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This is a list of Internment and Concentration camps, organized by country. In general, a camp or group of camps is assigned to the country whose government was responsible for the establishment and/or operation of the camp regardless of the camp's location, but this principle can be, or appear to be, departed from in such cases as where a country's borders or name has changed or it was occupied by a foreign power.

Certain types of camps are excluded from this list, particularly refugee camps set up to house refugees who have fled across the border from another country in fear of persecution, or have been set up by an international non-governmental organization. Prisoner-of-war camps are treated under a separate category.


During World War I, 2,940 German and Austrian, men were interned in ten different camps in Australia. Almost all of the men listed as being Austrians were in fact from the Croatian coastal region of Dalmatia, which was then under Austrian rule. Ironically, most Dalmatians were opposed to being part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

In 1915, many of the smaller camps, in Australia, closed with their inmates transferred to larger camps. The largest camp was at Holsworthymarker in New South Walesmarker. Families of the interned men were placed in a camp near Canberra. During World War II, 4,721 Italian migrants were interned in Australia.


During World War I, internment camps were set up, mostly for Serbs and other pro-Serbian Yugoslavs. Men, women, children, the elderly, the sick and gays were displaced from their homes and sent to concentration camps throughout the Austria-Hungary Empire, to places such as Dobojmarker (46,000), Aradmarker, Győrmarker and Neusiedl am Seemarker.

During the Nazi period, several concentration camps, for example the Mauthausen-Gusen campmarker, were located in Austria. These camps were overwhelmingly run by Austrians.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

During the Bosnian War, concentration camps were set up, mostly for Bosniaks (aka Bosnian Muslims) and other non-Serbs by the Serb authorities of self-proclaimed Republika Srpska as well as Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia which coordinated their war activities against Bosniaks, in the light of Karađorđevo agreement ment to redistribute Bosnia and Herzegovinamarker between Croatiamarker and Serbiamarker.


The totalitarian communist Khmer Rouge regime established concentration camps. Various studies have estimated the death toll most commonly between 1.4 million and 2.2 million, with perhaps half of those deaths being due to executions, and the rest from starvation and disease. This is a massive proportion of the Cambodian population, which was only 6-8 million.

Among the best-documented concentration camps were The Killing Fieldsmarker and the torture camp Security Prison 21marker.


German Canadian internment

During the Second World War, 850 German Canadians were accused of being spies for the Nazis, as well as subversives and saboteurs. The internees were given a chance by authorities to defend themselves. According to the transcripts of the appeal tribunals, internees and state officials debated conflicting concepts of citizenship.

Many German Canadians interned in Camp Petawawamarker were from a nineteenth-century migration in 1876. They arrived in a small area a year after a Polish migration landed in Wilnomarker. Their hamlet, made up of farmers primarily, was called Germanicus and is in the bush less than 10 miles from Eganville, Ontariomarker. Their farms (homesteads originally) were expropriated by the federal government for no compensation and they were imprisoned behind barbed wire in the AOAT camp. The Foymount Air Force Base near Cormac and Eganville was built on this expropriated land. Notable was that not one of these homesteaders from 1876 or their grandchildren had ever visited Germany again after 1876, yet they were accused of being German Nazi agents.

756 German sailors, mostly captured in East Asia were sent from Indianmarker camps to Canada in June 1941 (Camp 33).

Japanese internment and relocation centres

During World War II, Canadamarker interned residents of Japanese and Italian ancestry. The Canadian government also interned citizens it deemed dangerous to national security. This included both fascists (including Canadians such as Adrien Arcand who had negotiated with Hitler to obtain positions in the government of Canada once Canada was conquered), Montrealmarker mayor Camilien Houde (for denouncing conscription) and union organizers and other people deemed to be dangerous Communists. Such internment was made legal by the Defence of Canada Regulations, Section 21 of which read:

The Minister of Justice, if satisfied that, with a view to preventing any particular person from acting in a manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the State, it is necessary to do so, may, notwithstanding anything in these regulations, make an order [...] directing that he be detained by virtue of an order made under this paragraph, be deemed to be in legal custody.

Over 75% were Canadian citizens and they were vital in key areas of the economy, notable the fishery and also in logging and berry farming. Exile took two forms: relocation centres for families and relatively well-off individuals who were a low security threat, and interment camps (often called concentration camps in contemporary accounts, but controversially so) which were for single men, the less well-off, and those deemed to be a security risk. After the war, many did not return to the Coast because of bitter feelings as to their treatment, and fears of further hostility from non-Japanese citizens; of those that returned only a few regained confiscated property and businesses. Most remained in other parts of Canada, notably certain parts of the BC Interior and in the neighbouring province of Alberta.

Camps and relocation centres in the Kootenay region

Greenwoodmarker, Kaslomarker, Lemon Creek, New Denvermarker, Roseberymarker, Salmomarker, Sandonmarker, Slocan Citymarker, and Tashmemarker. Some were nearly-empty ghost towns when the internment began, others, like Kaslo and Greenwood, while less populous than in their boom years, were substantial communities.

Camps and relocation centres elsewhere in BC

Bridge Rivermarker, Minto City, McGillivray Fallsmarker, East Lillooetmarker, Taylor Lake. Other than Taylor Lake, these were all called "Self-supporting centres", not internment camps. The first three listed were all in a mountainous area so physically isolated that fences and guards were not required as the only egress from that region was by rail or water only. McGillivray Falls and Tashmemarker, on the Crowsnest Highway east of Hope, British Columbiamarker, were just over the minimum 100 miles from the Coast required by the deportation order, though Tashme had direct road access over that distance, unlike McGillivray. Because of the isolation of the country immediately coast-wards from McGillivray, men from that camp were hired to work at a sawmill in what has since been named Devinemarker, after the mill's owner, which is within the 100-mile quarantine zone. Many of those in the East Lillooet camp were hired to work in town, or on farms nearby, particularly at Fountain, while those at Minto and Minto Mine and those at Bridge River worked for the railway or the hydro company.

Camps and relocation centres elsewhere in Canada

There were internment camps near Kananaskis, Albertamarker; Petawawa, Ontariomarker; Hull, Quebec; Minto, New Brunswickmarker; and Amherst, Nova Scotiamarker.

Further information

Ukrainian Canadian internment

In World War I, 8,579 male "aliens of enemy nationality" were interned, including 5,954 Austro-Hungarians, most of whom were probably ethnic Ukrainians. Many of these internees were used for forced labour in internment camps. See Ukrainian Canadian internment, Castle Mountain Internment Camp, and Eaton Internment Camp.

Further Information


  • Ustaše established concentration and labor camps.

Name of the camp Date of establishment Date of liberation Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Jasenovacmarker August 23, 1941 April 22, 1945  59,188-700,000
Stara Gradiška 1941 1945   
Pag 1941 1945  8,500
Gospić 1941 1945  30,000-40,000
Jadovno 1941 None 
Jastrebarskomarker 1942 None 
Metajni 1941 1945 
Đakovomarker 1941 None 
Lepoglava 1941 1945 
Danica 1941 1945 
Kerestinecmarker 1941 1945 
Kruščicamarker 1941 None 
Lobormarker 1941 1945 
Tenja 1942 1945 


Military Units to Aid Production were forced labor concentration camps established by Fidel Castro's communist dictatorship.

They were a way to eliminate alleged "bourgeois" and "counter-revolutionary" values in the Cuban population. First, people were thrown into overcrowded cells at police stations and later taken to secret police facilities, movie houses, stadiums, warehouses, and similar locations. They were photographed, fingerprinted and forced to sign a confession declaring themselves the "scum of society" in exchange for their temporary release until they were summoned to the concentration camps. Those who refused to sign were physically and psychologically tortured.

Beginning in November 1965, already classified people started to arrive by train, bus, truck and other police and military vehicles.

"Social deviants" such as homosexuals, vagrants, Jehovah's Witnesses and other religious missionaries were imprisoned in these concentration camps, where they would be "reeducated".


Finnish Civil War

In the Finnish Civil War, the victorious White Army and German troops captured about 80,000 Red prisoners by the end of the war on 5 May 1918. Once the White terror subsided, a few thousand including mainly small children and women, were set free, leaving 74,000–76,000 prisoners. The largest prison camps were Suomenlinnamarker, an island facing Helsinki, Hämeenlinnamarker, Lahtimarker, Viipurimarker, Ekenäs, Riihimäkimarker and Tamperemarker. The Senate made the decision to keep these prisoners detained until each person's guilt could be examined. A law for a Tribunal of Treason was enacted on 29 May after a long dispute between the White army and the Senate of the proper trial method to adopt. The start of the heavy and slow process of trials was delayed further until 18 June 1918. The Tribunal did not meet all the standards of neutral justice, due to the mental atmosphere of White Finland after the war. Approximately 70,000 Reds were convicted, mainly for complicity to treason. Most of the sentences were lenient, however, and many got out on parole. Still 555 persons were sentenced to death, but only 113 were executed. The trials revealed also that some innocent persons had been imprisoned.

Combined with the severe food shortage, the mass imprisonment led to high mortality rates in the camps, and the catastrophe was compounded by a mentality of punishment, anger and indifference on the part of the victors. Many prisoners felt that they were abandoned also by their own leaders, who had fled to Russia. The condition of the prisoners had weakened rapidly during May, after food supplies had been disrupted during the Red Guards' retreat in April, and a high number of prisoners had been captured already during the first half of April in Tampere and Helsinki. As a consequence, 2,900 starved to death or died in June as a result of diseases caused by malnutrition and Spanish flu, 5,000 in July, 2,200 in August, and 1,000 in September. The mortality rate was highest in the Ekenäs camp at 34%, while in the others the rate varied between 5% and 20%. In total, between 11,000 and 13,500 Finns perished. The dead were buried in mass graves near the camps. The majority of the prisoners were paroled or pardoned by the end of 1918 after the victory of the Western powers in World War I also caused a major change in the Finnish domestic political situation. There were 6,100 Red prisoners left at the end of the year, 100 in 1921 (at the same time civil rights were given back to 40,000 prisoners) and in 1927 the last 50 prisoners were pardoned by the social democratic government led by Väinö Tanner. In 1973, the Finnish government paid reparations to 11,600 persons imprisoned in the camps after the civil war.

Continuation War

When the Finnish Army during the Continuation War occupied East Karelia 1941–1944 that was inhabited by ethnically related Finnic Karelians (although it never had been a part of Finland — or before 1809 of Sweden-Finland), several concentration camps were set up for ethnically Russian civilians. The first camp was set up on October 24, 1941, in Petrozavodskmarker. The two largest groups were 6,000 Russian refugees and 3,000 inhabitants from the southern bank of River Svir forcibly evacuated because of the closeness of the front line. Around 4,000 of the prisoners perished due to malnourishment, 90% of them during the spring and summer 1942. The ultimate goal was to move the Russian speaking population to German-occupied Russia in exchange for any Finnish population from these areas, and also help to watch civilians.

Population in the Finnish camps:
  • 13,400 — December 31, 1941
  • 21,984 — July 1, 1942
  • 15,241 — January 1, 1943
  • 14,917 — January 1, 1944



During France's occupation of Algeria, large numbers of Algerians were forced into "tent cities" and concentration camps both during the initial French invasion in 1830s, and particularly during the Algerian War of Independence.

During the early part of the colonial period, camps were used mostly to forcibly remove Arabs, Berbers and Turks from fertile areas of land and replace them by primarily French, Spanish, and Maltese settlers. It has been estimated that from 1830 to 1900, between 15 and 25% of the Algerian population died in such camps and the war in general killed a third of Algeria's population.

During the Algerian War of Independence the populations of whole villages which were suspected to have supported the rebel National Liberation Front (FLN) were incarcerated in such camps.

Spanish Republicans

After the end of Spanish Civil War, there were harsh reprisals against Franco's former enemies. Hundreds of thousands of Republicans fled abroad, especially to France and Mexicomarker. On the other side of the Pyreneesmarker, refugees were confined in internment camps of the French Third Republic, such as Camp de Rivesaltes, Camp Gursmarker or Camp Vernetmarker, where 12,000 Republicans were housed in squalid conditions (mostly soldiers from the Durruti Division ). The 17,000 refugees housed in Gurs were divided into four categories (Brigadists, pilots, Gudari and ordinary Spaniards). The Gudaris (Basques) and the pilots easily found local backers and jobs, and were allowed to quit the camp, but the farmers and ordinary people, who could not find relations in France, were encouraged by the Third Republic, in agreement with the Francoist government, to return to Spain. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irúnmarker. From there they were transferred to the Miranda de Ebromarker camp for "purification".

After the proclamation by Marshal Philippe Pétain of the Vichy regime, the refugees became political prisoners, and the French police attempted to round-up those who had been liberated from the camp. Along with other "undesirables", they were sent to the Drancy internment campmarker before being deported to Nazi Germany. About 5,000 Spaniards thus died in Mauthausen concentration campmarker

Vichy France

During World War II, The French Vichy government ran what were called "detention camps" such as the one at Drancymarker. Camps also existed in the Pyreneesmarker, on the border with pro-Nazi Spain, among them Camp de Rivesaltes, Camp Gursmarker and Camp Vernetmarker. About 73,000 Jews were deported to Nazi Germany. In addition, areas which were annexed by Germany formally from France such as Alsace-Lorrainemarker had concentration camps set up, the largest being Natzweiler-Struthofmarker.

The Vichy French also ran camps in North and West Africa, and possibly East Africa. Following are the locations of concentration camps, POW camps, and internment camps in (Vichy)West and (Vichy) North Africa, there may have been one in the Mogadishu area of East Africa, and also in Madagascar.

The camps were located at:

West Africa:
  • Conakry
  • Timbuctoo
  • Kankan
  • Koulikorro
  • Dakar

North Africa:
  • Sfax
  • El Kef
  • Laghouat
  • Geryville.

Also camps connected to the Laconia incident:
  • Mediouna (near Casablanca)
  • Qued-Zen (near Casablanca)
  • Sidi-el-Avachi (near Azemmour)

Plus the following camps which are under investigation:
  • Taza
  • Fes
  • Oujda
  • Sidi-bel-Abbes
  • Berguent
  • Settat
  • Sidi-el-Ayachi
  • Qued Zem
  • Mecheria

The camps at Conakry, Timbuctoo, and Kankan had no running water, no electricity, no gas, no electric light no sewers no toilets, and no baths.

The prisoners (mainly British and Norwegian) were housed in native accommodation - mud huts and houses, and a tractor shed. The Vichy French authorities in West Africa called the camps at Conakry, Timbuctoo, and Kankan, concentration camps.


See also: List of concentration camps of Nazi Germany, Holocaust, Ilag, Arbeitslager
Major German concentration camps, 1944.

Before World War I, German South-West Africa (now Namibiamarker) was the site of several horrendous camps and extermination programs, such as that at Shark Islandmarker. Between 1904 and 1908, following the German suppression of the Herero and Nama in the Herero and Namaqua genocide, survivors were interned in concentration camps.

In World War I male civilian citizens of the Allies caught by the outbreak of war on the territory of the Germany were interned. One of the camps was at Ruhleben on a horse race-track near Berlin.

On January 30 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of the weak coalition government. Although the Nazi party (NSDAP) was in a minority, Hitler and his associates quickly took control of the country. Within days the first Concentration camp (Konzentrationslager), at Dachaumarker, Nazi Germany, was built to hold persons considered dangerous by the Nazi administration - these included suspected communists, labor union activists, liberal politicians and even pastors. This camp became the model for all later Nazi concentration camps. It was quickly followed by Oranienburg-Sachsenhausenmarker which became a facility for the training of SS-Death's Headmarker officers in the operation of concentration camps.

Theodor Eicke, commandant of Dachau camp, was appointed "Inspector of Concentration Camps" by Himmler on 4 July 1934. By 1934 there were eight major institutions. This started the second phase of development. All smaller detention camps were consolidated into six major camps - Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwaldmarker, Flossenburgmarker, and after the annexation of Austriamarker in 1938 - Mauthausenmarker, finally in 1939 Ravensbrückmarker (for women). The pajama type blue-striped uniforms were introduced for inmates as well as the practice of tattooing the prisoner's number on his fore-arm. Eicke started the practice of farming out prisoners as slave-labor in German industry, with sub-camps or Arbeitskommandos to house them. The use of common criminals as Kapo, to brutalize and assist in the handling of prisoners, was instituted at this time. In November 1938 the massive arrests of German Jews started, with most of them being immediately sent to the concentration camps, where they were separated from other prisoners and subjected to even harsher treatment. Probably it was at this time that German people started referring (in hushed voices) to the camps as Kah-Tzets (the initials KZ in the German language.)

The third phase started after the occupation of Poland in 1939. In the first few months Polish intellectuals were detained, including nearly the entire staff of Cracow university arrested in November 1939. Auschwitz-Imarker and Stutthof concentration campmarker were built to house them and other political prisoners. Large numbers were executed or died from the brutal treatment and disease. After the occupation of Belgium, France and Netherlands in 1940, Natzweiler-Struthofmarker, Gross Rosenmarker and Fort Breendonkmarker, in addition to a number of smaller camps, were set up to house intellectuals and political prisoners from those countries that had not already been executed. It must be noted that many of these intellectuals were held first in Gestapomarker prisons, only those who were not executed immediately after interrogation were sent on to the concentration camps.

Initially, Jews in the occupied countries were interned either in other KZ, but predominantly in Ghettos that were walled off parts of cities. All the Jews in western Poland (annexed into the Reich) were transported to ghettos in the General Government. Jews were used for labour in industries, but usually transported to work then returned to the KZ or the ghetto at night. Although these ghettoes were not intended to be extermination camps, and there was no official policy to kill people, thousands died due to hunger, disease and extreme conditions. During the German advance into Russia in 1941 and 1942 Jewish soldiers and civilians were systematically executed by the Einsatzgruppenmarker of the S.S. that followed the front-line troops. At the Wannsee Conferencemarker on 20 January 1942 the "Final Solution" was decreed to exterminate all of the remaining Jews in Europe, Heydrich stated that there were still 11 million to be eliminated. To accomplish this special Vernichtungslager (Extermination Camps) were to be organized. The first was Chełmnomarker in which 152,000, mainly from the Łódźmarker ghetto, were killed. The method for carrying out mass murder was tested and perfected here. During 1942 and 1943 further camps Auschwitz-Birkenau IImarker, part of Majdanekmarker, Treblinkamarker, Bełżecmarker and Sobibormarker were built for this purpose. Jews from other concentration camps, and from the ghettos, were transported to them from all over occupied Europe. In these six camps alone, an estimated 3.1 million Jews were killed in gas chambers and the bodies burned in massive crematoria. The Nazis realized that this was a criminal act and the action was shrouded in secrecy. The extermination camps were destroyed in 1944 and early 1945 and buried. However the Soviet armies overran Auschwitz and Majdanek before the evidence could be totally destroyed.

Another category of internment camp in Nazi Germany was the Labor camp (Arbeitslager). They housed civilians from the occupied countries that were being used to work in industry, on the farms, in quarries, in mines and on the railroads. Approximately 12,000,000 forced laborers, most of whom were Eastern Europeans, were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany. Although conditions were harsh and food and medical care inadequate, they were not concentration camps. More workers died in them from Allied bombs (often, prisoners were condemned to digging up and defusing unexploded Allied bombs as a matter of punishment for stealing extra rations of food) or industrial accidents than from the difficult living conditions. The workers were mostly young and taken from the occupied countries, predominantly eastern Europe, but also many French and Italian. They were sometimes taken willingly, more frequently as a result of lapanka in Polish, or rafle in French language, in which people were collected on the street or in their home by police drives. However, for often very minor infractions of the rules, workers were imprisoned in special Arbeitserziehungslager, German for Worker re-education camp, (abbreviated to AEL and sometimes referred to as Straflager). These punishment camps were operated by the Gestapomarker and many of the inmates were executed or died from the brutal treatment.

Finally there was one category of internment camp, called Ilag in which Allied, mainly British and American, civilians were held that had been caught behind front lines by the rapid advance of the German armies, or the sudden entry of the United States into the war. In these camps the Germans abided by the rules of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Any deaths resulted from sickness or simply old age.

After World War II, internment camps were used by the Allied occupying forces to hold suspected Nazis, usually using the facilities of previous Nazi camps. They were all closed down by 1949. In East Germanymarker the communist government used prison camps to hold political prisoners, opponents of the communist regime or suspected Nazi collaborators.

Namibia (German South-West Africa)

Between 1904 and 1908, following the German suppression of the Herero and Nama in the Herero and Namaqua genocide, survivors were interned in concentration camps. This occurred when the country was a colony of Germany, not of the United Kingdom.


During both wars the British interned enemy nationals (mostly Germans), in 1939 including refugees from the Nazis as well as Germans who had acquired British citizenship, in India. Camps existed at:

World War I

  • Ahmednagarmarker, also for internees from German East Africa, Sections A abysmally overcrowded with more than 1000 inmates in "medically condemned" old barracks and B for privileged (read: moneied) prisoners and officers. Later in 1915 a Parole Camp was set up.
  • Diyatalawamarker (Ceylon)
  • Belgaummarker for women. Set up late 1915. March 1917: 214 inmates
  • Kataphar for families

World War II

  • Ahmednagarmarker (Central Internment Camp) inmates transferred to Dehradun February 1941.
  • Diyatalawamarker (Ceylon). Aliens from Ceylon, Hongkong and Singapore. Many German sailors, 756 of them sent to Canada in June 1941 (Camp 33); other males to Dehradun, females to Parole Camps, when camp was closed 23. February 194.2
  • Deolalimarker from Feb. 1941, later also transferred to Dehradun. 11. Aug. 1941: 604 Germans.
  • Dehradunmarker main camp for males from Sept. 1941. Sensibly separated in Wings 1: pro-Nazi, 2: anti-Nazi, 3: Italians. From this camp the SS mountaineer Heinrich Harrer escaped to Tibet.
  • Yercaudmarker for females from Madras Presidency. Summer 1941: 98 inmates, closed late 1942.
  • Ft.marker Williamsmarker (Calcutta), army camp, closed early 1940, males were sent to Ahmednagar, females to Katapahar parole camp.
  • Camp 17 initially in Ramgarh (Biharmarker), from July 1942 at Deoli (Rajputana. For the surviving internees from the Dutch Indies.

  • Smaller Parole Camps at Naini Talmarker, Kodaikanalmarker and Katapahar (near Darjeelingmarker), were all closed by late 1942. Inmates transferred to (family reunions) to the camps near Poona:
    • Sātāramarker from May 1940
    • Purandhar (lower Fort), initially for Jewish refugees, later also other Germans, many missionaries with families. In August 1945 116 Germans (45 children, 19 missionaries), 26 Italians (5 children), 68 other nationals (11 children)
Most internees were deported late 1946. Germans shipped to Hamburg were sent to the former Neuengamme concentration campmarker for de-Nazification.


German Navy interned in the Curragh
During World War II, known in Ireland as the "Emergency", the Curragh camp was used as an internment camp. It was used to house German soldiers, mainly navy personnel stranded in neutral Ireland. A separate section was created for British soldiers, who had entered Irish territory in violation of the neutrality policy. It was also held republicans who had a suspected link to the I.R.A..

Luftwaffe (German air force) internees were held in Glencree, in what is now the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation


Name of the camp Date of establishment Date of liberation Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Baranellomarker near Campobassomarker        
Campagnamarker near Salernomarker        
Casolli near Chietimarker        
Chiesanuovamarker near Paduamarker June 1942      
Ferramonti di Tarsia near Cosenzamarker summer 1940 September 4, 1943 3,800  
Finale Emila near Modenamarker        
Gonars near Palmanovamarker March 1942 September 8, 1943 7,000 453; >500
Malomarker near Venicemarker        
Monigo near Trevisomarker June 1942      
Montechiarugolomarker near Parmamarker        
Rab (on the island of Rabmarker) July 1942 September 11, 1943 15,000 2,000
Renicci di Anghiari, near Arezzomarker October 1942      
Sepinomarker near Campobassomarker        
Vinchiaturomarker, near Campobasso        
Viscomarker, near Palmanova winter 1942      

Rab concentration camp


Japanese World War II Camps in Asia

For information in Dutch on Japanese concentration camps see Jappenkamp

Japan conquered south-east Asia in a series of victorious campaigns over a few months from December 1941. By March 1942 many civilians, particularly westerners in the region's European colonies, found themselves behind enemy lines and were subsequently interned by the Japanese.

The nature of civilian internment varied from region to region. Some civilians were interned soon after invasion; in other areas the process occurred over many months. In total, approximately 130,000 Allied civilians were interned by the Japanese during this period of occupation. The exact number of internees will never be known as records were often lost, destroyed, or simply not kept.

The backgrounds of the internees were diverse. There was a large proportion of Dutch from the Dutch East Indies, but they also included Americans, British, and Australians. They included missionaries and their families, colonial administrators, and business people. Many had been living in the colonies for decades. Single women had often been nuns, missionaries, doctors, teachers and nurses.

Civilians interned by the Japanese were treated marginally better than the prisoners of war, but their death rates were the same. Although they had to work to run their own camps, few were made to labour on construction projects. The Japanese devised no consistent policies or guidelines to regulate the treatment of the civilians. Camp conditions and the treatment of internees varied from camp to camp. The general experience, however, was one of malnutrition, disease, and varying degrees of harsh discipline and brutality from the Japanese guards. Some Dutch women were forced into sexual slavery.

The camps varied in size from four people held at Pangkalpinang in Sumatra to the 14,000 held in Tjihapit in Java. Some were segregated according to gender or race, there were also many camps of mixed gender. Some internees were held at the same camp for the duration of the war, and others were moved about. The buildings used to house internees were generally whatever was available, including schools, warehouses, universities, hospitals, and prisons.

Organisation of the internment camps varied by location. The Japanese administered some camps directly; others were administered by local authorities under Japanese control. Korean POWs of the Japanese were also used as camp guards. Some of the camps were left for the internees to self-govern. In the mixed and male camps, management often fell to the men who were experienced in administration before their internment. In the women's camps the leaders tended to be the women who had held a profession prior to internment. Boys over the age of ten were generally considered to be men by the Japanese and were often separated from their mothers to live and work in male camps.

One of the most famous concentration camps operated by the Japanese during World War II was at the University of Santo Tomasmarker in Manilamarker, the Philippines. The Dominican university was expropriated by the Japanese at the beginning of the occupation, and was used to house mostly American civilians, but also British subjects, for the duration of the war. There, men, women and children suffered from malnutrition and poor sanitation. The camp was liberated in 1945.

The liberation of camps was not a uniform process. Many camps were liberated as the forces were recapturing territory. For other internees, freedom occurred many months after the surrender of the Japanese, and in the Dutch East Indies, liberated internees faced the uncertainty of the Indonesian war of independence.

Civilian internees were generally disregarded in official histories, and few received formal recognition. Ironically, however, civilian internees have become the subject of several influential books and films. Agnes Newton Keith's account of internment in Sandakanmarker and Batu Lintang camp, Kuching, Three Came Home (1947), was one of the first of the memoirs. More recent publications include Jeanne Tuttle and Jolanthe Zelling's "Mammie's Journal of My Childhood" (2005); (Shirley Fenton-Huie's The Forgotten Ones (1992) and Jan Ruff O'Herne's Fifty Years of Silence (1997). Nevil Shute's novel A Town Like Alice was filmed in 1956, and J. G. Ballard's Empire of the Sun in 1987. Other films and television dramas have included Tenko and Paradise Road.


A draft report leaked by the office of Mexico's Special Prosecutor Ignacio Carrillo in 2006 mentioned the existence of army-run concentration camps during anti-guerilla campaigns in the state of Guerreromarker in the 1970s.


In World War I both German and Allied soldiers and sailors that crossed into neutral Netherlandsmarker were interned. The camp for the British, mostly sailors, was in Groningenmarker

During World War II a camp was built in 1939 at Westerborkmarker by the Dutchmarker government for interning Jewish refugees who had fled Nazi Germany. This camp was later used during the German occupation as a waystation for Dutch Jews eventually deported to extermination camps in the East. Amersfoortmarker (1941–1945) was a transit camp. The Herzogenbuschmarker (1943–1944) was a concentration camp.

After the war the Dutch government launched the Operation Black Tulip and started to gather civil population of German background to concentration camps near the German border, especially Nijmegenmarker, in order to deport them from the country. In total around 15 % of the German population in the Netherlands was deported.

New Zealand

In World War I German civilians living in New Zealand were interned in camps on Motuihemarker and Somesmarker Islands. German, Italian and Japanese civilians were interned in World War II.

North Korea

Location of Known Concentration Camps

North Province of Hamkyong-Life Imprisonment Zone

1. Onsong Changpyong Family Camp No. 12 (relocated in May 1987)

2. Chongsong Family Camp No. 13 (relocated in December 1990)

3. Hoeryong Family Camp No. 22

4. Chongjin Singles' Prison No. 25

5. Kyongsong Family Camp No. 11 (relocated in October 1989)

6. Hwasong Family Camp No. 16

South Province of Hamkyong

7. Yodok Offenders and Family Camp No. 15

  (sectors for re-education and life imprisonment)

North Province of Pyong'an

8. Chonma Family Camp No. 27 (relocated in November 1990)

South Province of Pyong'an

9. Kaechon Family Camp No. 14

10. Pyongyang Seungho Area Hwachon dong Offender's Camp No. 26 (relocated in January 1990)

North Koreamarker is known to operate five concentration camps, currently accommodating a total of over 200,000 prisoners, though the only one that has allowed outside access is Camp #15 in Yodokmarker, South Hamgyong Provincemarker. Once condemned as political criminals in North Korea, the defendant and his or her family are incarcerated in one of the camps without trial and cut off from all outside contact. Prisoners reportedly work 14 hour days at hard labor and/or ideological re-education. Starvation and disease are commonplace. Political criminals invariably receive life sentences, however their families are usually released after 3 year sentences, if they pass political examinations after extensive study.

Concentration camps came into being in North Korea in the wake of the country's liberation from Japanese colonial rule at the end of World War II. Those persons considered "adversary class forces", such as landholders, Japanese collaborators, religious devotees and families of those who migrated to the South, were rounded up and detained in a large facility. Additional camps were established later in earnest to incarcerate political victims in power struggles in the late 1950s and 60s and their families and overseas Koreans who migrated to the North. The number of camps saw a marked increase later in the course of cementing the Kim Il Sung dictatorship and the Kim Jong-il succession. About a dozen concentration camps were in operation until the early 1990s, the figure of which is believed to have been curtailed to five today due to increasing criticism of the North's perceived human rights abuses from the international community and the North's internal situation.

Perhaps the most well-known depiction of life in the North Korean camps has been provided by Kang Chol-hwan in his memoir The Aquariums of Pyongyang.

People's Republic of China

Concentration camps in the People's Republic of Chinamarker are called Laogai, which means "reform through labor". The communist-era camps began at least in the 1960s and were filled with anyone who had said anything critical of the government, or often just random people grabbed from their homes to fill quotas. The entire society was organized into small groups in which loyalty to the government was enforced, so that anyone with dissident viewpoints was easily identifiable for enslavement. These camps were modern slave labor camps, organized like factories.

There are accusations that Chinese labor camp produce products are often sold in foreign countries with the profits going to the PRC government. Products include everything from green tea to industrial engines to coal dug from mines.

The use of prison labor is an interesting case study of the interaction between capitalism and prison labor. On the one hand, the downfall of socialism has reduced revenue to local governments increasing pressure for local governments to attempt to supplement their income using prison labor. On the other hand, prisoners do not make a good workforce, and the products produced by prison labor in China are of extremely low quality and have become unsellable on the open market in competition with products made by ordinary paid labor.

An insider's view from the 1950s to the 1990s is detailed in the books of Harry Wu, including Troublemaker and The Laogai. He spent almost all of his adult life as a prisoner in these camps for criticizing the government while he was a young student in college. He almost died several times, but eventually escaped to the US. Party officials have argued that he far overstates the present role of Chinese labor camps and ignores the tremendous changes that have occurred in China since then.

There have been reports of Falun Gong practitioners being detained Sujiatun Concentration Camp. It has been accused that Falun Gong practitioners are killed for their organs, which are then sold to medical facilities. The Chinese government rejects these allegations . US State Department visited the alleged camp on two occasions, first unannounced, and found the allegation not credible. Chinese dissident and Executive Director of the Laogai Research Foundation, Harry Wu, having sent his own investigators to the site, was unable to substantiate the claims, and believes the reports were fabricated.

See also: human rights in the People's Republic of China


From 1934-39 Poland established a camp for the internment of political opponents, Ukrainian nationalists and Communists in Bereza Kartuzkamarker (now in Belarus).

During World War II Nazi Germany established many of its concentration camps in Poland. After World War 2 Soviet Army and Communist Poland used some of the former German concentration camps as POW camps and later as internment camps where opponents of the communists and Soviets, as well as Ukrainians and ethnic Germans or their sympathizers, were imprisoned.

Attempts were later made to bring two of the camp commandants to justice; Salomon Morel and Czesław Gęborski.

Russia and the Soviet Union

In Imperial Russiamarker, labor camps were known by the name katorga.

In the Soviet Unionmarker, concentration camps were called simply camps, almost always plural ("lagerya"). These were used as forced labor camps, and were often filled with political prisoners. After Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's book they became known to the rest of the world as Gulags, after the branch of NKVD (state security service) that managed them. (In the Russian language, the term is used to denote the whole system, rather than individual camps.)

In addition to what is sometimes referred to as the GULAG proper (consisting of the "corrective labor camps") there were "corrective labor colonies", originally intended for prisoners with short sentences, and "special resettlements" of deported peasants. At its peak, the system held a combined total of 2,750,000 prisoners. In all, perhaps more than 18,000,000 people passed through the Gulag in 1929-1953, with further millions being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.

Of the 5.7 million Soviet prisoners of war captured by the Germans, 3.5 million had died while in German captivity by the end of the war. The survivors on their return to the USSR were treated as traitors (see Order No. 270). Over 1.5 million surviving Red Army soldiers imprisoned by the Germans were sent to the Gulag.

After World War II, some 3,000,000 German soldiers and civilians were sent to Soviet labor camps, as part of war reparations by labor force. Only about 2,000,000 returned to Germany.

A special kind of forced labor, informally called sharashka, was for engineering and scientific labor. The Soviet rocket designer Sergey Korolev worked in a "sharashka", as did Lev Termen and many other prominent Russians. Solzhenitsyn's book The First Circle describes life in a sharashka.

An extensive List of Gulag camps is being compiled based on official sources.

During war in Chechniamarker, in 1994 Russians founded many filtration camps for Chechen detainees. They were more like concentration camp as human rights were often disregarded and the mortality rate was nearly 80%. In 2001 in this objects Russians gathered 20 000 Chechen men and boys.


During World War II:

During the Yugoslav Wars:


During the Second World War, the Slovak government made a small number (Nováky, Sereď) of transit camps for Jewish citizens. They were transported to Auschwitz-Birkenaumarker and Ravensbruckmarker concentration camps. For German help with Aryanization of Slovakia, the Slovak government paid a fee of 500 Reichsmark per Jew.


Although the first modern concentration camps used to systematically dissuade rebels from fighting are usually attributed to the British during the Boer War, in the Spanish-American War, forts and camps were used by the Spanish in Cuba to separate rebels from their agricultural support bases. Upwards of 200,000 Cubans died by disease and famine in these environments.

Sri Lanka

The camps established by the government of Sri Lankamarker in mid 2008 to accomodate minority Sri Lankan Tamil refugess fleeing the Sri Lankan civil war is called by some NGO's, Journalists, aid workers and diplomats as internment camps.According to international aid sources outbreaks of contagious diseases within the camps have caused thousands of deaths due to diarrhoea, hepatitis & dysentery. International aid sources allege that 1,400 people are dying every week at the camps, most of the deaths as a result of water-borne diseases, particularly diarrhoea .

On Oct 29 2009 the government stated that all displaced people from the east have been resettled.


During the Second World War, the Swedish government operated eight internment camps.

In May 1941 a total of ten camps for 3000-3500 were planned, but towards the end of 1941 the plans were put on ice and in 1943 the last camp was closed down. All the records were burned. After the war many of those who had been put in the camps had trouble finding work as few wanted to hire "subversive elements".

The navy had at least one special detainment ship for communists and "troublemakers".

Most of the camps were not labour camps with the exception of Vindeln and Stensele where the interns were used to build a secret airbase.

Foreign soldiers were put in camps in Långmora and Smedsbo. German refugees and deserters in Rinkaby. After the Second World War three camps were used for Baltic refugees (including 150 Baltic soldiers) Ränneslätt, Rinkaby and Gälltofta.

United Kingdom


During the Second Boer War, several small islands in Bermuda'smarker Great Soundmarker were used as natural concentration camps, despite protest from the local government. 4,619 Boers was interned on these islands, compared to Bermuda's total population of around 17,000; at least 34 Boers are known to have not survived the transit to Bermuda.

Channel Islands

Alderneymarker in the Channel Islands was the only place in the British Isles where German concentration camps were established during the Occupation of the Channel Islands. In January 1942, the occupying German forces established four camps, called Helgolandmarker, Norderney, Borkummarker and Syltmarker (after the German North Sea islandsmarker), where captive Russians and other east Europeans were used as slave labour to build Atlantic Wall defences on the island. Around 460 prisoners died in the Alderney camps.


After World War II, British efforts to prevent Jewish emigration into their Palestine Mandate led to the construction of internment camps in Cyprusmarker where up to 30,000 Holocaust survivors were held at any one time to prevent their entry into the country. They were released in February 1949 after the founding of Israel.

Isle of Man

During World War I the British government interned male citizens of the Central Powers, principally Germanymarker, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. They were held mainly in internment camps at Knockaloe, close to Peelmarker, and a smaller one near Douglasmarker.

During World War II, about 8,000 people were interned in Britainmarker, many being held in the same camps at Knockaloe and Douglas on the Isle of Manmarker. The internees included enemy aliens from the Axis Powers, principally Germanymarker and Italymarker.

Initially, refugees who had fled from Germanymarker were also included, as were suspected British Nazi sympathisers such as British Union of Fascists leader Oswald Mosley. The British government rounded up 74,000 German, Austrianmarker and Italianmarker aliens. Within 6 months the 112 alien tribunals had individually summoned and examined 64,000 aliens, and the vast majority were released, having been found to be "friendly aliens" (mostly Jews); examples include Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold and later members of the Amadeus Quartet. British nationals were detained under Defence Regulation 18B. Eventually only 2,000 of the remainder were interned. Initially they were shipped overseas, but that was halted when a German U boat sank the SS Arandora Star in July 1940 with the loss of 800 internees, though this was not the first loss that had occurred. The last internees were released late in 1945, though many were released in 1942. In Britain, internees were housed in camps and prisons. Some camps had tents rather than buildings with internees sleeping directly on the ground. Men and women were separated and most contact with the outside world was denied. A number of prominent Britons including writer H. G. Wells campaigned against the internment of refugees.


During the 1954-60 Mau-Mau uprising in Kenyamarker, camps were established to hold suspected rebels. It is unclear how many were held but estimates range up to 1.5 million - or practically the entire Kikuyu population. Between 130,000 and 300,000 are thought to have died as a result. Maltreatment is said to have included torture and summary executions. In addition as many as a million members of the Kikuyu tribe were subjected to ethnic cleansing. (Sources: . R. Edgerton, Mau Mau: An African Crucible, London 1990 page 180; C. Elkins,“Detention, Rehabilitation & the Destruction of Kikuyu Society”in Mau Mau and Nationhood, Editors Odhiambo and Lonsdale, Oxford 2003 pages 205-7; C. Elkins, "Britain's Gulag: The Brutal End Of Empire In Kenya", 2005).

Northern Ireland

During the Anglo-Irish War, 12,000 Irishmen were held without trial.

One of the most famous example of modern internment—and one which made world headlines—occurred in Northern Irelandmarker in 1971, when hundreds of nationalists and republicans were arrested by the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary on the orders of the then Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Brian Faulkner, with the backing of the British government. Historians generally view that period of internment as inflaming sectarian tensions in Northern Ireland while failing in its stated aim of arresting members of the paramilitary Provisional IRA, because many of the people arrested were completely unconnected with that organisation but had had their names appear on the list of those to be interned through bungling and incompetence, and over 100 IRA men escaped arrest. The backlash against internment and its bungled application contributed to the decision of the British government under Prime Minister Edward Heath to suspend the Stormont governmental system in Northern Ireland and replace it with direct rule from London, under the authority of a British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.

From 1971 internment began, beginning with the arrest of 342 suspected republican guerrillas and paramilitary members on August 9. They were held at HM Prison Mazemarker. By 1972, 924 men were interned. Serious rioting ensued, and 23 people died in three days. The British government attempted to show some balance by arresting some loyalist paramilitaries later, but out of the 1,981 men interned, only 107 were loyalists. Internment was ended in 1975, but had resulted in increased support for the IRA and created political tensions which culminated in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike and the death of Bobby Sands MP. The imprisonment of people under anti-terrorism laws specific to Northern Ireland continued until the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, but these laws required the right to a fair trial be respected. However non-jury Diplock courts tried paramilitary-related trials, to prevent jury intimidation.

Many of those interned were held in a detention facility located at RAF Long Keshmarker military base, later known as the Maze Prisonmarker outside Belfastmarker. Internment had previously been used as a means of repressing the Irish Republican Army. It was used between 1939 - 1945 and 1956 - 1962. On all these occasions, internment has had a somewhat limited success.

South Africa

The term concentration camp was first used by the British military during the Boer War (1899-1902). Facing attack by Boer guerrillas, British forces rounded up the Boer women and children as well as black people living on Boer land, and sent them to 34 tented camps scattered around South Africa. This was done as part of a scorched earth policy to deny the boer guerrillas access to the supplies of food and clothing they needed to continue the war.

The camps were situated at Aliwal Northmarker, Balmoral, Barbertonmarker, Belfastmarker, Bethuliemarker, Bloemfonteinmarker, Brandfortmarker, East Londonmarker, Heidelbergmarker, Heilbronmarker, Howickmarker, Irenemarker, Kimberleymarker, Klerksdorpmarker, Kroonstadmarker, Krugersdorpmarker, Merebank, Middelburgmarker, Norvalspont, Nylstroommarker, Pietermaritzburgmarker, Pietersburgmarker, Pinetownmarker, Port Elizabethmarker, Potchefstroommarker, Springfonteinmarker, Standertonmarker, Turffontein, Vereenigingmarker, Volksrustmarker, Vredefortmarker, Vryburgmarker and Winburgmarker.

Though they were not officially used as extermination camps, the women and children of Boer men who were still fighting were given smaller rations than others thus causing mass starvation. The poor diet and inadequate hygiene led to endemic contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid and dysentery. Coupled with a shortage of medical facilities, this led to large numbers of deaths — a report after the war concluded that 27,927 Boer (of whom 22,074 were children under 16) and 14,154 black Africans had died of starvation, disease and exposure in the camps. In all, about 25% of the Boer inmates and 12% of the black African ones died (although recent research suggests that the black African deaths were underestimated and may have actually been around 20,000).

In contrast to these figures, only around 3,000 Boer men were killed (in combat) during the Second Boer War.

A delegate of the South African Women and Children's Distress Fund, Emily Hobhouse, did much to publicise the distress of the inmates on her return to Britain after visiting some of the camps in the Orange Free Statemarker. Her fifteen-page report caused uproar, and led to a government commission, the Fawcett Commission, visiting camps from August to December 1901 which confirmed her report. They were highly critical of the running of the camps and made numerous recommendations, for example improvements in diet and provision of proper medical facilities. By February 1902 the annual death-rate dropped to 6.9% and eventually to 2%. Improvements made to the white camps were not as swiftly extended to the black camps. Hobhouse's pleas went mostly unheeded in the latter case.


During the 1910s, there was a concentration camp in Frongochmarker, Merionethshiremarker. First Germanmarker POWs, then Irishmarker political prisoners were held there. The prisoners were very poorly treated and Frongoch became a breeding ground for Irish revolutionaries.

South Africa

During World War I, South African troops invaded neighboring German South-West Africa. Germanmarker settlers were rounded up and sent to concentration camps in Pretoriamarker and later in Pietermaritzburgmarker.

United States

Indigenous People

The first large-scale confinement of a specific ethnic group in detention centers began in the summer of 1838, when President Martin Van Buren ordered the U.S. Army to enforce the Treaty of New Echota (an Indian removal treaty) by rounding up the Cherokee into prison camps before relocating them. Called "emigration depots," the three main ones were located at Ross's Landing (Chattanooga, Tennesseemarker), Fort Payne, Alabamamarker, and Fort Cassmarker (Charleston, Tennesseemarker). Fort Cass was the largest, with over 4,800 Cherokee prisoners held over the summer of 1838. Many died in these camps due to disease, which spread rapidly because of the close quarters and bad sanitary conditions: see the Trail of Tears.

Throughout the remainder of the Indian Wars, various populations of Native Americans were rounded up, trekked across country and put into detention, some for as long as 2 years.


On December 7, 1901, during the Philippine-American War, General J. Franklin Bell began a concentration camp policy in Batangasmarker--everything outside the "dead lines" was systematically destroyed: humans, crops, domestic animals, houses, and boats. A similar policy had been quietly initiated on the island of Marinduquemarker some months before.

Japanese-, German- and Italian-Americans

The locations of internment camps for German-Americans
In reaction to the bombing of Pearl Harbormarker by Japanmarker in 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt under United Statesmarker Executive Order 9066 on February 19, 1942 allowed military commanders to designate areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded." Under this order all Japanese and Americans of Japanese ancestry were removed from Western coastal regions to concentration camps in Arkansasmarker, Oregonmarker, Washingtonmarker, Wyomingmarker, Coloradomarker and Arizonamarker; German and Italian citizens, permanent residents, and American citizens of those respective ancestries (and American citizen family members) were removed from (among other places) the West and East Coast and relocated or interned, and roughly one-third of the US was declared an exclusionary zone.

Fort Lincoln, North Dakota internment camp opened in April of 1941 and closed in 1945. It had a peak population of 650. Today it's called the United Tribes Technical College. Some CCC barracks buildings and two brick army baracks were fenced and used to house the internees. The first ones were Italian and German seamen. 800 Italians arrived, but soon were sent to Fort Missoula in Montana. The first Japanese American Issei arrived in 1942, but were also transferred to other camps. The Germans were left as the only internees there until February of 1945, but then 650 more Japanese Americans were brought in, these being ones who had renounced their U.S. citizenship and were waiting to be sent back to Japan. The brick buildings remain but others are gone. There is a newspaper article from The Bismarck Tribune, March 2, 1946 that 200 Japanese were still being held at Fort Lincoln

Oklahoma]] housed German and Italian POW's at Fort Reno, located near El Reno, and at Camp Gruber, near Braggs, Oklahoma.

Almost 120,000 Japanese Americans and resident Japanese aliens would eventually be removed from their homes and relocated.

About 2,200 Japanese living in South America (mostly in Peru) were transported to the United States and placed in internment camps.

Approximately 5,000 Germans living in several Latin American republics were also removed and transported to the United States and placed in internment camps. In addition at least 10,905 German Americans were held in more than 50 internment sites throughout the United States and Hawaii.

Alaska Natives living in the Aleutian Islandsmarker were also interned during the war; Funter Baymarker was one such camp.


Cate Elkner at el. Enemy Aliens: The Internment of Italian Migrants in Australia during the Second World War (Connor Court Publishing, Ballan) 2005.

  1. Germans interned in Australia
  2. Connor Court Publishing Online Bookshop
  3. [My Sixty Years in Canada, Masajiro Miyazaki, self publ.]
  4. Short Portage to Lillooet, Irene Edwards, self-publ. Lillooet 1976
  5. Halfway to the Goldfields, Lorraine Harris, Sunfire Publications, J.J. Douglas
  6. Bridge River Gold, Emma de Hullu & Irene Cunningham, self-publ, Bralorne 1976
  7. The Great Years: Gold Mining in the Bridge River Country, Lewis Green, Tricouni Books, 2000
  8. These numbers vary widely, and were frequently manipulated by various sides during Yugoslavia's history, see Jasenovac concentration camp.
  9. , , , , ,
  10. , , , ,
  11. Vuoden 1918 kronologia. Työväen arkisto. Retrieved 10-23-2007.
  12. Laine, Antti, Suur-Suomen kahdet kasvot, 1982, ISBN 951-1-06947-0, Otava
  13. Spain: Repression under Franco after the Civil War
  14. Spanish Civil War fighters look back
  15. Camp Vernet Website
  16. Film documentary on the website of the Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration
  18. Story of Geoffrey Pyke
  19. "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" by William L. Shirer, pp.181-230
  20. "History of Poland" ISBN 0-88029-858-8, by Oscar Halecki, p.313
  21. "Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" p.957
  22. "Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" pp.959-965
  23. Final Compensation Pending for Former Nazi Forced Laborers
  24. Forced Labor at Ford Werke AG during the Second World War
  25. de:Arbeiterserziehungslager
  27. Camp inspected 21.-24. August 1945; Delegations Du Comite International dans les cinq continents; in: Revue International du Croix Rouge, Nr.322 (Oct. 1945), S 747
  28. Auswärtiges Amt; ... Merkblatt über die Lage der Deutschen in Britisch-Indien; die Internierungslager auf Ceylon und Jamaica; Berlin 1941. Series: 3.: Jan. 1941, 4.: Sep. 1941, 5.: Dez. 1941, 6.: Dez. 1942
  29. Internierungslager in Indien
  30. Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan
  31. Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'
  35. National Security Archive: "Report documents 18 years `Dirty War` in Mexico"
  36. British sailors in Groningen camp
  37. Report about products produced under forced labor (focuses on the persecution of Falun Gong)
  38. The Epoch Times | Worse Than Any Nightmare—Journalist Quits China to Expose Concentration Camp Horrors and Bird Flu Coverup
  39. The Secret Sujiatun Concentration Camp
  40. Truth about the So-called "Sujiatun Concentration Camp"
  41. U.S. Finds No Evidence of Alleged Concentration Camp in China, U.S. State Department, April 16, 2006
  42. Lum, Thomas CRS Report page CRS-7 detailing US embassy investigations
  43. Harry Wu challenges Falun Gong organ harvesting claims, South China Morning Post, September 8, 2006
  44. The Other Killing Machine, The New York Times.
  45. Stalin's forgotten victims stuck in the gulag, Telegraph.
  46. Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II
  47. The warlords: Joseph Stalin
  48. Remembrance (Zeithain Memorial Grove)
  49. Patriots ignore greatest brutality
  50. Joseph Stalin killer file
  53. N. Bogner, The Deportation Island: Jewish Illegal Immigrant Camps on Cyprus 1946-1948, Tel-Aviv 1991
  54. Internment on I. of Man in WWI
  55. Italian internees in Britain in WWII
  56. Duncan, Barbara R. and Riggs, Brett H. Cherokee Heritage Trails Guidebook. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill (2003). ISBN 0-8078-5457-3, p. 279
  57. Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903, Stuart Creighton Miller, (Yale University Press, 1982). p. 208
  58. The Tech(MIT), Volume 116 Issue 35 August 27, 1996 Japanese Latin Americans Seek Payments for WWII Injustices
  59. The Latin American Connection
  60. Did you know Aleuts were sent to internment camps during WWII? Documentary film tells their story

See also

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