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List of Presidents of the United States: Map

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Under the U.S. Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and the head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected to the office of the president more than twice. Upon death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the Vice President assumes the office. This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress. The list does not include any Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

There have been forty-three people sworn into office, and forty-four presidencies, due to the fact that Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the twenty-second and the twenty-fourth president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), one resigned (Richard Nixon), and four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinleyAll of whom were Republicans, and John F. Kennedy)a Democrat. The first president was George Washington, who was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous Electoral College vote. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office at 31 days in 1841. At over twelve years, Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest time in office, and is the only president to serve more than two terms, but he died shortly into his fourth term in 1945. The current president is Barack Obama; he assumed the office on January 20, 2009. There have been 18 Republican Presidents, one of whom (Gerald Ford) was never elected, and 15 Democratic Presidents. Of these, there were 16 different Administrations because Grover Cleveland was elected twice non-consecutivly.

Presidents

Parties


Presidency President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 George Washington

April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 Independent John Adams 1
2
2 John Adams

March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist Thomas Jefferson 3
3 Thomas Jefferson

March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr 4
George Clinton 5
4 James Madison

March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-Republican George Clinton
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
6
vacant
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
7
vacant
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5 James Monroe

March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-Republican Daniel D. Tompkins 8
9
6 John Quincy Adams

March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-Republican

National Republican
John C. Calhoun 10
7 Andrew Jackson

March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic John C. Calhoun
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
11
vacant
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
Martin Van Buren 12
8 Martin Van Buren

March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic Richard Mentor Johnson 13
9 William Henry Harrison

March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841 Whig John Tyler 14
10 John Tyler

April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant
Independent
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11 James K. Polk

March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic George M. Dallas 15
12 Zachary Taylor

March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850 Whig Millard Fillmore 16
13 Millard Fillmore

July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig vacant
14 Franklin Pierce

March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic William R. King
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
17
vacant
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15 James Buchanan

March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic John C. Breckinridge 18
16 Abraham Lincoln

March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865 Republican

National Union
Hannibal Hamlin 19
Andrew Johnson 20
17 Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic

National Union
vacant
National Union

Independent
18 Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican Schuyler Colfax 21
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
22
vacant
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19 Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican William A. Wheeler 23
20 James A. Garfield

March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881 Republican Chester A. Arthur 24
21 Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican vacant
22 Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
25
vacant
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23 Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican Levi P. Morton 26
24 Grover Cleveland

(2nd term)

March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic Adlai E. Stevenson I 27
25 William McKinley

March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901 Republican Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
28
vacant
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
Theodore Roosevelt 29
26 Theodore Roosevelt

September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 Republican vacant
Charles W. Fairbanks 30
27 William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
31
vacant
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28 Woodrow Wilson

March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic Thomas R. Marshall 32
33
29 Warren G. Harding

March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923 Republican Calvin Coolidge 34
30 Calvin Coolidge

August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican vacant
Charles G. Dawes 35
31 Herbert Hoover

March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican Charles Curtis 36
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 April 12, 1945 Democratic John Nance Garner 37
38
Henry A. Wallace 39
Harry S. Truman 40
33 Harry S. Truman

April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic vacant
Alben W. Barkley 41
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961 Republican Richard Nixon 42
43
35 John F. Kennedy

January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963 Democratic Lyndon B. Johnson 44
36 Lyndon B. Johnson

November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic vacant
Hubert Humphrey 45
37 Richard Nixon

January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974 Republican Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
46
47
vacant
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford

August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican vacant
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 Jimmy Carter

January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 Democratic Walter Mondale 48
40 Ronald Reagan

January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican George H. W. Bush 49
50
41 George H. W. Bush

January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 Republican Dan Quayle 51
42 Bill Clinton

January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic Al Gore 52
53
43 George W. Bush

January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican Dick Cheney 54
55
44 Barack Obama

January 20, 2009 Incumbent   Democratic   Joe Biden 56


Notes

  1. A presidency is defined as consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering, Grover Cleveland is counted as having two separate presidencies, having served two non-consecutive terms.
  2. Died in office of natural causes.
  3. Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. Resigned.
  5. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. Assassinated.
  8. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party made Johnson without a party.
  10. This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.


See also



References

  1. A presidency is defined as consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering, Grover Cleveland is counted as having two separate presidencies, having served two non-consecutive terms.
  2. Died in office of natural causes.
  3. Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. Resigned.
  5. Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. Assassinated.
  8. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party made Johnson without a party.
  10. This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.


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