Lima is the capital and largest city of Peru.
located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, on a coast overlooking the
Pacific Ocean. It forms a contiguous urban area with the
seaport of Callao.
the 5th–largest city in Latin America, behind São Paulo, Mexico
Aires, and Rio de Janeiro.
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro
on January 18, 1535, as
La Ciudad de los Reyes, or "The City of Kings
." It became the most important city in
the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru
and, after the Peruvian War
, was made the capital of the Republic of Peru.
Today around one-third of the Peruvian population lives in the
According to early Spanish chronicles the Lima area was once called
, after its original inhabitants. However, even
before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a
famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors
, , which means "talker"
in coastal Quechua
). This oracle was
eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but
the name persisted in the local language, thus the chronicles show
"Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the
Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence
seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects
position. The city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the
( ) because its foundation was
decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany
. Nevertheless, this name
quickly fell into disuse and Lima
became the city's name
of choice; on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru, both Lima
and Ciudad de los Reyes
can be seen together as names for
It is worth noting that the river that feeds Lima is called
, and many people erroneously assume that this is
because its original Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas spoke
a highland variety of Quechua where the word for "talker" was ).
the original inhabitants of the valley were not the Incas, and this
name is actually an innovation arising from an effort by the
Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the
toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua.
Later, as the original
inhabitants of the valley died out and the local Quechua became
extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. In modern times,
Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name
of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They
often assume that the valley is named after the river; however,
Spanish documents from the colonial period show the opposite to be
In the pre-Columbian
era, the location
of what is now the city of Lima was inhabited by several Amerindian
the Ychsma polity, which was incorporated into the Inca Empire
in the 15th century. In 1532, a
group of Spanish conquistadors
led by Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca ruler
and took over his Empire. As the Spanish Crown
had named Pizarro governor of
the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac valley to found his
capital on January 18, 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes
of the Kings). In August 1536, the new city was besieged by the
troops of Manco Inca
the Spaniards and their native allies defeated the Inca
Over the next few years, Lima gained prestige as it was designated
capital of the Viceroyalty of
and site of a Real
in 1543. During the next century Lima flourished
as the center of an extensive trade network which integrated the
Viceroyalty with the Americas, Europe and the Far East. However,
the city was not free from dangers; powerful earthquakes destroyed
most of the city in 1687. A second threat was the presence of
pirates and privateers in the Pacific Ocean, which led to the
building of the Lima City Walls
between 1684 and 1687. The 1687 earthquake marked a turning point in
the history of Lima as it coincided with a recession in trade and
economic competition by other cities such as Buenos Aires.
In 1746, a powerful earthquake severely damaged Lima and destroyed
Callao, forcing a massive rebuilding effort under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de
. In the later half of the 18th century, the ideas of
health and social control shaped the development of the city.
During this period, Lima was adversely affected by the Bourbon Reforms
as it lost its monopoly on
overseas trade and its control over the important mining region of
. This economic decline made
the city's elite dependent on royal and ecclesiastical appointment
and thus, reluctant to advocate independence.
A combined expedition of Argentine and Chilean patriots under
General José de San
managed to land south of Lima in 1820 but did not attack
the city. Faced with a naval blockade and the action of guerrillas
on land, Viceroy José de la
was forced to evacuate the city on July 1821 to save the
Royalist army. Fearing a popular uprising and lacking any means to
impose order, the city council invited San Martín to enter Lima and
signed a Declaration of Independence at his request. However, the
war was not over; in the next two years the city changed hands
several times and suffered exactions from both sides.
After the war of independence, Lima became the capital of the
Republic of Peru but economic stagnation and political turmoil
brought urban development to a halt. This hiatus ended in the
1850s, when increased public and private revenues from guano
exports led to a rapid expansion of the city.
However, the export-led economic expansion also widened the gap
between rich and poor, fostering social unrest. During the
1879–1883 War of the Pacific
Chilean troops occupied Lima, looting public museums, libraries and
educational institutions. At the same time, angry mobs attacked
wealthy citizens and the Asian population; sacking their properties
and businesses. After the war, the city underwent a process of
renewal and expansion from the 1890s up to the 1920s. During this
period the urban layout was modified by the construction of big
avenues which crisscrossed the city and connected it with
In 1940, an earthquake destroyed most of the city, which at that
time was mostly built out of adobe
. In the 1940s, Lima started
a period of rapid growth spurred by immigration from the Andean
regions of Peru. Population, estimated at 0.6 million in 1940,
reached 1.9M by 1960 and 4.8M by 1980. At the start of this
period, the urban area was confined to a triangular area bounded by
the city's historic center, Callao and Chorrillos; in the following decades
settlements spread to the north, beyond the Rímac River, to the
east, along the Central Highway, and to the south.
Immigrants, at first confined to slums
downtown Lima, led this expansion through large-scale land
invasions which gave rise to the proliferation of shanty towns,
known as pueblos
The urban area of Lima covers about . It is located on
mostly flat terrain in the Peruvian coastal plain, within the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers.
The city slopes gently
from the shores of the Pacific Ocean into valleys and mountain
slopes located as high as above mean sea level. Within the city
exist isolated hills which are not connected to the surrounding
hill chains, such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla,
Muleria and Pro hills. The San Cristobal hill in the Rimac
district, which faces directly north of the downtown area, is the
local extreme of an Andean hill outgrowth.
Metropolitan Lima has an area of , of which (31%) comprise the
actual city and (69%) the city outskirts. The urban area extends
around from north to south and around from west to east. The city
center is located inland at the shore of the Rimac river, a vital
resource for the city, since it carries what will become drinking
water for its inhabitants and fuels the hydroelectric dams that
provide electricity to the area. While no official administrative
definition for the city exists, it is usually considered to be
composed of the central 30 out of the 43 districts of Lima Province
, corresponding to an urban area
centered around the historic Cercado de
district. The city is the core of the Lima Metropolitan Area
, one of the
metropolitan areas in the Americas
. Lima is the second
largest city in the world located in a desert, after Cairo, Egypt.
Lima's climate is quite mild, despite being located in the tropics
and in a desert
. Lima has a subtropical
, yet the microclimate also makes the atmosphere very
humid throughout the year. Despite featuring a desert climate,
temperatures vary from mild to warm. It's neither cold nor very
hot, which is very unusual for a desert climate. The average daily
temperatures in winter range from to . Winter days usually come
accompanied by continuous overcast skies, fog, and mist, but Lima
sees no significant rainfall from this. In the summer, the daily
maximum temperature averages around with a daily minimum
temperature around . During El Niño
climate of Lima gets severely disrupted, the water temperatures
along the coast which usually average around get much warmer (as in
1998 when the water temperature reached ), which causes the high
and low temperatures to rise by several degrees. Such was the case
when Lima hit its all-time record high of .
is always very
high particularly in the mornings, and produces brief morning fog
from June to December and persistent low clouds from May to
November. Sunny, less humid, and warm summers last from December to
April and are followed by cloudy, humid, and mild winters (lasting
from June to October). The all-time record low in the metropolitan
area is . Lima has only 1284 hours of sunshine a year, 28.6 hours
in July and 179.1 hours in January, exceptionally low values for
Rainfall is very low. The severely low rainfall impacts on water
supply in the city. Inland locations receive anywhere between 1 to
of rainfall, which accumulates mainly during the winter months.
Summer rain occurs in the form of isolated light and brief
afternoon or evening events, leftover from afternoon storms that
generate over the Andes
. The peak of the
'rainy season,' which does not produce "rain" in the true sense of
the word, occurs during winter when late-night/morning drizzle
events (locally called 'garúa','llovizna' or 'camanchacas
') become frequent, leaving a light
coating of dampness on the ground. All these climatic phenomena
arise from the combination of semi-permanent coastal upwelling and
the presence of the cold Humboldt
With a municipal population of 7,605,743, and 8,472,935 for the
population density of as of 2007, Lima ranks as the 18th most populous city in the
. Its population features a very complex mix of racial and
ethnic groups. Traditionally, Mestizos
of mixed Amerindian
(mostly Spanish) and descent are the largest contingent. The second
group are White
Spanish and Italians, followed by French, British, German, Croatian
and other Eastern Europeans. The third group
is composed by Amerindian (mostly aymaras
) and there is a large number of Jews
, and Middle Easterners. Asians make up a large
number of the metropolitan population, especially of Chinese
(Cantonese) and Japanese descent. Afro-Peruvians
, whose African ancestors were
initially brought to the region as slaves, are yet another part of
the city's ethnic quilt. Lima has by far the largest Chinese
community in Latin America
The first settlement in what would become Lima was made up of only
117 housing blocks. In 1562, another district was built at the
other side of the Rimac River and in 1610, the first stone bridge
was built. Lima had, at this point in time, population of around
26,000, made up of 40% blacks (mostly slaves) and 38% whites. By
1748, the white population of criollos
and Europeans totaled sixteen or
eighteen thousand. In 1861, the amount of inhabitants surpassed
100,000, and by 1927 this amount was doubled.
During the early twentieth century thousands of immigrants came to
the city, a significant number of French, Italians and Germans,
many of them had been adapting to the Peruvian society. They
organized in social clubs, and they built their own schools; for
example, The American-Peruvian school which is located in
Miraflores, The French Alliance (Alianza Francesa de Lima), famous
Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the hospital Maison de Sante, the
British-Peruvian school in Monterrico, and also several
German-Peruvian schools.They also influenced Peruvian cuisine, the
Italians in particular exerting a strong influence in the
Miraflores and San Isidro areas with their restaurants, called
A great number of Chinese immigrants, and a lesser amount of
Japanese, came to Lima and established themselves in the Barrios
Altos neighborhood near downtown Lima. Lima residents refer to
their Chinatown as "Calle Capon," and the city's ubiquitous Chifa
restaurants a small, sit-down, usually Chinese-run restaurant
serving the Peruvian spin on Chinese cuisine can be found by the
dozen in this Chinese enclave.
Lima is the industrial and financial center of Peru, home to many
national companies. It accounts for more than two thirds of Peru's
industrial production and most of its tertiary sector
The Metropolitan area, with around 7000 factories, spearheads the
industrial development of the country, thanks to the quantity and
quality of the available workforce
infrastructure and the mostly developed routes and highways in the
city. The most relevant industrial sectors are textiles, clothing
and food. Chemicals, fish, leather and oil derivatives are also
manufactured and/or processed in Lima. The financial district is
located in the district of San
, while much of the industrial activity takes place in
the area stretching west of Downtown Lima to the airport in
Industrialization began to take hold in Lima in 1930s and by 1950s,
through import substitution policies, by 1950 manufacturing made up
14% of the GNP
. In the late 1950s, up to 70% of
consumer goods were manufactured in Peruvian, and primarily Limean,
The Callao seaport
is one of the main
fishing and commerce ports in South America, with 75% of the
country's imports and 25% of its exports using it as their
entry/departure point. The main export goods leaving the country
through Callao are oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar and
In 2004, Lima's GDP
represented 45% of the
country's GDP (5% more than the previous year). The GDP per capita
in Lima is $14,600. Most of the foreign companies operating in the
country have settled in Lima, which has led to the previously
mentioned concentration of economic and financial activity on the
There has been a noticeable increase in light industries, services
and high technologies. In 2007, the Peruvian economy grew 9%, the
largest growth rate in all of South
which was spearheaded by economic policies originating
in Lima. The Lima Stock Exchange
grew 185.24% in 2006 and in 2007 grew 168.3%, making it one of the
fastest growing stock exchanges in the world. In 2006, the Lima Stock Exchange
was the most
profitable in the world. The unemployment rate in the metropolitan
area is 7.2%.
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
and the Latin
America, the Caribbean and the European Union Summit
hosted by the city of Lima.
Lima is headquarters to many major banks such as Banco de Crédito del
, Bank of the Nation
, Banco Continental,
MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco
de Comercio, and Credi Scotia. It is also a regional headquarters
to Standard Chartered
insurance coorperations based in Lima include Rimac Seguros, Mapfre
Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta, and La Positiva.
the capital city of the Republic of Peru and the department of
As such, it is home to the three branches of the
Government of Peru
. The executive branch is headquartered
in the Government Palace, located in the Plaza Mayor.
The legislative branch
is headquartered in the
home to the Congress of Peru
headquartered in the Palace of
and is home to the Supreme Court of Peru
Likewise, all the ministries
are located in the
city of Lima. In international government, the city of Lima is home
to the headquarters of the Andean Community of Nations
the South American
Community of Nations
, along with other regional and
The city is roughly equivalent to the Province of Lima
, which is subdivided into
. The Metropolitan Municipality of
is utmost authority of the entire city while each district
further has its own local government. Unlike the rest of the
country, the Metropolitan Municipality, although a provincial municipality
, acts as and
has functions similar to a regional government
, as it does
not belong to any of the 25 regions of
The Palace of Justice
Lima is seat of the Supreme Court
the highest judicial court in Peru with jurisdiction
over the entire territory of Peru.
Lima is also seat of two of the 28 second highest or Superior Courts of
. The first and oldest Superior Court in Lima is the
Superior Court of Justice of Lima
belonging to the
Judicial District of Lima
Due to the judicial organization
, the highest concentration of courts is located in Lima
despite the fact that its judicial district only has jurisdiction
over 35 of the 43 districts of
. The Superior Court of the Cono Norte
second Superior Court located in Lima and is part of the Judicial District of North
. This judicial district has jurisdiction over the
remaining eight districts all located in northern Lima.
Paseo de los Heroes Navales
Lima's architecture is characterized by a mix in styles as
reflected from shifts between trends throughout various time
periods of the city's history. Examples of early colonial architecture
include such structures as the Monastery of
San Francisco, the Cathedral of Lima and the Torre Tagle Palace.
These constructions are generally
influenced by the Spanish baroque
, and Spanish Colonial
independence, a gradual shift towards the neoclassical
and Art Nouveau
styles took place. Many of these
constructions were greatly influenced by French architectural
government buildings as well as major cultural institutions were
contracted in this architectural time period. During 1960s,
constructions utilizing the brutalist
style began appearing in
Lima due to the military government of Juan
. Examples of this architecture include the Museum of the Nation
and the Ministry of Defense
. The 21st
century has seen the appearance of glass
, particularly around the city's financial district.
Also there are several new architectural and real state
Lima's urban setting is characterized by lime green-lined streets
as well as the abundance of plazas throughout the city. More
important streets usually contain wider green areas and plaza's
usually contain monuments or statues of historical figures of
importance to Peruvian history
Parks and gardens
largest parks of Lima are located near the downtown area such as the Park of the Reserve, Park of the
Exposition, Campo de Marte,
and the University Park. The Park of the Reserve is home to the largest fountain complex in the
world known as the Magical Circuit of Water.
A number of large parks lie outside the city center, including
Reducto Park, Pantanos de Villa, The Golf, Park of the Legends, the
malecon of Miraflores, and the Golf of the Incas. The street grid
of the city of Lima, is laid out with a system of plazas of which
serve a purpose similar to roundabouts
. In addition to this
practical purpose, plazas serve as one of Lima's principal green
spaces and contain a variety of different types of architecture
ranging from monuments to statues, and water fountains.
Society and culture
Strongly influenced by European
, and Asian
culture, Lima is a melting pot of
cultures due to colonization
, and indigenous influences
many other world capitals, Lima is home to prestigious museums many
of which are world renowned. The Historic Center of Lima was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in
Limean gastronomy is known to be among the best in the
world and the city is known as the Gastronomical Capital of the
. Lima's gastronomy is a mix of Spanish
beaches, located along the northern and southern ends of the city,
are heavily visited during the summer months. Numerous restaurants,
clubs and hotels have been opened in these places to serve the many
beachgoers. Lima has a vibrant and active theater scene as there
are many theaters presenting not only classic theater, but also
cultural presentations, modern theater, experimental theater,
dramas, dance performances, and theater for children. Lima is home
to many important theaters such as the Municipal Theater, Segura
Theater, Japanese-Peruvian Theater, Marsano Theater, British
theater, Theater of the PUCP Cultural Center, and the Yuyachkani
Known as Peruvian Coastal
, Lima's Spanish is characterized by the lack of strong
innotations as found in many other regions of the Spanish-speaking
world. It is heavily influenced by the Spanish spoken in Castile
as throughout the
colonial era, the colonial Spanish nobility was based in Lima, of
which most originated from Castile. Limean Spanish is also
characterized by the lack of voseo
, a trait
present in the dialects of many other Latin American
countries. This is due
to the fact that voseo was primarily utilized by the lower
socioeconomic classes of Spain, a social group that did not begin
to appear in Lima until the late colonial era. Limean Spanish is
often distinguished by its relative clarity in comparison to other
Latin American dialects. Limean Spanish has been influenced by a
number of immigrant groups including Italians, Andalusians
, Chinese and Japanese. It also
has been influenced by anglicisms
result of globalization
as well as by
Andean Spanish due to recent immigration from the Andean highlands
The Museum of Art
home to the highest concentration of museums of the country, the
most notable of which being the Museo Nacional de Arqueología Antropología
e Historia del Perú, Museum of Art of Lima, the Museum of Natural History,
the Museum of the Nation, The
Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, and
the Museum of Gold, and the Larco Museum.
These museums mostly focus on art, pre-Columbian cultures
, natural history,
science and religion. There's a particularity with the Museum of Italian Art
, which is the
only museum that shows European art in Peru.
the point of entry to the country, has developed an important
tourism industry, characterized by its historic
center, archeological sites, nightlife, museums, art
galleries, festivals, and popular traditions.
Lima is home
to an ample range of restaurants and bars where local as well as
international cuisine is served.
Center of Lima, made up of the districts of Lima and Rimac,
was declared a World Heritage
Site by UNESCO in 1988 due
to its importance during the colonial era leaving a testimony to
architectural achievement. Some examples of this historical colonial
architecture include the Monastery of
San Francisco, the Plaza
Mayor, the Cathedral, Covenant
of Santo Domingo, the
Torre Tagle, and much more.
A tour of the city's churches is a popular circuit among tourists.
A short jaunt through the central district goes through many
churches dating from as early as the 16th and 17th centuries the
most noteworthy of which being the Cathedral of Lima and the
Monastery of San Francisco, of which are said to be connected by
their subterrestrial catacombs
. Both of
these churches contain paintings from various schools of art,
Sevilian tile, and finely sculpted wood furnishings. Also notable
is the Sanctuary of Las
, the point of origin for the Lord of Miracles
, whose festivities in the
month of October constitute the most important religious event in
Lima and arguably all of Peru. Some sections of the Lima City Walls
still remain and are
frequented by tourists. These examples of medieval Spanish
fortifications were utilized to defend the city from attacks by
pirates and privateers
are visited during the summer months, which are located along the
Pan-American Highway, to the
south of the city in districts such as Lurin, Punta Hermosa, Santa María del Mar , San Bartolo and Asia.
Many restaurants, nightclubs, lounges,
bars, clubs, and hotels have developed in said places to cater to
suburban districts of Cieneguilla,
Pachacamac, and the city of
Chosica, are important tourist attractions among locals as
they are located at a higher elevation than Lima therefore
receiving sunshine in winter months, something that the city of
Lima frequently lacks.
Lima is known as Gastronomical Capital of the Americas
center of immigration and the center of the Spanish Viceroyalty,
Lima has incorporated unique dishes brought from the arrival of the
Spanish Conquistadors and the receiving of many waves of
immigrants: African, European, Chinese, and Japanese. Besides
international immigration—a large portion of which happened in
Lima—there has been, since the second half of the 20th century, a
strong internal flow from rural areas to cities, in particular to
Lima. This has strongly influenced Lima's cuisine with the
incorporation of the immigrant's ingredients and techniques (for
example, the Chinese extensive use of rice or the Japanese approach
to preparing raw fish. The genres of restaurants in Lima include
. Peruvian cuisine
, widely represented in
Lima, holds various Guinness
, for its diversity and quality.
The city of Lima has varied sports venues for football
, many of which are located within
private clubs. A popular sport among Limeans is fronton
invented in Lima. The city is home to seven
links. Equestrian is popular in Lima with many
private clubs as well as the Hipódromo de
Monterrico horse racing track.
The most popular sport
in Lima by far is football
many professional club teams being located in the city.
Lima is made up of thirty densely-populated districts, each headed
by a local mayor and the Mayor of Lima, whose authority extends to
these and the thirteen outer districts of the Lima province.
centre is located in the Cercado
de Lima district, locally known as simply Lima, or as "El
Centro" ("Downtown"), and it is home to
most of the vestiges of Lima's colonial
past, the Presidential Palace ( ), the Metropolitan Municipality of
Lima ( ), and dozens of hotels, some operating and some
defunct, that used to cater to the national and international
The upscale San Isidro
is the city's financial center. It is home to many prominent
figures such as politicians and celebrities. It is also where the
main banks of Peru and branch offices of world banks are
headquartered. San Isidro
many parks, including Parque El Olivar, which has olive trees that
were brought from Spain during the seventeenth century.
Another upscale district is Miraflores
, which has many luxury
hotels, shops and restaurants. Miraflores
has more parks and green
areas in the south of Lima than most other districts. Larcomar, a popular
shopping mall and entertainment center built on cliffs overlooking
Ocean, featuring bars, dance clubs, movie theaters,
cafes, shops, boutiques and galleries, is also located in this
La Molina, San Borja and
Surco, home to the American Embassy and the exclusive
Club Polo Lima, are the other three wealthy districts of
The most densely-populated districts of Lima lie in the northern
and southern ends of the city (Spanish: Cono
and Cono Sur
and they are mostly composed of Andean immigrants who arrived
during the mid and late 20th century looking for better living
standards and economic opportunities, or as refugees of the
country's internal conflict with the Shining Path
during the late 80s and early 90s.
In the case of Cono Norte(North Lima), certain shopping malls like
Megaplaza and Royal Plaza have been recently built in the Independencia
, which is the
most residential neighborhood in the Northern part of Lima. Most of
the inhabitants of this area belong to the middle class
Barranco, which borders Miraflores by the Pacific Ocean, is known as the city's bohemian district, home or
once home of many Peruvian writers and intellectuals like Mario
Vargas Llosa, Chabuca Granda and Alfredo Bryce Echenique.
This district has many acclaimed restaurants, music venues called
"peñas" featuring the traditional folk music of coastal Peru (in
Spanish, "música criolla"), and beautiful Victorian-style chalets.
It along with Miraflores serves as the home to the foreign
Mural regarding the foundation
of the University of San Marcos on May 12, 1551.
San Marcos is the first university in Peru and the
oldest continuously functioning university in the
Home to a range of universities, institutions, and schools, Lima
has the highest concentration of institutions of higher learning in
the country and is home to schools with worldwide recognition.
University of San Marcos, founded on May 12, 1551 during Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest
continuously functioning university in the
Nacional de Ingeniería
(UNI) was founded in 1876 by Polish
engineer Eduardo de Habich and is the most important engineering
school in the country. Other public universities also play key
roles in teaching and research, such as the Universidad Nacional
(the second largest in the country), the
Nacional Agraria La Molina
where ex-president Alberto Fujimori
once taught, and the
National University of
Pontificia Universidad Católica del
Perú, established in 1917, is the oldest private
university. Universidad San Ignacio de
is Peru's first English and Spanish bi-lingual academic
program with course credits transferable to the United States.
Other private institutions that are located in the city are
Universidad del Pacifico
Universidad de Lima
, Universidad San Martín de
, Universidad Peruana
, Universidad Cientifica del
, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Applicadas and Universidad
served by the Jorge Chavez International
Airport, located in Callao
It is the largest airport of the country with the
largest amount of domestic and international air traffic. It also
serves as a major hub in the Latin American air network.
Additionally, Lima possesses five other
airports: the Las Palmas Air Force Base, Collique Airport, and
runways in Santa María del Mar, San Bartolo and Chilca.
Lima is connected by highway to every country that borders Peru.
Because of its location on the country's central coast, Lima is an
important junction in Peru's highway system. Three of the major
highways originate in Lima.
- The Northern Panamerican Highway,
this highway extends more than to the border with Ecuador
connecting the northern districts of Lima with many major cities
along the northern Peruvian coast.
- The Central Highway ( ),
this highway connects the eastern districts of Lima with many
cities in central Peru. The highway extends with its terminus at the
city of Pucallpa near Brazil.
- The Southern Panamerican Highway,
this highway connects the southern districts of Lima to cities on
the southern coast. The highway extends to the border with
proximity of Lima to the port of Callao allows
Callao to act as the metropolitan area's foremost port.
Callao concentrates nearly all of the maritime transport of the
metropolitan area. There is, however, a small port in Lurín
whose transit mostly is accounted
for by oil tankers due to a refinery being located nearby.
Nonetheless, maritime transport inside Lima's city limits is
relatively insignificant compared to that of Callao, the nation's
leading port and one of Latin America's largest. There have been plans
to build a new megaport on the island of San
Lorenzo known as the San Lorenzo Megaport
This port is planned to become the largest of
Lima is connected to the Central Andean region by the Ferrocarril Central Andino
runs from Lima through the departments of Junin
, and Huanuco
. Major cities along this line include
Oroya, Huancavelica, and Cerro de Pasco. Another inactive line runs from Lima
northwards to the city of Huacho.
The urban transport system is composed of over 652 transit routes
which are served by buses, microbuses, and combis. The system is
unorganized and is characterized by the lack of formality. The
service is run by 464 private companies which are poorly regulated
by the local government. Fares average at around one sol
or $0.30 USD
Public transport (2010) Metropolitano
The Metropolitan Transportation System is a transport project which
plans to integrate the Independent Corridor of Mass-Transit Buses
known by its Spanish initials as (COSAC 1). This system plans to
link the principal points of the Lima Metropolitan Area
and the first
phase of this project is already in development with the
construction of a thirty three km line from Comas
system is similar to the TransMilenio of Bogotá, Colombia.
, known as colectivos, render
express service on some major roads of the Lima Metropolitan Area
colectivos signal their specific destination with a sign on the
their windshield. Their routes are not generally publicitized but
are understood by frequent users. The cost is generally higher than
congenital public transport however they cover greater distances at
greater speeds due to the lack of stops.
The Lima Metro
, an above ground mass
transit system, is under construction and one line has been
completed while another six are scheduled for construction.
Line 1 is
also scheduled to be extended to the city's center, uniting Villa el
Salvador with downtown Lima in
a matter of only forty minutes, a trip which currently lasts one
hour and forty minutes with the current public transport
The Via Expresa
Taxis in the city are relatively cheap. There are no meters so
drivers are told the desired destination and the fare is agreed
upon before the passenger enters the taxi. Taxis vary in sizes from
small four door compacts to large vans. They are virtually
everywhere, accounting for a large part of the car stock. In many
cases they are just a private car with a taxi sticker on the
windshield. Additionally, there are several companies that provide
taxi service on-call.
Eighty percent of the city's history having occurred during the
pre-automobile era, Lima's road network is based mostly on large
divided avenues rather than freeways. In recent times however, Lima
has developed a freeway network now made up of nine freeways which
are, the Via Expresa Paseo de la Republica, Via Expresa Javier
Prado, Via Expresa Grau, Panamericana Norte, Panamericana Sur,
Carretera Central, Via Expresa Callao, Autopista Chillon Trapiche,
and the Autopista Ramiro Priale.
Twin towns – Sister cities
List of sister cities
, designated by
- Arequipa, Peru
- New York City, United States
- Los Angeles, United States
- Austin, United
States, since 1981
- Miami, United
- Stamford, United States
- Bordeaux, France. since 1957
- Beijing, China, since November 1983
- Manila, Philippines
- Mexico City, Mexico
- São Paulo, Brazil
- Tegucigalpa, Honduras
- Akhisar, Turkey
- Karaçoban, Turkey
- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Guadalajara, Mexico
- Montreal, Canada
- Cardiff, United Kingdom
- Pescara, Italy
- Conlee et al., "Late Prehispanic sociopolitical complexity", p.
- Hemming, The conquest, p. 28.
- Klarén, Peru, p. 39.
- Hemming, The conquest, p. 203–206.
- Klarén, Peru, p. 87.
- Andrien, Crisis and decline, pp. 11–13.
- Andrien, Crisis and decline, p. 26.
- Higgings, Lima, p. 45.
- Andrien, Crisis and decline, p. 28.
- Walker, "The upper classes", pp. 53–55.
- Ramón, "The script", pp. 173–174.
- Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 4–5.
- Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 23–24.
- Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 176–177.
- Anna, Fall of the royal government, pp. 178–180.
- Klarén, Peru, p. 169.
- Klarén, Peru, p. 170.
- Higgings, Lima, p. 107.
- Klarén, Peru, p. 192.
- Ramón, "The script", pp. 180–182.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Lima Metropolitana perfil
socio-demográfico. Retrieved on August 12, 2007
- Dietz, Poverty and problem-solving, p. 35.
- Dietz, Poverty and problem-solving, p. 36.
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Urban Agglomerations 2007.
- Latin America Since 1930
- The Institute of International Education (IIE)
- History of Lima. Lima Info.
- Colonial Lima according to Jorge Juan and Antonio
de Ulloa. From Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, A Voyage to
South America (1748).
- Infoplease. Lima. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.
- AttractionGuide. Lima Attractions. Retrieved on December 8,
- Latin America Since 1930
- Bolsa de Valores de Lima
- Judicial Power of Peru. Superior Court of Lima. Retrieved 3 December
- Judicial Power of Peru. Superior Court of North Lima. Retrieved 3 December
- A Cultural History of Latin America and
- The Colonial Divide in Peruvian Narrative
- Sister Cities International, Online Directory: Peru, Americas. Retrieved July 14,
- Nota etimológica: El topónimo Lima, Rodolfo
Cerrón-Palomino, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
- Lima Monumento Histórico, Margarita Cubillas Soriano,
- Andrien, Kenneth. Crisis and decline: the Viceroyalty of
Peru in the seventeenth century. Albuquerque: University of
New Mexico Press, 1985. ISBN 0-8263-0791-4
- Anna, Timothy. The fall of the royal government in
Peru. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. ISBN
- Conlee, Christina, Jalh Dulanto, Carol Mackay and Charles
Stanish. "Late Prehispanic sociopolitical complexity". In Helaine
Silverman (ed.), Andean archaeology. Malden: Blackwell,
2004, pp. 209–236. ISBN 0-631-23400-4
- Dietz, Henry. Poverty and problem-solving under military
rule: the urban poor in Lima, Peru. Austin: University of
Texas Press, 1980. ISBN 0-292-76460-X
- Hemming, John. The conquest of the Incas. London:
Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 0-333-51794-6
- Higgings, James. Lima. A cultural history.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517891-2
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Lima Metropolitana perfil
socio-demográfico. Lima: INEI, 1996.
- Klarén, Peter. Peru: society and nationhood in the
Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN
- Ramón, Gabriel. "The script of urban surgery: Lima, 1850–1940".
In Arturo Almandoz (ed.), Planning Latin America's capital
cities, 1850–1950. New York: Routledge, 2002,
pp. 170–192. ISBN 0-415-27265-3
- Walker, Charles. "The upper classes and their upper stories:
architecture and the aftermath of the Lima earthquake of 1746".
Hispanic American Historical Review 83 (1): 53–82