Lincolnshire ( or ;
abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England.
Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Rutland, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, South
Yorkshire, and the
East Riding of
Yorkshire. It also borders Northamptonshire for just 19 metres, England's shortest county
boundary. The county town is
the city of Lincoln, where the county
council has its headquarters.
ceremonial county of
Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of
Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North
Lincolnshire and North-East Lincolnshire.
The county is the second largest of
the English counties
and one that is predominantly agricultural
in land use.
can be broken down into a number of geographical sub-regions
including: the Lincolnshire
Fens (south Lincolnshire), the Carrs (similar to the
Fens but in north Lincolnshire), the Lincolnshire Wolds, and the industrial Humber Estuary and North
Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe.
Lincolnshire derived from the merging of the
territory of the ancient Kingdom of
Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford.
For some time the entire county was called
'Lindsey', and it is recorded as such in the Domesday Book
. Later, Lindsey
was applied to the northern core, around
Lincoln, and emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire
, along with the
Parts of Holland
in the south
east and the Parts of Kesteven
in the south
west, which each had separate Quarter
as their county administrations.
In 1888 when county councils
up, Lindsey, Holland and Kesteven each received their own separate
one. These survived until 1974, when Holland, Kesteven, and most of
Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire, and the northern part,
including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough,
was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county
, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire
local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside, and the land
south of the Humber was allocated to the unitary authorities of North
Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire.
These two areas became part of Lincolnshire
for ceremonial purposes such as the Lord-Lieutenancy
, but are not covered by the
Lincolnshire police and are in the Yorkshire and the Humber
remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, Lincoln, South Holland, North
Kesteven, South Kesteven, and West
They are part of the East Midlands
recent event was the 27 February 2008
Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter scale; it was one of the largest
earthquakes to affect Britain in recent years.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of
Lincolnshire at current basic prices published
(pp. 240–253) by Office for
with figures in millions of British Pounds
||Regional Gross Value Added (millions of GB₤)
- Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
- includes hunting and forestry
- includes energy and construction
- includes financial intermediation services indirectly
Farmland in Lincolnshire.
Lincolnshire is an agricultural area, growing large amounts of
, sugar beet
, and oilseed
. In South Lincolnshire, where the soil is particularly
rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include cabbages
Mechanisation around the turn of the 20th century greatly
diminished the number of workers required to operate the county's
relatively large farms, and the proportion of workers in the
agricultural sector dropped substantially during this period.
Several major engineering companies developed in Lincoln,
Gainsborough and Grantham to support those changes, perhaps most
famously Fosters of
, who built the first tank
Richard Hornsby &
of Grantham. Most such companies are long gone, and
Lincolnshire is no longer an engineering centre.
Today, immigrant workers mainly from Portugal and from new member states of the
in Central and Eastern Europe comprise a very
large component of the seasonal agricultural workforce,
particularly in the south of the county where more labour-intensive
crops such as small vegetables and cut flowers are typically grown.
This seasonal influx of migrant labour occasionally causes tension
between the migrant workforce and local people, in a county which
is still relatively unaccustomed to the large scale immigration
experienced by other parts of the
Services and Retail
According to an IGGI
study in 2000, the town
centre were ranked by area thus (including North Lincolnshire and
North East Lincolnshire areas):-
- Boston and Scunthorpe (equal)
- Horncastle and Mablethorpe (equal)
Lincolnshire is one of the few counties within the UK that still
uses the Eleven plus
to decide who may
. As a result, many towns in Lincolnshire have both a
Grammar school and a Secondary Modern school. Lincolnshire's rural
character means that some larger villages also have primary schools
and are served by buses to nearby high schools.
A rural road in Lincolnshire.
Being on the economic periphery of England, Lincolnshire's
transport links are poorly developed compared with many other parts
of the United Kingdom. The road network within the county is
dominated by single carriageway A roads and local roads (B roads)
as opposed to motorways
and dual carriageways
– the administrative
county of Lincolnshire is one of the few UK counties without a
motorway, and until a few years ago, it was said that there was
only about 35 km (22 miles) of dual carriageway in the whole
of Lincolnshire. The M180 motorway passes through North
Lincolnshire, splitting into two dual-carriageway trunk roads to
the Humber Bridge
and Grimsby, and the
A46 is now dual carriageway between Newark and Lincoln.
The low population density of the county means that the number of
railway stations and train services is very low in comparison to
the county's large area. Many of the county's railway stations were
permanently closed following the Beeching
of 1963. The most notable re-opening has been the line
and two stations between Lincoln and Sleaford which re-opened
within months of the Beeching closure. Most other closed lines
within the county were long ago lifted and much of the trackbed has
returned to agricultural use.
through train service operated between Cleethorpes and London King’s
Cross via Grimsby, Market Rasen and Lincoln until the late 1980s.
Executive as the service was known was operated by a HST125 unit
but was discontinued following the electrification of the East Coast Main Line
. Passengers now have
to change trains at Newark when
travelling to and from London. However, the East
Coast Main Line passes through the county and one can catch direct
trains to the capital from Grantham.
Train operator East Midlands Trains
direct Lincoln-London service in December 2008. Running Monday to
Saturday, it is essentially a stopping service. The extended route
Castle station, Nottingham station, East Midlands Parkway and London St Pancras takes almost 3 hours. Changing trains at
Northgate for a train to Kings Cross can take under two
A proposed 2 hourly service promised by National Express East Coast
lost the franchise on 13 November 2009) between Lincoln and Kings
Cross has yet to start running, though was promised to start
running by 2010 at the latest.Most rail services are currently
provided by East Midland Trains
and Northern Rail
. National Express East Coast
Cross Country Trains
services which pas through the county, stopping at Grantham and
airport in Lincolnshire is Humberside Airport, near Brigg.
While small, it serves all of
Lincolnshire. Robin Hood Airport near Doncaster and Leeds Bradford International
Airport in Leeds are within
travelling distance of much of Lincolnshire and provide a wider
range of flights.
The county's biggest bus companies are Stagecoach
) and Stagecoach in Lincolnshire
new name for the Lincolnshire Road Car. Several other small
companies also operate. Perhaps the best known of these is the
cycle route runs from Lincoln to
Boston in the South of the county.
Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust
is one of the largest trusts
in the country, employing almost 4,000 staff and with an annual
budget of over £200 million.
Lincolnshire shares the problems of elsewhere in the country when
it comes to finding an NHS dentist, with waiting lists of eight
months not uncommon.
Some of the larger hospitals in the county include:
- Grimsby's Diana Princess of Wales Hospital
- Boston Pilgrim Hospital
- Lincoln County Hospital
Since April 1994, Lincolnshire has had an Air Ambulance service
which was extended to also cover
Nottinghamshire in 1997.The air ambulance is stationed at RAF
Waddington near Lincoln and can reach emergencies in Lincolnshire
and Nottinghamshire within 25 minutes. From any accident in
Lincolnshire an A&E hospital is only 10 minutes away by
Separately to the commercial water companies the low-lying parts of
the county are drained by various Internal Drainage Boards
, such as
the Black Sluice Internal Drainage Board
, Lindsey Marsh Drainage
, or the Welland and Deepings Internal Drainage Board
history of the IDBs is not well known, but is fascinating,
|General Election 2005 : Lincolnshire
Conservative Party actually won 6 seats in the 2005 General
Election and Labour won 5, but in 2007 the Grantham and
Stamford MP, Quentin Davies,
defected from Conservative to Labour thus changing the majority
party in Lincolnshire to Labour.
|Overall Number of seats as of 2008
Lincolnshire County Council
The Conservative Party comfortably controls the County Council,
following the 2009
in which they increased their majority to 43
seats. The Labour Party lost a total of 15 seats including 7 in the
City of Lincoln, whilst the Liberal Democrats lost three. The
Lincolnshire Independents Party gained a total of four seats and
came second in numerous wards. The collective group of the
Lincolnshire Independents, the Boston Bypass Party and other
independent councillors form the opposition for the four year term.
|Overall Number of County Council seats as of
Towns and villages
The non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire is characterised by the
absence of any major urban area. The principal settlements and their
populations are: Lincoln (101,000) , Boston (34,606), Grantham (33,243),Gainsborough (20,110), Skegness (18,910), Spalding (18,731), Stamford (17,492), Louth (17,000), Bourne (11,933), Mablethorpe (11,700), Sleaford (10,388),Holbeach (9,448), Deeping St. James (6,923), Market Deeping (6,200), Horncastle (6,090), Long Sutton (5,037), Sutton Bridge (3,936), Woodhall Spa (3,657), Crowland (3,607), Coningsby (3,238), Market Rasen (3,230), Heckington (3,069), Alford (2,700), Caistor (2,601), and Spilsby (2,336). Other places of interest include Ancaster, Corby
Glen, Belmont, Donington, Billingborough, Ingoldmells, Chapel St Leonards, Sutton-on-Sea, Wainfleet All Saints and Donna
Many of the towns in the county continue to
hold a weekly market, a centuries-old tradition reinvigorated
recently by the growth of farmers'
Most of the urbanised area of Lincolnshire is on the Humber
estuary, where two unitary authorities are located:
For a full list of Lincolnshire towns and villages see the
List of places in
- North East Lincolnshire, where the two towns of Great Grimsby (90,703) and Cleethorpes (34,907) have become one large conurbation, and
between them have a population of over 120,000: the largest single
settlement in the whole of the ceremonial county of
Lincolnshire. The next largest town is Immingham (12,200) followed by Waltham (6,425) and Humberston (5,375).
- North Lincolnshire has the larger area of the two unitary authority
areas and it includes Scunthorpe (75,514) (including Bottesford). The next largest town is Barton-upon-Humber (9,334), followed by Brigg (5,076),
Winterton (4,729), Crowle (4,090), Epworth (3,734), Kirton in Lindsey (2,964) and Barrow upon Humber (2,745).
The centre of Skegness, showing the
clock tower and the “Jolly Fisherman“ sculpture/fountain.
A view up 'Steep Hill' towards the
historic quarter of Bailgate in the city of Lincoln
The majority of tourism in Lincolnshire relies on the coastal
resorts and towns which lie to the east of the Lincolnshire Wolds.
Skegness is a popular UK seaside destination and attracts many
visitors. Along with the neighbouring resorts of Ingoldmells,
Chapel St Leonards and Mablethorpe, it offers many amusements,
leisure activities and beaches. Caravan sites on the Lincolnshire coast
are very popular. The
market towns of the Lincolnshire Wolds are also attractive, with
several having historic links. The wolds are quite popular for
cycling and walking, with regular events such as the Lincolnshire
Wolds Walking Festival.
an attraction for many tourists: the south-east of the county is
mainly fenland that attracts many species of birds, as do the
nature reserves at Gibraltar Point, Saltfleetby and Theddlethorpe.The reserve at
Nook also has a native seal colony popular with nature
Lincolnshire offers shopping facilities in Grimsby and Lincoln,
with Lincoln having seen significant development. The Springfields
Outlet Shopping Centre in Spalding has been extended to include new shops and a
hotel. Lincoln has the attraction of a historic
quarter based around Steep
Hill and the 800 year old Lincoln
Cathedral, as well as a trendier area around the
University and at the Brayford Waterfront.
Lincolnshire is a rural area where the pace of life is generally
much slower than in much of the United Kingdom. Sunday is still
largely a day of rest, with only shops in Lincoln, larger market
towns, and resorts and industrial towns of the North Sea coast
generally remaining open. Some towns and villages in the county
still observe half-day closing on Thursdays. Due to the large
distances between the towns, many villages have remained very
self-contained: most still have shops, pubs, local halls and local
chapels and churches, offering a variety of social activities for
residents. Fishing (in the extensive river and drainage system in
the fens) and shooting are popular activities.
Lincolnshire's unofficial county anthem is the Lincolnshire Poacher
A Lincolnshire tradition is that front doors are used for only
three things: a new baby, a bride, and a coffin. This tradition is
often referred to by the witches
in Terry Pratchett
Lincolnshire is relatively unusual in the composition of its
population, being one of the least ethnically diverse counties of
the United Kingdom (98.5% of the population describe themselves as
"white"). Over recent years inward migration by people from ethnic
minority communities has increased (particularly to population
centres such as Lincoln) but the absolute number of non-white
Lincolnshire residents remains very low.
Recently, the county has also witnessed a growing trend towards
immigration of retired people from other parts of the United
Kingdom, particularly those from the southern counties of England
attracted by the generally lower property prices and the slower and
more relaxed pace of life. The relatively high proportion of
elderly and retired people is reflected in many of the services,
activities and events. Sleaford is considered one of the fastest growing towns in
the East Midlands, with many
professional people moving there to benefit from (relatively) low
house prices, average crime rate and the selective education
Those born in Lincolnshire are sometimes given the nickname of
spelt "Yeller Bellies", to reflect the pronunciation of the phrase
by the typical Lincolnshire farmer). The origin of this term is
debated, but is most commonly believed to derive from the uniforms
of the 10th Regiment of Foot
(later the Lincolnshire
) who wore a very bright yellow waistcoat for
identification on the battle field. For this reason, the coat of arms
of Lincolnshire County Council is
supported by two officers of the regiment.
Margaret Thatcher, the first female
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom was born in Grantham
Lincolnshire has several famous figures associated with it, notably
Present day figures include
words of Lincolnshire are little known
outside the county, especially compared with more familiar accents,
. The effects of modern media, education, and
immigration to the county have substantially diluted the
traditional accent, and many dialect words have been lost over
recent years. However, the accent exists, and a native 'Yeller
Belly' will still pick out a Lincolnshire speaker, possibly even
being able to distinguish where in the county the speaker is from.
northern residents of Lindsey tend towards the Yorkshire dialect,
with the accent of the south-east of the county (Holland and the
Fens) being more similar to that of East Anglia.
In common with most other Northern
and Midlands dialects
is preferred, i.e. over , and also in words like
, pronounced watter
(though such a
pronunciation is rarely heard nowadays). Similarly, is usually
replaced by . Features rather more confined to Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire has its own dialect 'champion',
a farmer from the village of Minting called Farmer Wink (real name Robert Carlton), who
has produced videos about rural life, narrated
in his broad Lincolnshire accent, and who has a regular slot on BBC
Radio Lincolnshire. A resident of Woodhall Spa, ironically one of the Lincolnshire settlements
least aligned to the county's architectural style, has published a
dictionary of words once prevalent in parts of the county.
- Elaboration of standard
English or into a complex triphthong
approximating, and often transcribed -air- or
-yair-. For example: "mate" ;
"beast" ; "tates" (potatoes) .
- An equivalent elaboration of standard English - commonly in
Northern England - into
-ooa-. For example "boat" .
- Insertion of an extra schwa into the
standard English diphthong . For example, the town
of Louth is pronounced (Low-uth) by its
- Vocabulary: "duck"
as a term of endearment or informal address,
"mardy" meaning upset or angry,
"mowt" (pronounced like mout) for
might,"while" as a substitute for
standard English "until", "frit" meaning
frightened, and the inimitable salutation "now
then!?" (hello), sometimes written nairn to
reflect pronunciation, but often drawn out into a sing-song
nyEEEAaairn-myeeeaaairt!!! in the mouth of the more
rural and traditional speaker.
- In the north east of the county, around Grimsby and Immingham,
the nurse-square merger can be
heard, as is also the case along the east coast of Yorkshire and
coincidentally also in Liverpool. Words that take in RP take in
Lincolnshire has a number of local dishes:
- Stuffed chine – this is salted neck-chine of a pig taken from
between the shoulder blades, salted for up to ten months and
stuffed with parsley stuffing (other ingredients are normally kept
secret), and served cold. It is considered by many in the county to
be an acquired taste.
- haslet – a type of pork loaf, also
flavoured with sage (pronounced HAYSS-let in Lincolnshire but
HAZ-let in many other parts of the country).
- Lincolnshire pork sausages - most
butchers in Lincolnshire have their own secret recipe for these and
a competition is held each year to judge the best sausages in the
county. Traditional Lincolnshire
sausages are made entirely from minced pork, stale bread crumb
(rusk is used nowadays) pepper, sage and salt. The skins should be
natural casings which are made from the intestines of either sheep
- Pork pies – the same pork butchers will take a pride in their
unique recipe for pork pies.
- Plum bread – as with plum
pudding, plum refers to dried fruit,
namely currants, raisins and sultanas, sometimes soaked in
- Grantham Gingerbread – a hard white ginger biscuit.
ales – a beer brewed in Wainfleet and served in many pubs in the county and further
are several small breweries, such as Newby Wyke
Brewery (behind the Willoughby Arms in Little Bytham).
- Grimsby is renowned for its fishing industry, and historically
Grimsby Fish has carried a premium price. Since the
decline of the fishing industry following entry to the European
Economic Community in the 1970s this is no longer the case, with
the majority of fish sold at the town's fish market being brought
overland from other ports. However Grimsby Fish is still a
recognised product, one associated with a particular area
that specialises in and has expertise in a particular trade (cf
Sheffield steel and Nottingham lace).
Every year the Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, founded in
, stages the Lincolnshire Agricultural
is held on the Wednesday and Thursday of the last whole week of
June at its Showground at Grange de Lings, a few miles north of
Lincoln on the A15.
The show was first held
here in 1958
. First held around the year
, it is one of the largest agricultural
shows in the country, and is attended by around 100,000 people over
its two days. The Showground is in regular use throughout the year
for a wide range of other events and functions.
local agricultural shows, such as the Deeping Show or the Heckington Show can still be found. Corby Glen sheep fair has been held every year since 1238.
Waddington is the home
to the RAF Waddington Air Show.
The two day event attracts
around 40,000 people and usually takes place during the last
weekend of June.
Monday before Easter, an unusual auction takes place in Bourne to let the grazing rights of the Whitebread
Bidding takes place while two boys race toward the
Queen's Bridge in Eastgate, the end of which dash is equivalent to
the falling of the gavel. The whole affair dates back to the
will of William Clay.
The Haxey Hood
village competition takes
place every January, as it has for over 700 years.
Stamford Mid-Lent fair sees showmen converge on the town the
week after Mothering Sunday, with rides and sideshows filling Broad
Street, the Sheepmarket and the Meadows for a week.
selling Grantham gingerbread and nougat are a traditional feature.
following week sees them in Grantham, on the way North for the Summer. Roger Tuby
a small funfair to Bourne and then to Spalding in Spring and
returns in Autumn at the end of the season.
villages of Tetford and Salmonby hold an annual Scarecrow Festival in May every
Belchford Downhill Challenge which is held every two years:
soapbox racers race down the hill at up to 30 km/h.
turnout has been up to 1,000.
Christmas Market, a street market throughout historic area of the
city, has been held at the start of December. Around the same time
Christmas lights are turned on in Bourne, Sleaford, Skegness, and other towns.
Throughout the summer the Stamford
Shakespeare Company presents the Bard's plays in the open air
theatre at Tolethorpe
Hall, which is actually in Rutland.
Spalding Flower Parade is held in late spring every
Colourful floats decorated with tulip heads compete
for a cup. The tradition was started in 1959
and draws coach tours from across Britain. There was talk of 2008
being the last parade, but a smaller event planned for 2009 may set
the pattern for future years.
The main sports played in the county are football
and rugby union
Lincolnshire does not have high sporting profile, mainly due to the
lack of facilities. Probably the most well known sporting venue
in Lincolnshire is Cadwell
Park near Louth, where a round of
the British Motorbike Championship is held on the last Monday of
August every year.
The unofficial anthem of the county is the traditional folk song,
', which dates from around 1776. A version of the song
was the theme to BBC Radio
for many years.
According to a 2002 marketing campaign by the charity Plantlife
, the county
of Lincolnshire is the Common Dog-violet
In August 2005, BBC Radio
and Lincolnshire Life
magazine launched a
vote for a flag to represent the county. Six competing designs were
voted upon by locals. The winning submission was unveiled in
October 2005 - see here
. Lincoln has its own flag - St
George's flag with a Fleur-de-Lys.
The Lincoln Imp
Cathedral, City, and county for many years. In 2006 it was replaced
as the 'brand' of Lincolnshire County Council by the stylised
version seen on the header here
has lost even the unique pose of the carving.
The county is home to three daily newspapers. The Lincolnshire Echo
is published from
Lincoln and covers the majority of the county, reaching as far
north as Louth.
The Grimsby Telegraph
the name suggests, is published in the town and its circulation
area ostensibly covers North East Lincolnshire, although it reaches
as far south as Louth and Alford. Its sister title is the
and covers North Lincolnshire. All three are ultimately owned by
the Daily Mail and General
There are also a number of weekly papers serving individual towns
published in the county by Johnston
. One of these, the Stamford Mercury
claims to be
Britain's oldest newspaper, although it is now a typical local
weekly and no longer covers stories from the whole East Midlands as
the archived copies did.
exception of a small area to the south-west of the county,
Lincolnshire is served from the Belmont
transmitter, receiving programmes from ITV1
Yorkshire and BBC One Yorkshire and Lincolnshire
BBC has, since 2003, provided the area with its
twelfth regional service: BBC Yorkshire and
Lincolnshire, carrying a local "Look North" news programme from
the main studio in Hull, with input from other studios in Lincoln and
provides coverage through its evening news
. Until late 2008
the station provided a separate edition for the Belmont transmitter
(although it was still broadcast from Leeds). From January 2009 the
area is now covered by a programme that covers the entire ITV
to July 1974 ITV programmes were provided by
Anglia Television (although some
coverage could be received from the Manchester-based Granada and
Norwich the company had news offices in Grimsby .
Following a transmitter change ITV services were provided by
company kept open the offices in Grimsby and opened further
facilities in Lincoln, although both of these closed in the
South-West Lincolnshire receives BBC
and ITV Central
are broadcast from the Waltham on The Wolds Transmitting Station.
Although subject to co-channel interference from the Waltham
transmitter, a small number of households in the southern tip of
the county are able to receive regional programming from BBC East
The area is covered by several local radio stations
Places of interest
- Sustrans Lincolnshire
- Map of Lincolnshire IDBs 
- "Lincolnshire Independents: Lincolnshire First!" is a new
political party that was launched almost a year before the 2009
local government elections , achieving formal registration in
- Pears Cyclopedia, 107th Edition,Penguin, London
- Pears Cyclopedia, 107th Edition,Penguin, London
- Lincolnshire Sayings and Traditions.
- Equal Rites,
- Civic Heraldry visited 22 December 2006
- Image provided by the Margaret Thatcher Foundation
- Map of area served by the Waltham UHF analogue TV
- Map of area served by the Belmont UHF TV transmitter
- ITV 1968 - A Guide to Independent Television, Independent
Television Authority, London, 1967, page 175
- Map of area served by the Sandy Heath UHF analogue TV