan (2002). Respecting Persons in Theory and Practice. Chapter 11: Anarchist's Case. "To see this, of course, we must expound the moral outlook underlying anarchism. To do this we must first make an important distinction between two general options in anarchist theory [...] The two are what we may call, respectively, the socialist versus the free-market, or capitalist, versions."
  80. Tormey, Simon, Anti-Capitalism, A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, 2004, p. 118-119
  81. Exclusive Interview With Murray Rothbard
  82. Baake, David. "Prospects for Libertarian Socialism", Zmag (June 2005)
  83. Mendes, Silva. ‘Socialismo Libertdrio ou Anarchismo’ Vol. 1 (1896): “Society should be free through mankind's spontaneous federative affiliation to life, based on the community of land and tools of the trade; meaning: Anarchy will be equality by abolition of private property and liberty by abolition of authority”
  84. Bookchin, Murray. 'Post-Scarcity Anarchism' AK Press (2004) p.xl
  85. Chomsky, Noam. 'Chomsky on Democracy and Education' Routledge (2002) p.133
  86. Prof. Will Kymlicka "libertarianism, left-" in See also Steiner, Hillel & Vallentyne. 2000. Left-Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 1
  87. Gaus, Gerald F. & Kukathas, Chandran. 2004. Handbook of Political Theory. Sage Publications Inc. p. 128
  88. e.g. Faatz, Chris, "Toward[s] a Libertarian Socialism."
  89. Foldvary, Fred E., Geoism and Libertarianism. The Progress Report.
  90. Karen DeCoster, Henry George and the Tariff Question,, April 19, 2006.
  91. Fred E. Foldvary, "In the case of geoanarchism," "Land and Liberty," May/June 1981, pp. 53-55.
  92. Miller, David. 1987. "Mutualism." The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Blackwell Publishing. p. 11
  93. Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraph 15.
  94. Solution of the Social Problem, 1848-49.
  95. Adams, Ian. 2002. Political Ideology Today. p. 135. Manchester University Press; Ostergaard, Geoffrey. 2003. Anarchism. In W. Outwaite (Ed.), The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought. p. 14. Blackwell Publishing
  96. Hess, Karl. The Death of Politics. Interview in Playboy Magazine, March 1969
  97. Holcombe, Randall G., Common Property in Anarcho-Capitalism, Journal of Libertarian Studies, Volume 19, No. 2 (Spring 2005):3–29.
  98. Avrich, Paul. Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America, Abridged Paperback Edition (1996), p. 282
  99. Lora, Ronald & Longton, Henry. 1999. The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Greenwood Press. p. 369
  100. Black, Bob. Beneath the Underground. Feral House, 1994. p. 4
  101. Konkin was the founder of agorism, author of the New Libertarian Manifesto, and founder of the Movement of the Libertarian Left
  102. The Alliance of the Libertarian Left “is a multi-tendency coalition of mutualists, agorists, voluntaryists, geolibertarians, left-Rothbardians, green libertarians, dialectical anarchists, radical minarchists, and others on the libertarian left, united by an opposition to statism and militarism, to cultural intolerance (including sexism, racism, and homophobia), and to the prevailing corporatist capitalism falsely called a free market; as well as by an emphasis on education, direct action, and building alternative institutions, rather than on electoral politics, as our chief strategy for achieving liberation.”
  103. Long is a well-known writer on left-libertarian zines and blogs. One of his descriptions of the political spectrum is in his article for the Ludwig von Mises Institute entitled Rothbard's "Left and Right": Forty Years Later
  104. See, e.g., Gary Chartier, “ Framing Left Libertarianism: A First Pass”; “ The ‘Left’ in Left Libertarian
  105. According to a reprint of Konkin’s "History of the Libertarian Movement": "In 1978, the Movement of the Libertarian Left was formed out of remaining aboveground activists to restore and continue the alliance Rothbard and Oglesby had begun between the New Left and Libertarians against foreign intervention or imperialism."
  106. See Charles Johnson, “ Scratching By: How Government Creates Poverty As We Know It
  107. See, e.g., Kevin A. Carson, “ The Ethics of Labor Struggle: A Free Market Perspective,” Thomas L. Knapp, “ Look for the Union Label.”
  108. See Charles Johnson, “ In a Freed Market, Who Will Stop Markets from Running Riot and Doing Crazy Things? And Who Will Stop the Rich and Powerful from Running Roughshod over Everyone Else?.”
  109. See for example Kevin Carson, Austrian and Marxist Theories of Monopoly Capital: A Mutualist Synthesis,, 2004
  110. Marcus, B.K. Dictionary: Definition of "minarchism"
  111. Gregory, Anthory. The Minarchist's Dilemma. Strike The Root. 10 May 2004.
  112. Albert Jay Nock. Jefferson. Brace and Company, 1926. p. 199. "Thus [Jefferson] was quite regularly for State rights against the Union, for county rights against the State, for township rights or village rights against the county, and for private rights against all."
  113. Edward Feser, What Libertarianism Isn’t, Lew, December 22, 2001.
  114. Ralph Raico, Is Libertarianism Amoral?, New Individualist Review, Volume 3, Number 3, Fall 1964, 29-36; republished by Ludwig von Mises Institute, April 4, 2005.
  115. Anthony Gregory, Left, Right, Moderate and Radical,, December 21, 2006.
  116. Cathy Young, Enforcing Virtue: Is social stigma a threat to liberty, or is it liberty in action?, review of "Freedom & Virtue: The Conservative Libertarian Debate", Reason, March 2007.
  117. Do You Consider Yourself a Libertarian?, Kenny Johnsson interviews Lew Rockwell for The Liberal Post, as posted on LewRockwell.Com, May 25, 2007.
  118. For further elaboration see "Wrong, Pat, wrong" by Karen De Coster, and "The Trouble With 'Cracking Down on Immigration'" by Anthony Gregory
  120. Jon Henke, Qando.Net description of neolibertarianism, December 17, 2004.
  121., [1], unkown date.
  122., 2006
  123. Anthony Gregory, Only War Will Prevent War, August 3, 2004 and Aassessing Political Correctness, May 8, 2007, both at
  124. Anthony Gregory. What's left of the old right.
  125. Anthony Gregory, A Revolutionary Manifesto
  126. Jørn K. Baltzersen. For Ceremonies and Emergencies. 2006-06-22.
  127. Butler Shaffer. The Death of the American State.
  128. Ayn Rand’s Q & A on Libertarianism
  129. Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand
  130. Reason Magazine, March 2005.
  131. In Paris, « antistrike » rally to support Prime Minister Mr. Fillon project , Le Monde, 2003.
  132. Andrew Schwartz, An Interview with Sabine Herold on Politics, France, and Freedom, January 12, 2004.
  133. WSM. About us. Accessed 6 October 2009. ¶In terms of helping to build a broad libertarian movement in Ireland...
  134. Reilly, J., "Far left pulling the strings on bin charge campaign", The Sunday Independent, Sunday October 19, 2003.
  135. Frjálshyggjufélagið
  136. "About", Libertarian Alliance.
  137. [ Libertarian Party UK]
  138. Edward Feser (edt), The Cambridge Companion to Hayek, Cambridge University Press (2007), ISBN 0521849772, p.13
  140. Will Woodward, "Ukip trebles candidates for local elections", The Guardian, 11 April 2007
  141. Australian Electoral Commission register of political parties.
  142. The Week Online Interviews Chomsky, Z Magazine, February 23, 2002.
  143. Colin Ward, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 62.
  144. Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement, Sharp Press, 2001, p. 9.
  145. Free State Project Membership Statistics accessed at December 14, 2007
  146. Ward, Colin. Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. 2004 p.16


  • Libertarianism entry in the Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • [206950]
  • Brian Doherty Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement, PublicAffairs, (2007)
  • Franzen, Don. Los Angeles Times Book Review Desk, review of "Neither Left Nor Right". January 19, 1997. Franzen states that "Murray and Boaz share the political philosophy of libertarianism, which upholds individual liberty--both economic and personal--and advocates a government limited, with few exceptions, to protecting individual rights and restraining the use of force and fraud." ( Review on MSN Encarta's entry on Libertarianism defines it as a "political philosophy" (Both references retrieved June 24, 2005). The Encyclopedia Britannica defines Libertarianism as "Political philosophy that stresses personal liberty." ( link, accessed June 29, 2005)
  • Rand, Ayn. "Ayn Rand’s Q&A on Libertarians", from a 1971 interview.

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