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At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus'/Rus' principalities/Tsardom of Russiamarker/Russian Empiremarker bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor.

The Patriarchs, heads of the Russian Orthodox Church, also sometimes acted as the leaders of Russiamarker — as, for example, during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–1613 (see List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow).

Grand Princes of Novgorodmarker and Kievmarker (c. 860–1240)

See Grand Prince of Kiev

Grand Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal (1168–1389)

Grand Prince of Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky 1252–1263


Grand Princes of Moscow (1283–1547)

Honour monopolized by rulers of Moscow principality, but see also Grand Prince

Rurik Dynasty

Portrait Name Born–Died Grand Prince From Grand Prince Until
Daniel 1261–1303 1283 4 March 1303
Yuri 1281–1325 4 March 1303 21 November 1325
Ivan I (the Moneybag) 1288–1340 21 November 1325 31 March 1340
Simeon (the Proud) 1316–1353 31 March 1340 27 April 1353
Ivan II (the Fair) 1326–1359 27 April 1353 13 November 1359
Dimitri I (of the Don) 1350–1389 13 November 1359 19 May 1389
Vasily I 1371–1425 19 May 1389 27 February 1425
Vasily II (the Blind) 1415–1462 27 February 1425 27 March 1462
Ivan III of Russia (the Great) 1440–1505 5 April 1462 6 November 1505
Vasily III 1479–1533 6 November 1505 13 December 1533
Ivan IV (the Terrible) 1530–1584 13 December 1533 26 January 1547


Tsars of Russiamarker (1547–1721)

Rurik Dynasty

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
Ivan IV (the Terrible) 1530–1584 26 January 1547 28 March 1584
Feodor I 1557–1598 28 March 1584 17 January 1598


Time of Troubles (1598–1613)

Godunov Dynasty

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
Boris Godunov 1550/ c. 1551–1605 3 March 1598 23 April 1605
Feodor II 1589–1605 23 April 1605 11 June 1605


Usurper

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
False Dmitriy I 1581–1606 30 June 1605 27 May 1606


Shuisky Dynasty

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
Vasili IV Shuisky 1552–1612 27 May 1606 27 July 1610


Usurper

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
False Dmitriy II (nominally) 1582–1610 27 July 1610 21 December 1610


House of Vasa

Portrait Name Born–Died Tsar From Tsar Until
Władysław IV Vasa (formally) 1595–1648 27 August (21 December) 1610 4 November 1612


Council of Seven Boyars (27 July 1610 – 4 November 1612)

(From 6 September 1610 for absent Władysław IV Vasa):

Council of All the Land (17 April 1611 – 26 July 1613)

(In opposition to the Poles and Władysław IV Vasa):

Romanov Dynasty

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Mikhail
1613-1645
12 July 1596
Moscowmarker
son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and Kseniya Ioannovna Shesotva

Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova
1624
one stillborn child

Eudoxia Lukyanovna Streshneva
5 February 1626
ten children





14 July 1645
Moscow
aged 49

Alexei
1645-1676
9 May 1629
Moscow
son of Tsar Mikhail and Eudoxia Lukyanova Streshneva

Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya
17 January 1648
13 children

Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina
1 February 1671
3 children





29 January 1676
Moscow
aged 46

Feodor III
1676-1682
9 June 1661
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexei and Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya

Agaphia Simeonovna Grushevskaya
28 July 1680
one son

Marfa Matveievna Apraksina
24 February 1682
no children





7 May 1682
Moscow
aged 20

Peter I the Great
1682-1725
jointly with Ivan V until 1696

9 June 1672
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexei and Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina

Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children





8 February 1725
aged 52
Ivan V
1682-1696
jointly with Peter I

6 September 1666
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexei and Maria Ilyinichina Miloslavskaya

Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova
1684
5 daughters

8 February 1696
aged 29


Emperors of Russiamarker (1721–1917)

(Also Grand Dukes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916)

Romanov Dynasty

Monarch Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Peter I the Great
1682-1725


9 June 1672
Moscow
son of Tsar Alexei and Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina

Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina
1689
3 children

Marta Helena Skowrońska
1707
9 children





8 February 1725
aged 52
Catherine I
1725-1727
15 April 1684
Ringonmarker, Duchy of Livoniamarker
daughter of Samuel Skowroński and Elisabeth Moritz

Peter I of Russia
1707
9 children

17 May 1727
Saint Petersburgmarker
aged 43

Peter II
1727-1730
23 October 1715
Saint Petersburg
son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and Princess Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

unmarried 30 January 1730
Moscow
aged 14

Anna
1730-1740
7 February 1693
Moscow
daughter of Tsar Ivan V and Praskovia Feodorovna Saltykova

Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland
November 1710
no children

28 October 1740
aged 47
Ivan VI
1740-1741
23 August 1740
Saint Petersburg
son of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick and Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Russia

unmarried 16 July 1764
Shlisselburgmarker
aged 23

Elizabeth
1741-1762
29 December 1709
Kolomenskoyemarker
daughter of Emperor Peter I and Empress Catherine I

Alexey Razumovsky(probable)
1742
no children

5 January 1762
aged 52
Peter III
1762
21 February 1728
Kielmarker, Schleswig-Holsteinmarker
son of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna

Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
16 August 1745
one son

17 July 1762 (murdered)
Ropsha
aged 34

Catherine II the Great
1762-1796
2 May 1729
Stettinmarker, Kingdom of Prussiamarker, Holy Roman Empire
daughter of Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and Princess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp

Peter III of Russia
16 August 1745
one son

6 November 1796
Saint Petersburg
aged 67

Paul I
1796-1801
1 October 1754
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Peter III and Empress Catherine II

Princess Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 September 1773
one stillborn daughter

Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
26 September 1776
ten children





23 March 1801 (assassinated)
Saint Michael's Castlemarker, Saint Petersburg
aged 46

Alexander I the Blessed
1801-1825
23 December 1777
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna

Princess Louise of Baden
28 September 1793
2 daughters

1 December 1825
Taganrogmarker
aged 47

Constantine I (disputed)
1825
27 April 1779
Tsarskoye Selomarker
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna

Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
26 February
no children

27 June 1831
Vitebskmarker
aged 52

Nicholas I the Conqueror
1825-1855
6 July 1796
Gatchinamarker
son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna

Princess Charlotte of Prussia
13 July 1817
7 children

2 March 1855
Saint Petersburg
aged 58

Alexander II the Liberator
1855-1881
29 April 1818
Moscow
son of Emperor Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodorovna

Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine
16 April 1841
8 children

13 March 1881 (assassinated)
Saint Petersburg
aged 62

Alexander III the Peace-Maker
1881-1894
10 March 1845
Saint Petersburg
son of Emperor Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna

Princess Dagmar of Denmark
9 November 1866
6 children

1 November 1894
Livadiyamarker, Crimeamarker
Nicholas II the Martyr
1894-1917
6 May 1868
Tsarskoye Selomarker
son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna

Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine
26 November 1894
5 children

17 July 1918 (murdered)
Yekaterinburgmarker, Russian SFSR
aged 50

Mikhail II (disputed)
1917
22 November 1878
Tsarskoye Selo
son of Emperor Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna

Natalia Brassova
15 October 1911
one son (born before his parents' marriage)

12 June 1918 (murdered)
Permmarker, Russian SFSR
aged 39



See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917

See Line of succession to the Russian throne

See also



External links




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