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List of First Nations peoples: Map


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The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area. This list does not include Metis or Canadian Inuit groups. The areas used here are in accordance to those developed by the enthologist and linguist Edward Sapir, and used by the Canadian Museum of Civilizationmarker.

British Columbia Coast

These people traditionally ate fish, primarily salmon and silvery eulachon from the ocean, as well as fish from lakes and rivers, and roots and berries. Recently discovered clam gardens suggest that they were not limited only to hunting and gathering.'They made use of the forests of the Pacific to build dug-out canoes, and houses made of evenly-split planks of wood. They used tools made of stone and wood. The native peoples of the Pacific coast also made totem poles, a trait attributed to other tribes as well. In 2000 a land claim was settled between the Nisga'a people of British Columbiamarker and the provincial government, resulting in the transfer of over 2,000 square kilometres of land to the Nisga'a. Major ethnicities include the:

British Columbia Interior


These people traditionally used tipis covered with skins as their homes. Their main sustenance was the bison, which they used as food, as well as for all their garments. The leaders of some Plains tribes wore large headdresses made of feathers, something which is wrongfully attributed by some to all First Nations peoples. Major ethnicies include the:


Western subarctic

These peoples live in the boreal forest in what are now Canada's western provinces and territories. They were originally hunter-gatherers dependent on caribou, moose and the fur trade. Most spoke Athapaskan languages except the Crees and Inland Tlingit. Major ethnicities in the Yukonmarker, Northwest Territoriesmarker and the northern parts of the western provinces (British Columbiamarker, Albertamarker, Saskatchewanmarker and Manitobamarker) include the following:

Woodlands and eastern subarctic

Major ethnicies include the:

Atlantic coastal region

St. Lawrence River Valley

The largest First Nations group near the St. Lawrence waterway are the Iroquois. This area also includes the Wyandot (formerly referred to as the Huron) peoples of central Ontariomarker, and the League of Five Nations who had lived in the United Statesmarker, south of Lake Ontariomarker. Major ethnicities include the:

See also


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