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This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugalmarker from the kingdom of Leónmarker under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, until the proclamation of the Portuguese Republicmarker on 5 October 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, "the Patriot," or "the Missed King." Afonso I was recognized as king, in 1143, by Alfonso VII of León and Castile and, in 1179, by the Pope Alexander III.

It includes the Portuguese rulers from the

Historical roots of the Monarchy

Portugal originated as a distinct political and national entity in the ninth century, when the first County of Portugal was established within the Kingdom of Asturias just after the reconquista of Northern Portugal from the Moors, who ruled very briefly in this area. The County of Portugal's original territory was limited to an area between the Minho and Douromarker rivers in today's Northern Portugal.

The Iberianmarker political and genealogical forerunners of the Portuguese throne were some of the following:

First Portuguese county and state

A distinct Portuguese political entity dates from 868 when Alfonso III of León gave Vímara Peres the lands between the Minho and Douromarker rivers, in the south of Galiciamarker. In the period of Reconquista, Vímara ruled over a county named after the city of Portucale (today's Portomarker) and based in Guimarães.

The First County of Portugal lasted for two centuries. In 1065, Portugal and Galiciamarker formed part of the territory allotted to Garcia II of Galicia and Portugal, and Garcia became the first monarch to use the style "King of Portugal". However, he struggled to control his fractious nobles. It was his 1071 victory at the Battle of Pedroso over count Nuno II Mendes that led to the end of the First County of Portugal.

Later that year, Alfonso VI of León and Castile took Galicia from Garcia, and the following spring, Sancho II of León and Castile displaced and exiled both of his brothers, reuniting Portugal with the larger Castile-León state and appearing as king in a 1072 Portuguese document. With Sancho's assassination later the same year, Alfonso VI gained the upper hand over Garcia and Portugal remained within the larger unified kingdom.

Name Started Ended Alternative names Title
Vímara Peres 868 873 Vimarano Count of Portugal
Lucídio Vimaranes 873 ? Count of Portugal
Mumadona Dias
with Mendo I Gonçalves
c. 924 c. 950 Countess of Portugal
Gonçalo I Mendes c. 950 999 Count of Portugal,
magnus dux portucalensium (in 997)
Mendo II Gonçalves 999 1008 Count of Portugal
Alvito Nunes 1008 1015 Count of Portugal
Ilduara Mendes
with Nuno I Alvites
1017 1028 Countess of Portugal
Mendo III Nunes 1028 1050 Count of Portugal
Nuno II Mendes 1050 1071 Count of Portugal, during the rule
of Garcia II of Galicia and Portugal (1065–72).


Before the House of Burgundy

The so called Second County of Portugal came into existence when Alfonso VI extended the domains of his son-in-law, Raymond of Galicia, south into Portugal in 1093. Raymond and his cousin (and brother-in-law) Henry of Burgundy, facing the possibility of a new heir to the throne, joined in 1095 to sign a succession agreement, with Henry agreeing to support Raymond in exchange for Toledo. Alfonso responded by trying to divide the two politically, and in 1096, he divided the domains of Raymond, leaving him with Galicia while granting the County of Portugal to Henry. A great grandson of Robert II of France in the male line, he was nephew to Constance of Burgundy, wife of Alfonso VI, and had married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter Theresa, who thus became Countess of Portugal. Henry, pressed to secure peace, as well as to parley his wife's position into a favourable succession. With Alfonso's death, Urraca of León and Castile struggled to maintain her reign, and out of this Henry, and then Theresa after his death, achieved near-independence. However, Theresa's 1120 capture led to the recognition of Leonese overlord-ship. Theresa herself faced rebellion from her son, Afonso, and was forced to resign in his favour in 1128.

Name Started Ended Alternative names Title
Raymond 1093 1096 Ramon (Castilian) Count of Portugal
Henry 1096 1112 Henrique (Portuguese) Count of Portugal
Theresa 1112 1128 Teresa
or Tareja (Old Portuguese)
Countess of Portugal
Regent of the County
but the de facto ruler
and self-styled Queen of Portugal


Afonso 1128 1139 Alphonzo (English),
Alphonse (English),
Afonso Henriques
(Portuguese alternative),
Affonso (Old Portuguese),
Alfonso (Old Portuguese)
or Alphonso
(Old Portuguese)






Count of Portugal (until 1128/1129) and
the Duke of Portugal (Dux Portucalensis)


House of Burgundy, or Afonsine Dynasty, 1143–1383

When to date the beginning of the House of Burgundy is subject to debate. Some date it as early as the appointment of Henry of Burgundy as Count of Portugal, yet he never used any title but Count of Portugal. His widow Theresa briefly called herself, Queen Theresa of Portugal, daughter of the great Emperor Alfonso of León, but she had been forced to recognize her lands as a fief of León. In 1139, Afonso proclaimed himself King, and in 1143, his cousin and nominal overlord Alfonso VII of León granted formal recognition to this claim, maintaining vassalage only over the Leonese exclave town of Astorgamarker. Papal recognition was not granted until 1179, when Alexander III's papal bull Manifestis Probatum placed Astorga under papal vassalage.

In 1128, with the Battle of São Mamede and the end of the civil war, by the deposition of Queen Theresa, power was taken by Infante Dom Afonso Henriques as the sole ruler, officially styling himself Prince of Portugal, grandson of Emperor Alfonso VI of León. He proclaimed himself King of Portugal in 1139. This is commonly accepted as the date of the foundation of the first Portuguese royal house. With Afonso's victory in the Battle of Ourique he was acclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers and the Portuguese people. In the same year, according to the legend, he summoned the cortes (estates-general) at Lamegomarker, where he was crowned by the archbishop of Braga.

The year of 1143 is also a significant date in the foundation of the House of Burgundy as the Portuguese royal house. In that year Afonso I declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy and swore himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, even if the pope did not immediately recognise his allegiance. It was also in that year that the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the Portuguese and León and Castile with Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognizing Afonso as a king. However, as the Church did not recognize Portugal in the dignity of a kingdom with the right to conquer territories from the Moors until 1179 when Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King of Portugal, some argue that that event marks the beginning of the first royal dynasty of Portugal.

The House of Burgundy ruled during a complex period in the History of Portugal when the monarchy was established and Moorish lands to the south were conquered; this period ended in 1249. In this period were set up necessary structures, such as international diplomacy, agriculture, population, commerce, education and culture, all that existed in the Portuguese territory a long time ago, particularly during the regency of Count Henrique of Burgundy. Count Henrique of Burgundy travelled to Rome and Jerusalem, France and other Hispanic kingdoms, and was the nephew of the most powerful diplomat of his time, Saint Bernard, leading Henrique to bring the cosmopolitan Order of the Temple to his fief when it was just created.

The end of the House of Burgundy began in 1383 with the death of Ferdinand I. The heiress to the throne was Infanta Beatrice, sole daughter of Ferdinand and wife of John I of Castile. Although frequently forgotten from the monarchs of the country, she was acclaimed queen of Portugal in 1383 after her father's death, but the possibility of loss of independence to Castile due to her marriage triggered a civil war and an Interregnum period known as the 1383-1385 Crisis.
# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s) ~~
1 Afonso I 25 July 1139 6 November 1185 Alphonzo I (English),
Alphonse I (English),
Afonso Henriques
(Portuguese alternative),
Affonso I (Old Portuguese),





the Conqueror (o Conquistador)
The Founder (o Fundador)
the Great (o Grande)

son of Henry, Count of Portugal
2 Sancho I 6 November 1185 27 March 1211 Sanctius I (English) the Populator (o Povoador) son of Afonso I
3 Afonso II 27 March 1211 25 March 1223 Alphonzo II (English),
Alphonse II (English),
Affonso II (Old Portuguese),



the Fat (o Gordo) son of Sancho I


House of Aviz, or Joannine Dynasty, (1385–ca. 1580)

Main articles: Portugal in the period of discoveries, Struggle for the throne of Portugal.


The second dynasty of Portuguese Royalty is known as the House of Aviz, after John, Master of the military Order of Aviz, who later became John I of Portugal.

The institution of House of Aviz followed the dynastic crisis that originated from the death of Ferdinand I in 1383. With the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrotamarker in 1385, John I, half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Pedro I, confirmed the kingship which had been bestowed upon him at the Cortes of Coimbra in April 1385.

This period of Portuguese history is considered to include the ascension of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The first act of expansion was the conquest of Ceutamarker in 1415 and was followed by the exploration, colonization and commerce exercised in Africa, Asia and Brazilmarker.It also includes the height of the Portuguese Empireduring the reign of Manuel I and the beginning of its decline during John III's reign.

John III was succeeded in 1557 by his grandson Sebastian, who died, aged 24 and childless, in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. He was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry, aged 66, who, as a Catholic Cardinal, had no children either. Cardinal-King Henry died two years later and the struggle for the throne started between the different claimants, including Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato.

Anthony was acclaimed king in several cities around the country in 1580, 20 days before Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal and defeated the supporters of Anthony in the Battle of Alcântara. Although Anthony continued to "rule the country" from the Azores Islandsuntil 1583, the date of 1580 is generally accepted as the end of the House of Aviz as a Portuguese Royal House. The last king of the House of Aviz is subject to debate, with only some historians accepting the period of 20 days between Anthony's acclamation and the Battle of Alcântara as the reign of Anthony I of Portugal.



House of Aviz-Beja

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Portuguese House of Habsburg, or Philippine Dynasty (1580–1640)

The Portuguese House of Habsburgis known in Portugal as the Philippine Dynasty after the three Spanish kings named Philip who ruled from 1580 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Cortesof Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the system known as a Personal Union; these promises were to be progressively forgotten by his successors.

Under Philip II, the Portuguese Empire began to fall apart because of the pressure from the enemies of Spain. Philip II and Philip III of Portugal did not rule by themselves, and had powerful Castilian validos(Castilian name for favourite prime-ministers).

Even if Portugal was ruled apart from the other realms of the Habsburgs in Madrid, by the Council of Portugal, exclusively by Portuguese nobles or by royal family ones, and kept his empire to himself, his own currency, his arms and flag, his taxes at the Castilian borderline, sometimes his own ambassadors, the Portuguese nobles remaining in Portugal feel they lost political and economic strength, differently from those Portuguese nobles staying at the court in Madrid, very rich and powerful. Especially after Castilian military support to Portuguese empire against Dutch occupation in northern Brazil showed to be a failure.

And when the Castilian valido Olivares, following Richelieu model in France, established a plan to unify the administration, military service, and taxes of all distinct monarchies of Philip III in Europe, not respectful of the Dual Monarchy between Lisbon and Madrid, the fact provoked a rising by the nobility in 1640, known after the 19th century by romantic historians as the Restoration of Independence( ). In the 17th century and afterwards, it was simply known as the Acclamation War, as it simply restored in their stolen royal rights the House of Braganza, deposing a tyrant king, and acclaiming (or electing) another more suitable to the country, as it has been done already several times before in Portuguese history. The bloodless revolution began joyfully in Lisbon the 1st December 1640, and was soon supported throughout the country and its colonies, bringing Portugal to the Thirty Years War scene till peace was finally settled, after twenty eight years of War with Castile in Europe, and with Holland in Asia, America and Africa, in 1668.



House of Braganza, or Brigantine Dynasty (1640–1910)

Main articles: Portugal from the Restoration to the 1755 Earthquake, Portugal from the Napoleonic Invasions to the Civil War
The House of Braganza(Portuguese: Casa de Bragança) traced its origins to 1442 when the Duchy of Braganzawas created by the Regent, Infante Dom Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, and offered to his brother Afonso, Count of Barcelos, a natural son of John I. The royal lineage of dukes that followed married into the House of Aviz and became one of the most important noble families of the country. Infanta Catarina, granddaughter of Manuel I and Duchess of Braganza by marriage to John, 6th Duke of Braganza(himself the heir of the dynastic rights of Jaime, Duke of Braganza, acclaimed heir to the throne in 1495 by the Cortes), joined the two houses in 1565. In 1580, she was one of the claimants to the throne, but lost it by military force to Philip I of Habsburg.

In 1640, with the Restoration of Independence, John, grandson of Catarina and 8th Duke of Braganza, was acknowledged as the legitimate heir to the throne as the great great grandson of Manuel I. The fourth dynasty saw the growth of the importance of Brazilian gold, the 1755 Lisbon earthquakemarker, the Napoleonic invasion, the independence of Brazil and a civil war followed by Liberalism.

The growth of a republican movement during the end of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th culminated in the 1908 assassination of the second last King of Portugal, Carlos I. Two years later in 1910 the republican revolution forced Manuel II into exile, thus putting an end to the Portuguese fourth dynasty. The House of Braganza continues unofficially until today, and the title of Duke of Braganza is still used by Duarte Pio, the 24th Duke of Bragança and the presumptive heir to the throne of Portugal.

House of Braganza



House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

With the marriage of Mary II, Queen of Portugal, to Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha during the 4th Dynasty, the House of Braganza continued in Portugal, as in this country is familiar with family names being passed by female lines. The surname Braganza continued to be present in all royals, and the Royal House was still known in Portugal as The House of Braganza. However, some foreign historians consider the existence of a House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.



The chronology of the heads of stateof Portugal continues on List of Presidents of Portugal.

Style

During the history of Portuguese monarchy, the Portuguese kings used the following styles:



The style of address to the sovereign is as follows:

Notes



See also



Sources

  • Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228-237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0028972554.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.


External links



4 Sancho II
25 March 1223 3 January 1248 Sanctius II (English) the Pious (o Capelo)
the Piteous (o Piedoso)
son of Afonso II
5 Afonso III
3 January 1248 16 February 1279 Alphonzo III (English),
Alphonse III (English),
Affonso III (Old Portuguese),



the Bolognian (o Bolonhês) brother of Sancho II
younger son of Afonso II
6 Dinis
16 February 1279 7 January 1325 Denis (English) or
Diniz (Old Portuguese)
the Farmer (o Lavrador)
the Poet-King (o Rei-Poeta)
the Troubadour-King (o Rei-Trovador)

son of Afonso III
7 Afonso IV
7 January 1325 28 May 1357 Alphonzo IV (English),
Alphonse IV (English),
Affonso IV (Old Portuguese),
(Old Portuguese)


the Brave (o Bravo) son of Dinis
8 Pedro I
28 May 1357 18 January 1367 Peter I (English) the Just (o Justiceiro)
or the Cruel (o Cruel)
the Vengeful (o Vingativo) or
the Until-the-End-of-the-World-In-Love
(o Até-ao-Fim-do-Mundo-Apaixonado)



son of Afonso IV
9 Fernando I
18 January 1367 22 October 1383 Ferdinand I (English) the Handsome (o Formoso)
the Beautiful (o Belo)
the Fickle (o Inconstante)
the Reckless (o Inconsciente)


son of Pedro I
10 Beatriz (disputed)
22 October 1383 6 April 1385 Beatrice or Beatrix (English )
Brites (Old Portuguese)
 
daughter of Fernando I
# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor Notes
11 (10) João I
6 April 1385 14 August 1433 John I (English) the Master of Avis (o Mestre de Avis),
the One of Good Memory (o de Boa Memória),
the Good (o Bom)
or the Great (o Grande)


Half-uncle of Beatriz
Illegitimate son of Pedro I
12 (11) Duarte
14 August 1433 9 September 1438 Edward (English) the Eloquent (o Eloquente) or
the Philosopher-King (o Rei-Filósofo)
son of João I
13 (12) Afonso V
9 September 1438 28 August 1481 Alphonzo V (English),
Alphonse V (English),
Affonso V (Old Portuguese)

the African (o Africano) son of Duarte
14 (13) João II
28 August 1481 25 October 1495 John II (English) the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito)
or the Tyrant (o Tirano)
son of Afonso V
15 (14) Manuel I
25 October 1495 13 December 1521 Emmanuel I (English),
Manoel I (Old Portuguese)
the Fortunate (o Venturoso,
o Bem-Aventurado or o Afortunado)
first cousin and brother-in-law of João II
grandson of Duarte
16 (15) João III
13 December 1521 11 June 1557 John III (English) the Pious (o Piedoso
or o Pio)
son of Manuel I
17 (16) Sebastião
11 June 1557 4 August 1578 Sebastian (English) the Desired (o Desejado) grandson of João III
18 (17) Henrique
27 August 1578 31 January 1580 Henry (English) the Chaste (o Casto) or
the Cardinal-King (o Cardeal-Rei)
granduncle of Sebastian
younger son of Manuel I
19 (18) António
(disputed)
24 July 1580 25 August 1580 (in continental Portugal)
27 July 1583 (in the Azores)
Anthony (English) the Prior of Crato (o Prior do Crato)
the Determined (o Determinado)
the Fighter (o Lutador)
the Independentist (o Independentista)


nephew of João III and Henrique
grandson of Manuel I
# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
20 (18 or 19) Filipe I
25 March 1581 13 September 1598 Philip I (English)
Felipe II (in Spain)
the Prudent (o Prudente) grandson of Manuel I
grandson of Manuel I
21 (19 or 20) Filipe II
13 September 1598 31 March 1621 Philip II (English)
Felipe III (in Spain)
the Cruel (o Cruel) (in Portugal)
the Pious (el Pio) (in Spain)
son of Filipe I
22 (20 or 21) Filipe III
31 March 1621 15 December 1640 Philip III (English)
Felipe IV (in Spain)
the Oppressor (o Opressor) (in Portugal)
the Great (el Grande) (in Spain)
son of Filipe II
# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
23 (21 or 22) João IV
15 December 1640 6 November 1656 John IV (English) the Restoring King (o Restaurador)
the Fortunate (o Afortunado)
great-great-grandson of Manuel I
24 (22 or 23) Afonso VI
6 November 1656 12 September 1683 Afonso VI (Portuguese),
Alphonse VI (English),
Affonso VI (Old Portuguese)

the Victorious (o Vitorioso) son of João IV
25 (23 or 24) Pedro II
12 September 1683 9 December 1706 Peter II (English) the Pacific (o Pacífico) brother of Afonso VI
younger son of João IV
26 (24 or 25) João V
9 December 1706 31 July 1750 John V (English) the Magnanimous (o Magnânimo)
the Magnific (o Magnífico)
the Portuguese Sun-King
(o Rei-Sol Português)


son of Peter II
27 (25 or 26) José I
31 July 1750 24 February 1777 Joseph I (English) the Reformer (o Reformador) son of John V
28 (26 or 27) Maria I
24 February 1777 20 March 1816 Mary I (English) the Pious (a Piedosa or a Pia)
the Mad (a Louca)


daughter of José I
Pedro III 24 February 1777 25 May 1786 Peter III (English) son of João V
husband of Maria I
29 (27 or 28) João VI
20 March 1816 10 March 1826 John VI (English) the Clement (o Clemente) son of Pedro III and Maria I
30 (28 or 29) Pedro IV
10 March 1826 5 May 1826 Peter IV (English)
or Pedro I (in Brazil)
the Soldier-King (o Rei-Soldado)
the Emperor-King (o Rei-Imperador)
the Liberator (o Libertador)

son of João VI
31 (29 or 30) Maria II
5 May 1826 30 June 1828 Mary II (English) the Educator (a Educadora)
the Good-Mother (a Boa-Mãe)
daughter of Peter IV
32 (30 or 31) Miguel (disputed)
30 June 1828 26 May 1834 Michael (English) the Traditionalist (o Tradicionalista),
the Usurper (o Usurpador)
or the Absolutist (o Absolutista)
the Absolut-King (o Rei Absoluto)


brother of Pedro IV
younger son of João VI
- Maria II
26 May 1834 15 November 1853 Mary II (English) the Educator (a Educadora) daughter of Pedro IV
Fernando II
16 September 1837 15 November 1853 Ferdinand II (English) husband of Maria II
# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
33 (31 or 32) Pedro V
15 November 1853 11 November 1861 Peter V (English) the Hopeful (o Esperançoso)
the Loved One (o Bem-Amado)
the Much Loved (o Muito Amado)

son of Fernando II and Maria II
34 (32 or 33) Luís I
11 November 1861 19 October 1889 Louis (English),
Luiz (Old Portuguese)
the Popular (o Popular)
the Good (o Bom)
brother of Pedro V
son of Fernando II and Maria II
35 (33 or 34) Carlos I
19 October 1889 1 February 1908 Charles (English) the Martyred (o Martirizado)
or the Diplomat (o Diplomata)
the Martyr (o Mártir)
the Oceanographer (o Oceanógrafo)


son of Luís I
36 (34 or 35) Manuel II
1 February 1908 5 October 1910 Emmanuel II (English),
Manoel II (Old Portuguese)
the Patriot (o Patriota)
the Unfortunate (o Desventurado)
the Scholar (o Estudioso) or
the Missed King (o Rei-Saudade)


son of Carlos I
Time Style Used by Reason
1140–1189 By the Grace of God, King of the Portuguese
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalensium)
Afonso I, Sancho I
1189–1191 By the Grace of God, King of Portugalmarker and Silves
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalliæ et Silbis)
Sancho I Conquest of Silves (1189)
1191–1248 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ)
Sancho I, Afonso II, Sancho II Loss of Silves to the Almohads (1191)
1248–1249 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Afonso, married to Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne-sur-Mermarker, succeeds his brother Sancho on the Portuguese throne (January 1248)
1249–1253 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Algarve (Al'Garb Al'Andalus) (1249)
1253–1369 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii)
Afonso III, Denis, Afonso IV, Peter I, Ferdinand I Afonso III repudiates Matilda and relinquishes his title of Count (1253)
1369–1371 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, Leónmarker, Portugal, Toledomarker, Galicia , Sevillemarker, Córdobamarker, Murciamarker, Jaénmarker, the Algarve, Algecirasmarker and Lord of Molina Ferdinand I Ferndinand I of Portugal is a pretender to the Castilian Crown, being a legitimate great-grandson of Sancho IV of Castile (1369)
1371–1383 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve Ferdinand I Renunciation of Castilian titles after the Peace of Alcoutim (1371)
1383–1385 (none) (none) War between John I and Beatrice of Portugal
1385–1415 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve John I Renunciation of Castilian titles after the defeat of John I of Castile at the Battle of Aljubarrotamarker (1385)
1415–1458 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, and Lord of Ceutamarker John I, Edward I, Afonso V Conquest of Ceutamarker (1415)
1458–1471 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, and Lord of Ceuta and Alcácermarker in Africa Afonso V Conquest of El Ksar as-Saghir marker (1458)
1471–1475 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the AlgarvesNote that when referring to the Algarves, in the plural, the title refers not only to the Algarve, but also to the Portuguese possessions in North Africa (Ceutamarker, Alcácer Ceguer marker, Arzila marker, Tangiermarker, Mazagan marker, Ouadanemarker, Safim marker, Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué marker, Mogador marker, Aguz marker and Azamor marker), thus adding the descriptive "of either side of the sea in Africa"., of either side of the sea in Africa Afonso V Conquest of Asilahmarker and Tangiersmarker (1471) and elevation of the Portuguese lordship in northern Africa to the condition of Kingdom of the Algarve Beyond the Sea
1475–1479 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia , , Seville, Cordoba, Jaén, Murcia, the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Gibraltarmarker, Algecirasmarker, and Lord of Biscay and Molina Afonso V Pretension of Afonso V to the Castilian Crown, due to his marriage with Juana, la Beltraneja (1475)
1479–1485 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa Afonso V, John II Renunciation of the Castilian titles after the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479)
1485–1499 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, and Lord of Guinea John II, Manuel I Erection of Lordship of Guinea, with the Portuguese colonies on the Gulf of Guineamarker (1485)
1499–1580 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopiamarker, Arabia, Persiamarker and Indiamarker, etc. Manuel I, John III, Sebastian, Henry, António, Prior of Crato After the return of Vasco da Gama from Indiamarker, in 1499, the royal style is changed once more to become the most magnificent
1580–1640 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Aragonmarker, Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordobamarker, Corsicamarker, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islandsmarker, the Eastern & Western Indiesmarker, the Islands & Mainland of the Ocean sea, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Biscay and Molina, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Count of Roussillon, Cerdagnemarker, Margrave of Oristanomarker and Goceano, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant and Milan, Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, etc. Philip I, Philip II, Philip III During the Philippine dynasty, the style of the Spanish Crown is merged with that of Portugal
1640–1815 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. John IV, Afonso VI, Peter II, João V, Joseph I, Maria I (with Peter III) After the Restoration (1640), return to the old style adopted by Manuel I
1815–1825 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazilmarker, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Maria I, John VI Elevation of Brazil as a kingdom inside the Portuguese Empire, thus making a United Kingdom (1815)
1825–1826 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. John VI, Pedro IV After the recognition of the independence of Brazil by John VI (1825), return to the old style
1826 By the Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Pedro IV After the death of his father, Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, inherits the Portuguese throne, thus making a change once more in the royal title, until his abdication (1826)
1826–1910 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Maria II, Miguel I, Maria II (with Ferdinand II), Pedro V, Luís I, Carlos I, Manuel II After the abdication of Peter in favour of his daughter, return to the old style, until the collapse of the monarchy with the Portuguese First Republicmarker (1910)
Time
1139–c. 1433 Mercy (HM-YM)
c. 1433–1577 Highness (HH-YH)
1577–1578 Majesty (HM-YM)
1578–1580 Highness (HH-YH)
1580–1748 Majesty (HM-YM)
1748–1825 Most Faithful Majesty (HFM-YFM)
1825–1826 Imperial and Most Faithful Majesty (HI&RFM-YI&RFM)
1826–1910 Most Faithful Majesty (HFM-YFM)

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