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The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 182 members of the British Armed Forces, British Indian Army and civilians under their command, during the Indian Mutiny (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857). The VC is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other Orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The VC is traditionally presented to the recipient by the British monarch during an investiture at Buckingham Palacemarker, though in a large number of cases this was not possible and it was presented in the field by a prominent civil or military official. The VC was introduced in Great Britain on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War.

The Indian Mutiny (also known as India's First War of Independence, Revolt of 1857, or the Sepoy Mutiny) began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerutmarker. It soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradeshmarker, Biharmarker, northern Madhya Pradeshmarker, and the Delhimarker region.Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar; 2004; pp.169–172

Bose, Jalal; 2003; pp.88–103; Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to northern Indian Gangetic Plain and central India."
The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and it was contained only with the fall of Gwaliormarker on 20 June 1858. The rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian history; it led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganise the army, the financial system, and the administration in India. India was thereafter governed directly from London—by the British government India Office and a cabinet level Secretary of State for India—in the new British Raj, a system of governance that lasted until 1947.

Indian troops were not originally eligible for the VC, because since 1837 they had been eligible for the Indian Order of Merit—the oldest British gallantry award for general issue. When the VC was created, Indian troops were still controlled by the Honourable East India Company, and did not come under Crown control until 1860. European officers and men serving with the Honourable East India Company were not eligible for the Indian Order of Merit; the VC was extended to cover them in October 1857. The first citations of the VC varied in the details of each action; some specify one date, some date ranges, some the name of the battle and others have both sets of information. There were only two posthumous recipients of the VC for actions during the rebellion; the original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously. Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men; Everard Phillipps and Edward Spence were decorated thus. The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920. The Indian Mutiny holds the record for the most VCs won in a single day; 24 at the Second Relief of Lucknow on 16 November 1857.

Recipients



Name Unit Date of action Place of action
04343rd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-022 January 1859 Kurereha, Indiamarker
0044th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-03-011 March 1858 Amethimarker, Indiamarker
01313th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-3030 June 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0022nd Dragoon Guards 1858-10-088 October 1858 Sundeela Oudhmarker, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2828 September 1857,16 November 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, IndiamarkerLucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Police Battalion 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Suhejnee, Bengalmarker
06060th Rifles 1858-05-066 May 1858 Bareillymarker, Indiamarker
0077th Queen's Own Hussars 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0022nd Bombay Light Cavalry 1857-08-1212 August 1857,23 October 1857 Neemuchmarker, IndiamarkerJeerum, Indiamarker
0022nd Dragoon Guards 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-2929 July 1857 Oonaomarker, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1212 July 1857 to 25 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Royal Regiment of Artillery 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
0011st European Bengal Fusiliers 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Narnoul, Indiamarker
04646th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-08-3131 August 1858 Seerporah, Indiamarker
Commissariat Department 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0011st European Bengal Fusiliers 1858-03-099 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
0022nd European Bengal Fusiliers 1857-06-1212 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
05656th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, Indiamarker
07272nd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-3030 March 1858 Kotahmarker, Indiamarker
01313th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-066 April 1858 Azumgurhmarker, Indiamarker
0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-09-088 September 1858 Beejaporemarker, Indiamarker
Indian Naval BrigadeIndian Naval Brigade 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Peroo, Bengalmarker
01919th Madras Native Infantry 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Chichumbah, Indiamarker
08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-011 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-077 July 1857 Jhelummarker, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Maylah Ghat, Indiamarker
07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-06-088 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-08-1212 August 1857 Boursekee Chowkee, Indiamarker
01313th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-3030 June 1857 Chinhutmarker, Indiamarker
01111th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-10-022 October 1857 Chota Behar, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, Indiamarker
01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-08-1212 August 1857,

14 March 1858
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-09-1010 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-07-044 July 1857,

27 September 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-066 September 1857 Lucknow, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-10-022 October 1857 Chota Behar, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-099 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-10-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
06464th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-2828 November 1857 Cawnporemarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Veterans Establishment 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0077th Queen's Own Hussars 1858-12-3131 December 1858 River Raptee, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-10-1010 October 1857 Agramarker, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-05-055 May 1858 Bareillymarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-06-2323 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Loodiana Regiment 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benaresmarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-066 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bombay Engineers 1859-10-066 October 1859 Kathiawar, Indiamarker
03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-08-2121 August 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0055th Bengal European Cavalry 1857-08-1515 August 1857,

18 August 1857,

27 January 1858,

3 February 1858
Khurkowdah, Indiamarker

Not known

Shumshabad, Indiamarker

Meangunge, Indiamarker
0011st Bengal European Light Cavalry 1857-11-1212 November 1857,

25 February 1858
Alumbagh, Indiamarker

Jellalabadmarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1717 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2424 September 1857 Alumbagh, Indiamarker
07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1111 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
02323rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1818 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
HMS ShannonHMS Shannon 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknow, Indiamarker
Naval BrigadeNaval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-088 June 1857

10 October 1857
Delhimarker, Indiamarker

Agramarker, Indiamarker
01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1616 July 1857 Cawnporemarker, Indiamarker
RifleRifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
05252nd Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-06-00June to

September 1857
Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwaliormarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-099 July 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwaliormarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Sappers and Miners 1858-02-2323 February 1858 Sultanporemarker, Indiamarker
05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
02626th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-10-1414 October 1858 Baroun, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-088 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Civil Service 1857-11-099 November 1857 Lucknow, Indiamarker
Bombay ArtilleryBombay Artillery 1858-03-1717 March 1858 Chundaireemarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
02424th Bombay Native Infantry 1857-07-1010 July 1857 Kolaporemarker, Indiamarker
01010th Regiment of Foot 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benaresmarker, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-2929 June 1857,

16 August 1857,

25 September 1857
Oonaomarker, Indiamarker

Bithoor, Indiamarker

Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse ArtilleryBengal Horse Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknow, Indiamarker
03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-07-077 July 1857,

26 September 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
01414th Light Dragoons 1858-04-011 April 1858 Betwamarker, Indiamarker
07272nd Bengal Native Infantry 1858-05-2323 May 1858 Calpeemarker, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-2121 September 1857 Mungulwar, Indiamarker
Bengal Civil Service 1857-07-3030 July 1857 Arrahmarker, Indiamarker
Royal Regiment of Artillery 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Indian Naval BrigadeIndian Naval Brigade 1857-11-2222 November 1857 Daccamarker, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Civil Service 1857-07-3030 July 1857 Arrahmarker, Indiamarker
0011st Bengal Fusiliers 1857-06-2323 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0011st Bengal Fusiliers 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-10-022 October 1857,

22 December 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0055th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
09595th Regiment of Foot 1858-01-066 January 1858 Rowamarker, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1859-01-1515 January 1859 Maylah Ghat, Indiamarker
Bengal Ordnance Depot 1857-10-2828 October 1857 Agramarker, Indiamarker
0022nd Dragoon Guards 1858-10-088 October 1858 Jamo, Indiamarker
02323rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1818 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Military TrainMilitary Train 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Azumgurhmarker, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Military TrainMilitary Train 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Azumgurhmarker, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1212 July 1857 to

25 September 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
01313th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-066 April 1858 Azumgurhmarker, Indiamarker
Rifle BrigadeRifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Artillery 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
03232nd Regiment of Foot 1857-06-3030 June 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Artillery 1857-11-1414 November 1857 to

22 November 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
08686th Regiment of Foot 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwaliormarker, Indiamarker
01111th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-05-3030 May 1857 to

18 September 1857
Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Madras Engineers 1857-11-2121 November 1857 Mundisore, Indiamarker
0022nd Punjab Cavalry 185-00-001857 to

1858Probyn was awarded his VC for numerous gallant acts throughout the period of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Agramarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
05353rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1717 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Veterans Establishment 1857-05-1111 May 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
06161st Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
09090th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2121 September 1857,

25 September 1857
Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse Artillery 1857-09-1616 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
03434th Regiment of Foot 1859-04-2727 April 1859 Kewane Trans-Gogra, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse Artillery 1858-01-022 January 1858 Khodagunge, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1857-09-2828 September 1857 Bolandshahrmarker, Indiamarker
Naval Brigade 1858-03-1313 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Army 1858-09-2727 September 1858 Kuthirga, Indiamarker
07171st Regiment of Foot 1858-06-1616 June 1858 Marar, Indiamarker
03737th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-06-044 June 1857 Benaresmarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-03-1919 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-09-2626 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
101101st Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Naval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Rifle Brigade 1858-06-1313 June 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
06060th Bengal Native Infantry 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, Indiamarker
08484th Regiment of Foot 1857-10-066 October 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Corps ofCorps of Royal Engineers 1858-04-033 April 1858 Jhansimarker, Indiamarker
05252nd Regiment of Foot 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0011st Madras European Fusiliers 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1414 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0099th Queen's Royal Lancers 1858-01-1717 January 1858 Shunsabad, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-1515 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, Indiamarker
09393rd Regiment of Foot 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-08-022 August 1857 to

13 September 1857
Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Sappers and Miners 1857-09-1616 September 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Artillery 1857-09-2727 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
04242nd Regiment of Foot 1858-04-155 April 1858 Fort Ruhya, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-07-099 July 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
Bengal Horse Artillery 1857-07-099 July 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
0022nd Bengal Native Infantry 1857-07-00July 1857 Indoremarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-06-1919 June 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
06666th Bengal Native Infantry 1858-02-1010 February 1858 Choorpoorah, Indiamarker
07575th Regiment of Foot 1857-07-1717 July 1857 Delhimarker, Indiamarker
06060th Rifles 1857-09-1414 September 1857,

18 September 1857
Delhimarker, Indiamarker
02525th Bombay Light Infantry 1858-06-2020 June 1858 Gwaliormarker, Indiamarker
07878th Regiment of Foot 1857-09-2525 September 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0088th King's Royal Irish Hussars 1858-06-1717 June 1858 Gwaliormarker, Indiamarker
0033rd Bombay European Regiment 1857-11-1414 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
0011st Punjab Cavalry 1858-04-033 April 1858,

2 May 1858
Jhansimarker, Indiamarker

Lohari, Indiamarker
Rifle Brigade 1858-03-1111 March 1858 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker
01717th Lancers 1858-10-1919 October 1858 Sinwaho, Indiamarker
Naval Brigade 1857-11-1616 November 1857 Lucknowmarker, Indiamarker


References

General


Specific
  1. Ashcroft, M; 2006; preface; XI–XIII
  2. Bayly, C.A.; 1990; p.170; Quote: "What distinguished the events of 1857 was their scale and the fact that for a short time they posed a military threat to British dominance in the Ganges Plain."
  3. Bayly, C.A.; 1990; pp.194–197
  4. Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  5. Arthur, Max; p. XIV



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