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The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in the task of selecting the recipient(s) of the Nobel Peace Prize and to organize the annual Nobel event in Oslo.


The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and ) is awarded annually by the Norwegian Nobel Committee "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliamentmarker. The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Jean Henry Dunant. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, Passy and Dunant shared a prize of 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK as of December 2008. In 2008, the prize was awarded to Martti Ahtisaari of Finland, who received the prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than 1 million, or US$1.4 million). The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, Norwaymarker, in the presence of the king, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm, Swedenmarker.

The Nobel Peace Prize is generally the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; several of the selections have been heavily criticized. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the prize, despite having been nominated five times. Following his assassination in 1948 the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it and instead withheld the prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate." In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only Laureate to be recognized posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to make a future posthumous prize nearly impossible. In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason." Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954. The International Committee of the Red Cross has been awarded the prize three times (1917, 1944, and 1963), and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981). Twelve women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, which is more than any other Nobel Prize. As of 2009, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 97 individuals and 20 organizations. There have been 19 years in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Laureates

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1901 Jean Henry Dunant Switzerlandmarker "[for] his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross"
Frédéric Passy Francemarker "[for] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress."
1902 Élie Ducommun Switzerland "Honorary Secretary, Permanent International Peace Bureau"
Charles Albert Gobat Switzerland "Secretary General, Inter-Parliamentary Union; Honorary Secretary, Permanent International Peace Bureau"
1903 William Randal Cremer United Kingdommarker "Member, British Parliament; Secretary, International Arbitration League"
1904 Institut de Droit International Belgiummarker "for its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law."
1905 Bertha von Suttner Austria-Hungary "Honorary President of Permanent International Peace Bureau; Author of Lay Down Your Arms"
1906 Theodore Roosevelt United Statesmarker "for his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Italymarker "President, Lombard League of Peace," was "prominent as a worker for peace in Italy."
Louis Renault France "Professor International Law," was "the permanent delegate of France to The Hague Tribunal."
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson Swedenmarker "Founder of Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"
Fredrik Bajer Denmarkmarker "[for his]work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"
1909 Auguste Marie François Beernaert Belgium "Former Prime Minister; Member, Belgian Parliamentmarker; Member of Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage"
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant France "Member, French Parliament (Sénateur); Founder and President of French parliamentary group for voluntary arbitration; Founder, Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation"
1910 International Peace Bureau Switzerland "Founded in 1891"
1911 Tobias Michael Carel Asser The Netherlandsmarker "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"
Alfred Hermann Fried Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"
1912 Elihu Root United States "Former Secretary of State; Originator of various treaties of arbitration"
1913 Henri La Fontaine Belgium "Member, Belgian Parliament (Sénateur); President, Permanent International Peace Bureau"
1914 Not awarded
1915
1916
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland
1918 Not awarded
1919 Woodrow Wilson United States "President of United States of America; Founder of the League of Nations"
1920 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois France "Former Secretary of State; President, French Parliament (Sénat); President, Council of the League of Nations"
1921 Hjalmar Branting Sweden "Prime Minister; Swedish Delegate, Council of the League of Nations"
Christian Lous Lange Norwaymarker "Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1922 Fridtjof Nansen Norway "Scientist; Explorer; Norwegian Delegate, League of Nations; Originator of "Nansen passports""
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925 Austen Chamberlain United Kingdom "Foreign Secretary; Part-originator of Locarno Pact"
Charles Gates Dawes United States "Vice-President of United States of America; Chairman of Allied Reparation Commission (Originator of "Dawes Plan")"
1926 Aristide Briand France "Foreign Minister; Part-originator of Locarno Pact and Briand-Kellogg Pact"
Gustav Stresemann Germany "Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler); Foreign Minister; Part-originator of Locarno Pact"
1927 Ferdinand Buisson France "Formerly Professor, Sorbonne Universitymarker, Paris; Founder and President, League for Human Rights"
Ludwig Quidde Germany "Professor, Berlin Universitymarker; Member, German Parliament; Participant of various peace conferences"
1928 Not awarded
1929 Frank B. Kellogg United States "Former Secretary of State; Part-originator of Briand-Kellogg Pact"
1930 Lars Olof Jonathan Söderblom Sweden "Archbishop; Leader in the ecumenical movement"
1931 Jane Addams United States "Sociologist; International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"
Nicholas Murray Butler United States "President, Columbia University; Promoter of Briand Kellogg Pact"
1932 Not awarded
1933 Sir Norman Angell United Kingdom "Writer; Member, Executive Committee of the League of Nations and of National Peace Council"
1934 Arthur Henderson United Kingdom "Former Foreign Secretary; President, Disarmament Conference in 1932"
1935 Carl von Ossietzky Germany "Journalist (die Weltbühne); Pacifist"
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas Argentina "Secretary of State; President, League of Nations; Mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia"
1937 The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood United Kingdom "Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal; Founder and President, International Peace Campaign"
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees Switzerland "An international relief organization, started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921"
1939 Not awarded
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland
1945 Cordell Hull United States "Former Secretary of State; Prominent participant in the originating of the United Nations"
1946 Emily Greene Balch United States "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"
John Raleigh Mott United States "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"
1947 Friends Service Council United Kingdom
American Friends Service Committee United States
1948 Not awarded
1949 The Lord Boyd-Orr United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"
1950 Ralph Bunche United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"
1951 Léon Jouhaux France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"
1952 Albert Schweitzer France "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambarénémarker (République de Gabon)"
1953 George Catlett Marshall United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of "Marshall Plan""
1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Switzerland "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"
1955 Not awarded
1956
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly"; "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."
1958 Georges Pire Belgium "Father of the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""
1959 Philip J. Noel-Baker United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"
1960 Albert Lutuli South Africa "President of the African National Congress," "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."
1961 Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.," awarded "for strengthening the organization."
1962 Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland
League of Red Cross societies Switzerland
1964 Martin Luther King, Jr. United States "campaigner for civil rights"
1965 United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund United Nations "An international aid organization."
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968 René Cassin France "President of the European Court for Human Rightsmarker"
1969 International Labour Organization United Nations
1970 Norman E. Borlaug United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;" "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."
1971 Willy Brandt Federal Republic of Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germanymarker's Ostpolitik"
1972 Not awarded
1973 Henry A. Kissinger United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"
Lê Ðức Thọ (refused) Democratic Republic of Vietnam
1974 Seán MacBride Irelandmarker "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibiamarker." "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"
Eisaku Sato Japanmarker "Prime Minister of Japan," "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"
1975 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov Soviet Unionmarker "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"
1976 Betty Williams United Kingdom "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"
Mairead Corrigan United Kingdom
1977 Amnesty International United Kingdom "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"
1978 Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat Egyptmarker "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"
Menachem Begin Israelmarker
1979 Mother Teresa Indiamarker "Leader of Missionaries of Charity"
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Argentina "Human rights leader;" "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."
1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"
1982 Alva Myrdal Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"
Alfonso García Robles Mexicomarker
1983 Lech Wałęsa Polandmarker "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"
1984 Desmond Mpilo Tutu South Africa "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."
1986 Elie Wiesel United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""
1987 Óscar Arias Sánchez Costa Ricamarker "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"
1989 14th Dalai Lama Tibet "[for] his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [and] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."
1990 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev Soviet Unionmarker President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi Burmamarker "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Tum Guatemalamarker "[for] her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"
1993 Nelson Mandela South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"
Frederik Willem de Klerk South Africa
1994 Yasser Arafat Palestine "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."
Yitzhak Rabin Israel
Shimon Peres Israel
1995 Joseph Rotblat United Kingdom "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Canada
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo East Timormarker "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."
José Ramos-Horta East Timor
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines United States "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"
Jody Williams United States
1998 John Hume United Kingdom "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
David Trimble United Kingdom
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"
2000 Kim Dae Jung South Koreamarker "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"
2001 United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
Kofi Annan Ghanamarker
2002 Jimmy Carter United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
2003 Shirin Ebadi Iranmarker "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
2004 Wangari Muta Maathai Kenyamarker "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"
2005 International Atomic Energy Agencymarker Austria "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
Mohamed ElBaradei Egypt
2006 Muhammad Yunus Bangladeshmarker "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"
Grameen Bank Bangladesh
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Switzerland

"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
Al Gore United States
2008 Martti Ahtisaari Finlandmarker "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"
2009 Barack Obama United Statesmarker "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."


Notes

A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column, as well as the order of laureates in years in which the prize was shared, is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel Laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel Laureate at nobelprize.org.


B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship or the sovereignty of the country.


C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation.


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