Lincoln ( ) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England.
of Lincoln has a population of 85,595; the 2001 census
gave the entire urban area of Lincoln a population of 120,779. The
council identifies a 'Greater Lincoln' catchment area covering
surrounding villages and towns, which has a population of
several twin towns: Port Lincoln,
South Australia; Radomsko, Poland;
Tangshan, China; and
der Weinstraße, Germany.
Earliest history: Lindon
earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an
Iron Age settlement of round wooden
dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that
have been dated to the 1st century BC This settlement was built by
a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans
later built Lincoln
Cathedral and Lincoln Castle) .
The Brayford Pool
The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the
settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language
of Iron Age Britain's
inhabitants as Lindon
Pool", presumably referring to the Brayford Pool. It is not
possible to know how big this original settlement was as its
remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval
ruins, as well as the modern city of Lincoln.
Roman history: Lindum Colonia
conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards
built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural
lake formed by the widening of the River Witham (the modern day
Pool) and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46).
The Celtic name
was subsequently Latinized
and given the
when it was converted into a settlement for
army veterans. Lindum Colonia
was shortened on the tongues
of the later, English speakers
conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on
(Eboracum) in AD 71. Lindum
or more fully, Colonia Domitiana
, after its founder Domitian
, was established within the walls of the
hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal
area, down the hillside to the waterside below.
a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both
through the River Trent and through the
Witham, and was even the provincial capital of Flavia Caesariensis when the province of
Britannia Inferior was subdivided
in the early 4th century, but then it and its waterways fell into
By the close of the 5th century the city was
largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a
, for Saint Paulinus
visited a man of this office
in Lincoln in AD 629.
After the first destructive Viking
city once again rose to some importance. In Viking times Lincoln
was a trading centre important enough to issue coins from its own
mint . After the establishment of Dane Law in 886, Lincoln became one of The Five Boroughs in the East Midlands.
Over the next few
centuries, Lincoln once again rose to prominence. In 1068, two years
after the Norman Conquest, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the former Roman
settlement, for the same strategic reasons and using the same
Construction of the first Lincoln
Cathedral, within its
close or walled precinct facing the castle, began when the
see was removed from Dorchester and completed in 1092; it was rebuilt after a fire
but was destroyed by an unusual earthquake in 1185.
rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding,
was on a magnificent scale, its crossing
crowned by a spire reputed to have been 160 m
(525 ft) high, the highest in Europe. When completed the
central of the three spires is widely accepted to have succeeded
Pyramids of Egypt as the tallest man-made structure in the
The bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England:
Lincolnshire, the largest diocese, had more monasteries than the
rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by
large estates outside the county.
When the Magna Carta
was drawn up in
1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of
, Bishop of Lincoln
only four surviving originals is now preserved in Lincoln
The iconic view of Lincoln
Among the most famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet
, the magnificent justiciar
; Hugh of Avalon
, the cathedral
builder canonised as St Hugh of
; Robert Grosseteste
the 13th century intellectual; Henry, Cardinal Beaufort
politician deeply involved in the Wars
of the Roses
; Philip Repyngdon
chaplain to Henry IV of England
and defender of Wycliffe
; Thomas Cardinal Wolsey
The administrative centre was the Bishop's Palace, the third
element in the central complex. When it was built in the late 12th
century, the Bishop's Palace was one of the most important
buildings in England. Built by the canonised bishop Hugh of Lincoln
, the palace's East Hall
range over a vaulted under-croft is the earliest surviving example
of a roofed domestic hall. The chapel range and entrance tower were
built by Bishop William of Alnwick, who modernised the palace in
the 1430s. Both Henry VIII
were guests of bishops
here; the palace was sacked by royalist troops during the Civil War
Following a recent break-in, some of the stained glass windows of
the Cathedral have had to be replaced.
The arms of the City of Lincoln
By 1150, Lincoln was among the wealthiest towns in England. The
basis of the economy was cloth
, exported to Flanders
had set up a guild
in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the
fine dyed 'scarlet' and 'green', the reputation of which was later
enhanced by Robin Hood
of Lincoln green
. In the Guildhall
that surmounts the city gate called the Stonebow
ancient Council Chamber contains Lincoln's civic insignia, probably
the finest collection of civic regalia outside London.
the precincts of cathedral and castle, the old quarter clustered
around the Bailgate, and down Steep Hill to the
Bridge, which bears half-timbered housing, with the upper storeys
jutting out over the river, as London Bridge once had.
There are three ancient churches:
St Mary le Wigford and St Peter at Gowts are both 11th century in
origin and St Mary Magdalene
in the late 13th century, is an unusual English dedication to the
saint whose cult was coming greatly into vogue on the European
continent at that time.
Lincoln was home to one of the five most important Jewish
communities in England, well established before it was officially
noted in 1154. In 1190, anti-semitic riots that started in
Lynn, Norfolk, spread to Lincoln;
the Jewish community took refuge with royal officials, but their
habitations were plundered. The so-called 'House of Aaron' has a
two-storey street frontage that is essentially 12th century and a
House likewise bears witness to the Jewish
population. In 1255, the affair called 'The Libel of Lincoln' in which prominent Jews of
Lincoln, accused of the ritual murder of a Christian boy ('Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln'
in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 were executed.
The Jews were expelled
en masse in 1290.
During the 13th century, Lincoln was the third largest city in
England and was a favourite of more than one king. It also became
caught up in the strife between the king and the rebel barons who
had allied with the French, which was an ongoing result on the
baron rebellion against King John. It was here and at Dover that
the French and Rebel army was defeated.
However, during the 14th century, the city's fortunes began to
decline. The lower city was prone to flooding
becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues
were common. In 1409, the city was made
a county corporate
The Dissolution of the
further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, cutting off
the main source of diocesan income and drying up the network of
patronage controlled by the bishop, with no less than seven
monasteries within the city alone closed down. This was accompanied
by closure of a number of nearby parliamentary abbeys which led to
a further diminishment of the region's political power. When the
cathedral's great spire rotted and collapsed in 1549 and was not
replaced, it was a significant symbol of Lincoln's economic and
political decline. However, the comparative poverty of
post-medieval Lincoln preserved pre-medieval structures that would
probably have been lost in more prosperous contexts.
1642 and 1651, during the English
, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist
forces. Military control of the city therefore changed hands
numerous times. Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had
no major industry, no easy access to the sea and was poorly placed.
As a consequence of this, while the rest of the country was
beginning to prosper in the beginning of the 1700s, Lincoln
suffered immensely, travellers often commenting on the state of
what had essentially become a 'one street' town.
By the Georgian era
, Lincoln's fortunes
began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution
re-opening of the Foss
Dyke canal allowed coal and other
raw materials vital to industry to be more easily brought into the
As well as the economic growth of Lincoln during this era, the city
boundaries expanded to include the West Common. To this day, an
annual 'Beat the Boundaries' walk takes place along the perimeter
of the common.
Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again
during the Industrial Revolution, and several world-famous
companies arose, such as Ruston's
's, and William Foster's
. Lincoln began
to excel in heavy engineering, building diesel engine trains, steam
shovels, and all manner of heavy machinery.
was hit by a major typhoid epidemic between November 1904 and August 1905
caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the
Over 1,000 people contracted the disease
and fatalities totalled 113, including the
very man responsible for the city's water supply, Matthew Robinson
of Baker Crescent. Westgate Water Tower was constructed to provide
new water supplies to the city.
In the world wars, Lincoln switched to war production. The first
were invented, designed and built in
Lincoln by William Foster
& Co. Ltd
during the First World War
population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion.
The tanks were tested on land now covered by Tritton Road
(in the south-west suburbs of the city). During the Second World War
, Lincoln produced a vast
array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions
, and military vehicles. Ruston and
Hornsby produced diesel engines
, then by teaming up with former
colleagues of Frank Whittle
Ltd, in the early 1950s, R
& H (which became RGT) opened the first ever production line to
build gas turbine
engines for land-based
and sea-based energy production. Hugely successful, it has become
the largest single employer in the city, providing over 5,000 jobs
in its factory and research facilities, making it a rich takeover
target for industrial conglomerates. It was taken over by
GEC in the late 1960s
with diesel engine production being transferred to the Ruston
Diesels division in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire of GEC at the former Vulcan Foundry, which was eventually bought by the German MAN B&W Diesel in June 2000.
with Alstom of France in the late 1980s, then
in 2003 was bought out by Siemens AG of
Germany, now being called Siemens Industrial
This also includes what is left of
. Plans were announced
early in 2008 for the construction of a new plant just outside the
city boundary at Teal
In the post-war
years after 1945, new
were built, but heavy industry
declined towards the end of the 20th century, mimicking the wider
economic profile of the United Kingdom. More people are
nevertheless still employed today in Lincoln building gas turbines
than anything else.
Lincoln's economy is based mainly on public
with industrial relics like Rustons (now Siemens) still in
existence. However, many of Lincoln's industrial giants have long
ceased production in the city, leaving large empty industrial
warehouse-like buildings. More recently, these buildings have
become multi-occupant units, with the likes of Lincs FM
radio station (in the Titanic
) and LA Fitness
gym taking up
space. Like many other cities in Britain, Lincoln has developed a
economy, with many
e-commerce mail order companies setting up in or around the place.
A plethora of other, more conventional small industrial businesses
are located in and around Lincoln. One of the reasons for building
the University was to increase inward investment and act as a
springboard for small companies. The University's presence has also
drawn many more licensed premises to the town centre around the
Brayford Pool. A new small business unit next door to a University
accommodation building, the Think Tank, opened in June 2009.
company is based on Castle Hill
, with most new UK service
areas being built by Swayfields who are the parent company.
two main electronics companies in the town: Chelmsford-based e2V (formerly Associated Electrical
Industries before 1961) is situated between Carholme
Road (A57) and the Foss Dyke next-door to Carholme Golf Club; and Dynex Semiconductor (formerly Marconi
Electronic Devices) is on Doddington Road (B1190) near the
A46 bypass just inside the borough boundary, and near North Hykeham.
Over the last few years , Lincoln has also seen rapid development
in its retail sector, in an attempt to keep people shopping in the
city and to compete with the neighbouring cities of Nottingham and
Sheffield. Around the Tritton Road
(B1003) trading estate,
many new businesses have begun trading from large units with car
parking. Lincoln has a choice of five large national supermarkets.
The recently developed St Mark's Square complex has Debenhams
as the flagship store and has an
accompanying trading estate with well known chain stores such as
. Another development is also expected to be
completed by 2011/12 called Lindongate which includes plans for a
new department store, shops, hotel, apartments and new transport
facilities. The viability of proposed developments such as this
may, however, now be called into question by the sudden economic
downturn starting late in 2007. The scheme depends on a continuing
demand for retail space, and a continuation of a strong housing
market, but by mid-2008 both of these factors had become
is a tourist centre and those who come do so
to visit the numerous historic buildings including the
Castle, the Medieval Bishop's Palace and the specialist
shops of Steep
Hill and Bailgate. The
Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now a part, is an
Housed partly in a recently opened,
purpose-built venue, it currently contains over 2,000,000 objects,
and was one of the four finalists for the 2006 Gulbenkian Prize
. Any material from
official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually
deposited at in The Collection so it is growing all the time.
attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and The Sir Joseph Banks
Conservatory at The Lawn, adjacent to Lincoln Castle. Tranquil destinations close by include
Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Park, while noisier
entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton
airfield (base of the
RAF's Red Arrows jet aerobatic team), the
County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit
of its climate, Lincoln attracts many of its tourists in summer,
but also during the second weekend of December when the
Bailgate area of the city holds its annual Christmas
Market in and around the Castle grounds.
market is based upon the traditional German-style Weihnachtsmarkt as found in several
German cities, including Lincoln's 'twin town' Neustadt an
A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of
Topography: 'Uphill' and 'Downhill'
of Lincoln is built at the point where there is a gap in the
Cliff (a limestone escarpment running north-south and
rising to 200 ft/60 m in height, also sometimes called
the 'Lincoln(shire) Edge' or 'Lincoln Heath'). The River Witham flows through this gap.
Lincoln is thus
divided informally into two zones, known locally as uphill
The uphill area comprises the northern part of the city, on top of
the Lincoln Cliff (to the north of the gap). This area includes the
historical quarter, including the Cathedral, Lincoln castle and the
Medieval Bishop's Palace, known locally as The Bail
(although described in tourist promotional literature as 'The
Cathedral Quarter'). It also includes residential suburbs to the
north and north-east. The downhill area comprises the city centre
(located in the gap) and the suburbs to the south and south-west.
The aptly named street Steep Hill
connects the two
(although it is too steep for vehicular traffic, which must take a
more circuitous route).
divide marks out Lincoln from other historic cities in England and
elsewhere in Europe.
Whereas in most such cities, the chief
historical buildings (cathedrals and castles) tend to be centrally
located and intermingled with the present-day city centre, in
Lincoln they are separate.
The divide was also once an important class distinction, with
'uphill' more affluent and 'downhill' less so. This distinction
dates from the time of the Norman
, when the religious and military elite occupied the
hilltop. The construction and expansion of suburbs in both parts of
the city since the mid-nineteenth century has diluted this
distinction, nevertheless 'uphill' residential property continues
to fetch a premium, and is almost invariably referred to as such in
literature emanating from local estate agents. Membership of noted
uphill organisations such as the Lincoln Astronomical Society, the
Lincoln Backgammon Club, the Lincoln Uphill Gardeners' Club and the
Lincoln Waits is seen as a mark of local success, and much
In the UK government scale of economic deprivation for district
councils which varies 1 to 5, Lincoln and Boston have been graded
as 4. However, this is an average figure, with 'uphill' Lincoln
being more likely to be around 2.
station has five platforms and has a steady flow of trains
and passengers passing through. Trains run to a range
of destinations including Newark-on-Trent, Grimsby, Nottingham, Leicester, Sheffield and Peterborough. Unfortunately the electrification of the
East Coast Mainline (ECML) in
the late 1980s saw the demise of direct services from Lincoln into
London King's Cross, forcing a change at Newark or Peterborough for
services via the ECML to London King's Cross or changing at
Nottingham for services via the Midland Main Line (MML) to London St
December 2008, a direct return service to London began again,
operated by East Midlands
Trains, running direct from Lincoln Central to London St
Pancras via Nottingham and Leicester railway stations.
The Midland Main Line route takes three
hours, significantly longer than changing at Newark North Gate, or
driving down the A1 road.
From late 2009, East Coast
to provide a two-hourly direct service to London Kings Cross.
Electrification of the East Coast Main Line prompted an
increase in traffic that has led to many of the goods trains
running between Doncaster and Peterborough being diverted through Lincoln.This coupled with
goods traffic between the Midlands and the ports and oil refineries in the Grimsby, Immingham and Killingholme area and local passenger services operating in and
out of Lincoln Central railway
station, has led to the High Street level crossing (which cuts the central
shopping area in two) being closed for up to 22 minutes out of
Improvements in the station area in 2008 may
have sped up the goods traffic through Lincoln.
The city's MP
and the Chamber of Commerce
have suggested that
this may be deterring inward investment by new employers. This has
been an issue in Lincoln since the 1860s according to Hansard
1986 a second level crossing crossed on the High Street outside the
(now closed) Lincoln St. Marks railway
The £19-million A46
bypass opened December
is currently exceeding its designed capacity from the North Hykeham
roundabout (A1434) to the B1378 Skellingthorpe Road roundabout, especially in the summer on
For many decades Lincoln was barely connected to
the UK trunk road network until the A46 to Newark was remodelled as
dual carriageway in July 2003 at a cost of £28M, which has made the
city more accessible for business. This was largely due to lobbying
from Gillian Merron: Boston's much needed bypass has had less
conspicuous government support. Lincoln has its own bypass problems
however as funding for the A15
eastern bypass was reviewed in
2006 by the East
Midlands Regional Assembly
and the bypass was postponed several
years with it unlikely to be built before 2016.
has two higher education institutions, the older being Bishop
Grosseteste University College, which started life as a teacher training college
linked to the Anglican Church in
During the 1990s, the college branched out into new
subject areas with a focus on the arts and drama. Bishop
Grosseteste College as it was became a University College in 2006
when it was awarded taught degree powers, meaning that students
graduate with degrees from BGUC and not the University of Leicester
previous. A granduation celebration takes place every year in
Lincoln Cathedral. Bishop Grosseteste University College has no
links with the University of Lincoln.
of Lincoln started life as the University of
Lincolnshire and Humberside in 1996, when the University of Humberside opened a
Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool, attracting additional students to the city.
Art College (which was Lincolnshire's main outlet for higher
education) and Riseholme Agricultural College, which had previously
been part of De Montfort University in Leicester, were absorbed into the University in 2001, and
subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull campus.
Most buildings were built after
2001. The university changed its name to the University of
in September 2002. In the 2005/6 academic year,
8,292 full time undergraduates were studying at the university.
Around 2002 there was considerable local annoyance with students'
residences in the West End area. This subsided with vast numbers of
student flats being built next to the Foss Dyke and Brayford Way B1273 bridge.
life has resulted in the building of the Engine
Shed theatre complex on
Brayford Wharf East.
education courses in Lincoln are provided by Lincoln
College, which is the largest education institution in
Lincolnshire, with 18,500 students, of whom 2,300 are full
Also, Lincoln has an Access To Music branch, situated
above Pulse and Ritzy, on Flaxengate
The school system in Lincoln is anomalous within Lincolnshire
despite being part of the same Local Education Authority
, as most
the rest of Lincolnshire retained the grammar school system.
areas near Lincoln, such as North Hykeham, Branston and Cherry Willingham, also have comprehensive schools.
itself had two grammar schools until September 1974. Since 1992, Lincoln
has had a newly-built secondary school, the The Priory Lincolnshire School of Science
and Technology, which although a comprehensive, gets A level
results better than five Lincolnshire grammar school.
Lincoln comprehensive schools have been underperforming,
particularly the Joseph Ruston School in Boultham.
Another school in Lincoln is Saint Peter
and Saint Paul Catholic High School, which one of the few Catholic
schools in the country.
The local newspaper is the Lincolnshire Echo
, and the local radio
stations are BBC Radio
on 94.9FM and its commercial rival Lincs FM
on 102.2FM. The newest addition
to the local airwaves is Siren FM, which
broadcasts on 107.3FM from the University of Lincoln.
BBC Look North
have a bureau in Lincoln as an integral part of their coverage of
Lincolnshire and East Yorkshire. There are three TV reporters based
in Lincoln serving both BBC Look North and East Midlands Today
has a professional football team,
Lincoln City F.C., nicknamed 'The
Imps', which plays at the Sincil Bank stadium on the southern edge of the city.
The collapse of ITV Digital
, which owed
Lincoln City FC more than £100,000, in 2002 saw the team faced with
bankruptcy but it was saved after a massive fund-raising venture by
the fans that returned ownership of the club to them where it has
remained since. The club was famously the first team to be
relegated from the English Football
, when automatic relegation to the Football Conference
was introduced from
the 1986-87 season. Lincoln City regained its league place at the
first attempt and has held onto it since.
Lincoln City were notably the first club managed by Graham Taylor
, who managed the English national football
from 1990 to 1993. He was at Lincoln City from 1972 to
1977, during which time the club won promotion from the Fourth
The club's apex arguably came in 1982, when they finished fourth in
the Third Division and narrowly missed out on promotion to the
Lincoln City has a female
, Lincoln City
('The Lady Imps')
is also home to Lincoln United F.C, Lincoln Moorlands Railway
F.C. and Lincoln Griffins Ladies F.C..
- George Boole – pioneer of the
Boolean algebra and binary notation that would later make
computers possible, who was born in
Lincoln in 1815.
- Jim Broadbent – Oscar-winning actor who was born in Wickenby
- Mark Byford – BBC Deputy
Director-General, went to Lincoln School.
- William Byrd – A famous Renaissance
composer an organist who resided near the Cathedral.
- Lee Chapman – former footballer who scored more than 200
first-team goals as a striker, was born in
- Daniel Cox – British juniors tennis
player was born in the city in 1990.
- Peter Day – BBC
broadcaster went to Lincoln School.
- Jane Eaglen – opera singer was born
in the city in 1962.
- James Fenton – poet, journalist and
literary critic, born in the city in 1949.
- Sheila Gish – RADA actress, including roles in Highlander.
- Darrell Hair – former international
cricket umpire who recently was stood down
after a ball tampering dispute with
the Pakistan cricket team. He lives just outside the city, in
- Marion Rose Halpenny –
equestrian writer and horsewoman
known for her pioneering book British Racing and
Racecourses, was born in Lincoln.
- Alex Henshaw – Spitfire chief test
pilot, went to Lincoln School.
- John Hurt – actor, went to Lincoln
- Jonathan Kerrigan - television
and stage actor currently appearing in ITV drama, Heartbeat, is
- John de
Lacy 1192 – July 22, 1240, son of Roger, became Earl of
- Sir Neville Marriner - famous
conductor who arranged and conducted the music for the film
Amadeus, was born in
Lincoln. He attended Lincoln
School from 1935-42.
- Paul Palmer – swimmer,
born in Lincoln, who won the silver medal in the 400 metres
Freestyle at the 1996 Olympics in
Atlanta, Georgia, USA (also a former pupil of Lincoln Christ's
- Allison Pearson – newspaper
columnist, went to Lincoln Christ's Hospital School.
- Steve Race – radio broadcaster and
host of Radio 4 programme My Music from 1967-93, was born in Lincoln. He
attended Lincoln School from 1932-39.
Tennyson – Poet Laureate of the
United Kingdom after William
Wordsworth and one of the most popular English poets, was born in Somersby.
- Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 :
Key Statistics : City of Lincoln Retrieved 2009-11-22
- KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key
Statistics for urban areas
- Siemens Press Release 5 February 2008
- Think Tank
- Carholme Golf Club
- Railway barriers misery survey revealed 19
- Network Rail
- House of Commons Hansard Debates for 22 Feb 2000
- Facts and figures 2007/8
- Francis Hill, 1948. Medieval Lincoln (Cambridge:
Tourism and pictures
Local business and trade
Local music and art